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WSU / Biology / BIO 2870 / What is the function of lysosomes in the cell?

What is the function of lysosomes in the cell?

What is the function of lysosomes in the cell?

Description

School: Wayne State University
Department: Biology
Course: Anatomy & Physiology
Professor: Jyoti nautiyal
Term: Winter 2019
Tags: anatomy, Physiology, Skeletal, Integumentary, and muscular
Cost: 50
Name: Anatomy and physiology Final Exam Study Guide
Description: These notes contain questions from chapters examined on the final. Also it contains comparative notes on complex concepts for better understanding such as ossification.
Uploaded: 04/21/2019
6 Pages 8 Views 3 Unlocks
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Anatomy & Physiology Final Exam Study Guide 1. What is the function of lysosomes in the cell?


What is the function of lysosomes in the cell?



2. What organelle of the cell is used to increase surface area along the cell membrane that absorb substances?

3. True or False: The palatine process is located on the maxilla bone 4. The deepest layer of the epidermis is __________

5. Which layer of the epidermis only exists in thick skin?

6. What are the 11 organ systems of the body?

7. What is the function of epithelia

a. Control permeability

b. Provide sensation

c. Provide physical protection

d. All of the above

8. True or False: Gap junctions prevent the diffusion of fluids and solutes between the cells

9. What type of glands discharge secretions through a duct onto an internal or external surface?


What organelle of the cell is used to increase surface area along the cell membrane that absorb substances?



10. What type of exocrine secretion occurs by completely destroying the cell? a. Holocrine

b. Apocrine

c. Merocrine

11. Mucous secretion from salivary glands occurs through what type of exocrine secretion?

a. Apocrine

b. Merocrine

c. Holocrine

12. Release of milk from mammary glands occurs through what type of exocrine secretion?

a. Merocrine

b. Holocrine

c. Apocrine

13. Which heals faster: bone or cartilage?

14. Epidermal ridges are formed in what layer of the epidermis?

15. This type of skin cancer is the most dangerous form and can metastasize through the lymphatic system. What type of skin cancer is it?


Which layer of the epidermis only exists in thick skin?



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16. What structure in the skin inhibits bacterial growth, lubricates hair, and conditions surrounding skin?

a. Tactile corpuscle

b. Arrector pili muscle

c. Sebaceous glands

d. Sweat glands

17. True or False: Acne is caused by blocked sebaceous ducts causing inflammation 18. What type of bone cells are used to produce new bone through ossification?

19. What type of bone cells are used to release calcium into the blood by breaking down bone?

20. These bone cells are most abundant and maintain bone structure by recycling calcium salts. These cells are called ___________

Anatomy & Physiology Final Exam Study Guide Answer Key 

1. Consume old, damaged organelles; destroy harmful bacteria, viruses, and toxins

2. Microvilli

3. True

4. Stratum basale

5. Stratum lucidum

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7. D; all of the above

8. False; tight junctions

9. Exocrine

10. A; holocrine

11. B; merocrine

12. C; apocrine

13. Bone because it contains blood vessels

14. Stratum basale

15. Malignant melanoma

16. C; Sebaceous glands

17. True

18. Osteoblasts

19. Osteoclasts

20. Osteocytes

Helpful Comparative Notes 

Differences between Bones 

Compact Bone:

● Basic functional unit = osteon ● Osteocytes arranged in concentric layers (lamellae)

● Layers surround a central canal which run parallel to the surface of the bone and contain blood

vessels

● Perforating canals link blood

vessels of central canal with

bloods vessels of periosteum and marrow cavity

● Covers all of bone surfaces except inside joint capsules

● Parallel arrangement of osteons resists stress in specific direction

Spongy Bone:

● No osteons

● Lamellae form rods or plates called trabeculae

● Still contains osteocytes, lacunae, and canaliculi

● Contains red bone marrow which is found in spaces between

trabeculae

● Found in places that are not

heavily stressed or are stressed from many different directions

● Much lighter than compact bone

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Differences between Ossifications

Intramembranous Ossification:

● Flat bones of skull, mandible, and clavicles form this way

● Occurs during fetal development ● Bone develops within sheets or membranes of fibrous

connective tissue

● Begins in an ossification center ● Osteoblasts differentiate from mesenchymal connective tissue

stem cells and from new bone

matrix

● Bone matrix formation extends outwards

● Osteoblasts surrounded by matrix change into osteocytes

● Blood vessels grow into are and

Endochondral Ossification:

● Most bones form this way

● Begins with hyaline cartilage

models

● Cartilage replaced by true bone in 5 steps:

1. Chondrocytes enlarge and

surrounding matrix begins to

calcify

2. Bone formation starts at

shaft of surface

3. Blood vessels invade inner

region of cartilage

4. Osteoclasts begin to

break down spongy bone

in center of bone

5. Centers of the epiphyses

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are trapped within developing bone ● Spongy bone forms next

● Bone remodeling produces

osteons of compact bone

begin to calcify

Health Issues related to Skeletal System 

Osteomalacia

Deficiency of vitamin D3 leads to

softening of bones; bow legged

appearance as leg bones bend laterally under the body’s weight in children

Rickets

Deficiency of vitamin D3 leads to

softening of bones; bow legged

appearance as leg bones bend laterally under the body’s weight in children

Scurvy

Weak and brittle bones due to reduction in osteoblast activity due to a deficiency of vitamin C

Dwarfism

Very short due to inadequate production of growth hormone

Gigantism

Very tall due to growth hormones

Osteopenia

Bones become thinner and weaker as normal part of aging; osteoblast activity slows; osteoclast activity remains constant

Osteoporosis

Loss of bone mass that impairs normal normal function and can lead to more fractures; causes increased bone fractures and decreased ability to repair, more common in women

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Differences between Fractures

Transverse fracture

Bone breaks along its long axis

Displaced fracture

Produces new and abnormal

arrangement

Compression fracture

Occurs in the vertebrae subjected to stresses

Spiral fracture

Produced by twisting stress that spreads along the length of the bone

Epiphyseal fracture

Occurs where the bone matrix is

undergoing

calcification and chondrocytes are dying

Comminuted fracture

Shatters the affected area into many bone fragments

Greenstick fracture

Only one shaft of the bone is broken and the other is bent

Colles fracture

Distal portion of radius breaks

Pott’s fracture

Occurs at the ankle and affects the medial malleolus of the distal tibia and the lateral malleolus of the distal fibula

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