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/ Where do cliff swallows live?

Where do cliff swallows live?

Where do cliff swallows live?


School: Florida Atlantic University
Course: Comparative Animal Behavior
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: ComparativeAnimalBehavior and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Comparative Animal Behavior Final Studyguide
Description: answers to the provided study guide
Uploaded: 04/22/2019
16 Pages 27 Views 6 Unlocks

Comparative Animal Behaviors  

Where do cliff swallows live?

CBH 4024-001

Final Exam


Just a quick reminder that this exam is conceptual and that this study guide should just  be used as a reference. Anything written on the exam should sound like something you wrote and should not sound like something you copied and pasted. The answers  provided below come from what I found on power points and from what was  mentioned in lectures.

1. Describe sociality in prairie dogs and cliff swallows and the  costs/benefits of social behavior.

Cost of dense populations

a. Cliff swallows live in dense populations

b. Costs:

i. Higher density makes swallows subject to predation

ii. Parasites can quickly move from nest to nest

How can we test the role of parasites in fitness of cliff swallows?

iii. Transient visitors often bring parasites that cause infestation c. Benefit:  

i. Increase foraging success during group searches for flying  


d. How can we test the role of parasites in fitness of cliff swallows? i. Parasites (fleas) suck blood from chicks. 

ii. Treat nests with and without insecticide.  

iii. Measure health of offspring. 

1. Parasites stunt growth of developing chicks. 

a. Conclusion: There is a significant cost of  

parasites (does not address the role of sociality  

on this cost) 

Costs of sociality: competition, parasitism, infanticide, etc

What are factors that drive the evolution of territoriality?

e. The amount of resources per individual goes down as the number of  nearby individuals goes up We also discuss several other topics like Anthropology is a study of what?

Black Tailed Prairie Dogs

f. Coteries consist of 1 or 2 adult males, 2-3 females, 3-4 yearlings, and  5-6 young

g. Each coterie defends a territory and burrow system

h. Aggregations of coteries form colonies

i. Benefit of coteries:

i. Distribution of labor (one foragers while the other watches) We also discuss several other topics like What components in our atmosphere have offset the effects of a less bright sun toward maintaining liquid water at our surface over most of earth's history?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the reasons for limiting trade?

ii. Safety from predation

1. Increased vigilance

2. The larger the group, the sooner they alert the colony of  


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iii. Prairie dogs assume an alert posture; give a series of vocal  

alarm calls

iv. Group living allows individuals to spend more time feeding  Don't forget about the age old question of What must be done to develop a new therapy for cancer?

(heads down) and less time being vigilant

j. Cost:

i. Parasites and disease spread more easily between social  


1. Density of fleas (which can carry plague) increases with  

colony size

ii. Interference

1. Aggressive interactions increase with colony size and  


2. Aggressive interactions likely have a negative effect on  

fitness We also discuss several other topics like What is plate tectonics?

3. A high proportion of young prairie dogs are victims of  


2. Describe the courtship behavior in the long-tailed manakin or nest  building in the wasp. What is the advantage to the non-dominant  animal. Speculate how these behaviors evolve.  

Long-tailed Manakin Displays Cooperative Courtship

a. -Unrelated males form pairs that display a coordinated courtship  display

b. -Females are attracted to the perch upon observing display

c. -Males then perform cartwheel display

d. -One male then ‘discreetly’ leaves allowing the other male to copulate i. Female always mates with the dominate male Don't forget about the age old question of How can infection cycles can be direct or indirect?

e. Researchers find Cooperation with eventual (probabilistic) payoff i. Male that concede females to the alpha male (subordinate), is  more likely to become next in line.  

ii. When the new male takes over it’s as successful as the previous  one

iii. Hypothesis: it is beneficial for a young male to form a social  group with other males because he has a greater chance of  

finding a mate compared to a solo male that is not part of a  

social group. And if the social male is able to mate more, this  

social trait will also more likely be passed down to future  

generations. solo males who do not form social networks are  

less successful at finding mates, so they do not mate and pass  

their genes onto future generations. Which could explain how  

this courtship behavior evolved.

Paper wasps

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f. Individuals band together to build nest with provisions

g. Only one ends up being queen, while the other is subordinate h. They are not related

i. Postponed Cooperation

i. Even though only one gets to become queen, wasps help  

because of the potential reward (of becoming queen) later on

ii. Side note: the wasps cannot build the nest on their own  

In both cases the subordinate is reliant on reaping benefits in the future rather than  in the present.

3. Describe studies indicating that knowledgeable lemurs become more  central in their social networks and other examples of social/cultural  transmission in animals (chimps and whales).

a. Ring tailed Lemurs have a complex social structure. They live in  groups where some members are central to the social network while  others aren’t.

b. Learning influences social centrality.

c. Note: When some acquire information before others, distribution is  unequal. Here, information is being thought of like any other resource  (food, sex, territory etc).

d. Experiment: they put one grape in glass box with a drawer to see  which lemur would figure out how to get to the grape. At first only the  solver got to the grape but others, through observation, also learned  how to get the grape. When lemurs watched other lemurs do a task  they became more central to their social group.

e. Wild Birds

i. Experiment: Give birds (great tits) in multiple wild  


ii. a novel foraging task.

iii. Birds slide puzzle door in certain way to achieve food

iv. 1Map the traits diffusion through a population

v. They also raised 2 birds, taught them how to do a task, and  

then released them to see if other birds would learn the task  

from the lab birds

vi. Culturally transmitted info from bird to bird

vii. Learned tasks rapidly spread through populations

f. Chimps

i. Sonso Chimpanzee population of Uganda:

ii. ~75 chimpanzees in community, studied regularly since the  1990’s

iii. Despite natural environment, all chimps are named and known  to researchers

iv. Chimps learn Moss Sponging behavior:

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Final Exam

v. Chimps pick moss off trees and use it to acquire water.

vi. Experiment: Teach chimps, and measure the transmission of  behavior throughout the community.  

vii. Learned behavior since behavior was learned from other  


g. Humpback Whales

i. Lobtail feeding behavior learned from whale to whale

ii. Scientists spend decades observing whale feeding  

iii. Over time, the number of whales exhibiting this feeding  

behavior increased

iv. The whales that were observed feeding the learned way, were  more connected than those who hadn’t

1. Change impacts social network

4. Describe evidence that habitat choice impacts fitness and how this  contributes to ideal free distribution theory (Red knots and warblers).

Given importance of the “right” habitat, we might expect animals’ preferred habitat  to be the where breeding success is greatest

a. Reproductive success in streamside and conifer habitats is equal! b. Why don’t warblers in preferred habitat do better?

c. Competition!

i. 4x more birds in the preferred habitat

• Ideal Free Distribution

o Animals distributing themselves according to resource availability ▪ The more resources=the more individuals/competition

o Habitats differ in:

▪ Resource value

▪ Intensity of competition

o At some point, individuals will gain higher fitness by settling in a  lower utility habitat, if that habitat has a low density of competitors o Animals that are free to choose where to go will distribute themselves  spatially in ways that maximize their individual reproductive success. ▪ Prediction: at capacity RS of individuals in both habitats  

should be equal

5. What are factors that drive the evolution of territoriality, how can this  be studied and why might it be adaptive. Describe studies in American  redstarts.

Animals are territorial when there are limited resources

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a. There is more competition where resources are good

b. “an area occupied more or less exclusively by an animal or group of  animals by means of repulsion through overt defense or  


i. Wilson’s definition emphasizes both an ecological perspective  (exclusive access to an area) and behavioral perspective (male  


When should territoriality evolve?

c. For territoriality to be adaptive, the fitness benefits must outweigh the  costs of territorial behavior

d. Resources must be limited & defendable for territoriality to evolve Territoriality: benefits of being aggressive

e. Access to food resources

f. Access to mates

g. Access to nest sites

h. Reduce predation

i. If animal is familiar with territory, escape routes and hiding  

spots may give it an advantage in avoiding predation.

Is territoriality adaptive?

i. Territory holders should have higher reproductive success than non territory holders

American Redstarts

j. Males inhabit 2 different areas  

i. 1 for mating  

ii. 1 for resources (that allow it to migrate)

k. Dominant males nest in mangroves.

l. Non-dominant smaller males inhabit scrub brush.

m. Older, heaver males winter in mangroves

n. Females and younger males winter in scrub habitat.

o. Mangrove birds leave for/return to the breeding site sooner p. Date of departure correlates with change in body mass over winter  period

i. Birds that leave later have lost more mass over winter

ii. Scrub birds lose more mass over winter

iii. Not accumulating body mass is associated with later departure  date

q. Winter habitat strongly associates with increased reproductive  success

i. For males, they get the best breeding territories and quick  

access to females

ii. For females, they get longer summer for raising chicks

r. Larger males have access to better territories with better resources  that allow them to gain more weight which allows them to depart  sooner and mate

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Final Exam

Territoriality Costs 

s. 1) Opportunity Costs – time spent performing territorial behaviors is  time spent NOT performing other behaviors. 

1. Surgeon fish chases away rivals 1900 times/day!  

t. 2) Energy – territorial displays require energy 

u. 3) Risk of Injury or Death 

i. Direct Risk – Fighting can injure or kill you… 

ii. Indirect Risk –Territorial maintenance can exhaust you or  

distract you 

v. 4) Territorial defense may be mediated by testosterone, and high  levels of T may be costly. 

i. High activity level 

ii. Lower immune function 

iii. High physiological stress 

iv. Behavioral costs 

6. Describe an example of resource defense polygyny, and how it  represents a form of sexual selection.

a. Resource defense polygyny: Control of mates by amassing resources b. In cichlids, males are much larger than females.

i. Males collect shells where females lay eggs and hide in them.

ii. Male reproductive success is determined largely by the  

number of shells it collects (or steals) and defends

1. Females will choose makes depending on quantity of  


c. One male acquires several mates that are attracted to the resources he  controls

7. Describe how the cave loach was studied as a model for walking and  evidence that it evolved walking behavior similar to early walking fish. a. Cave loaches use their fins to crawl up waterfalls. This required a  walking motion similar to the movements of a salamander. A micro CT  scan was performed and it was found the pelvic structure of the fish  resembled that of a salamander which showed that the cavefish re evolved this salamander like structure. Early tetrapod footprints were  also compared to these walking patterns and it was discovered that  the patterns were similar.

8. How has convergent evolution of sleep loss been studied in Mexican  cavefish and describe environmental differences in caves that drive the  evolution of sleep loss?

• Cave fish lost their eyesight since they weren’t using it

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o There’s no pressure to keep it

o It costs energy and it be waste to keep them

• Cavefish lack a circadian rhythm due to no sun exposure and they are studied  by being compared to the species they derived from  

• Differences between terrestrial and cave environments

o Light

o Water surface

o Temperature according to time of day (circadian rhythm

o Stillness of water

o Nutrient levels (look at contents of stomachs)

o Predators (cave fish can go more places without the threat of being  eaten)

▪ Without environmental influences telling the fish what time of  day it is, the fish loses its sense of time and that affects its  

sleeping pattern

o Their lateral line may cause them to be more sensitive to their  surroundings which would affect their sleep

9. Describe the mating behavior of Bowerbirds. Why do males put so  much energy into building a complex bower? Speculate about how this  type of courtship evolves.  

Mating Ritual:

a. Males build bower and surround it with bright (blue) objects b. Dances at entrance of nest to attract female

c. Females visit several bowers, then build nest

d. Return to a bower and mate with male

e. Then return to nest

f. Females only mate with a single male in a season

Males get females attention with vocalizations and movements

Males do NOT build bowers to house eggs or to live in it is just there to  impress females and serves no other purpose.


g. 1. Nests make males sexually attractive to discriminating females.  Prediction: Male success will be associated with certain features of the  bower.

h. 1. Bower quality is an indication of heath/fitness.

i. Suggestion: If true, more successful Bower birds are less likely  to have parasites.

i. Males build bowers to attract females, the nicer the bower, the more  females he can mate with

j. Bowers are indicator of something to the female that makes them  want to mate with the males (females are selecting for something  even if we don’t understand what it is).

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Final Exam

k. Courtship evolves due to sexual selection. Could be due to sensory  exploitation where males take advantage of the fact that females are  already attracted to blue (due to the blue in males feathers) and  collect blue materials to channel that attraction

10.How might differences in parental investment contribute to sexually  dimorphic mating strategies? Be able to describe the Bateman  gradient, anisogamy, and how they relate to females typically being  more choosy.  

Parental investment hypothesis: the pattern of mate competition is determined  by sex differences in parental investment

a. 1. The form of sexual selection is determined by the relative parental  investment of the sexes

i. Females tend to invest more in parental behavior

b. 2. Relative parental investment determines the operational sex ratio i. Females don’t mate as often→fewer sexually active females  

than males—male-biased OSR

c. 3. The sex investing more has fewer individuals waiting to mate, and  becomes a limiting resource to other sex

i. Females become a limiting resource; females = choosy, males =  compete for females

anisogamy: differences in parental investment begin with fundamental differences  between male and female gametes

After eggs are fertilized, females may spend more time and energy than males  caring for offspring

d. Eggs are large and costly to produce:

i. Single egg = 20% of a female’s body mass

e. In contrast, males produce “cheap” sperm: 8 billion sperm in testes at  any given moment

f. Bateman’s gradient: relationship between reproductive and mating  success  

i. RS increases with number of mates for males but not for  


11.Describe mate choice in pipefish and how it relates to Bateman’s  gradient/the parental investment hypothesis.

a. Pipefish show reversed pattern of sexual dimorphism: smaller, brood  young, choosy

b. Males raise offspring and because of this males are more choosy and  females are less choosy

i. The sex that does the rearing is the one that is more choosy  

with their mates

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c. Test of parental investment hypothesis

i. Pipefish males brood eggs in a pouch

1. Represents time, energy costs

ii. Females are more eager to mate; males prefer to forage over  associating with a female  

iii. Males discriminate between females based on body size:  


12.What does communication involve? Describe constraints on  development of complex communication systems.

transfer of information about the signaler or its environment via signals the transfer of information influences the behavior of the receiver Information = a reduction of uncertainty achieved by the code or pattern in a signal a. What is a signal?

i. a perceptible behavior or trait

ii. a signal has a physical form (sound, color, odor, movement,  

etc )

iii. the physical form encodes information about the signaler or its  environment

Why communicate?

b. Individual qualities and motivations are often unperceivable c. Communication allows individuals to reveal their qualities or  motivations to receivers

Signals from a signaler must influence receiver

d. If a bird is singing and a bird of a different species doesn’t react at all,  it isn’t signaling to that animal

Evolution of speech

e. The evolution of speech required changes in the brain and larynx  f. Human speech involves evolution of vocalization structure, speech  and language areas of the brain, and the auditory system

g. Why isn’t speech as complex in chimps and parrots?

i. Different vocal chords allow for more complex sound

ii. Differences in brain structure (more complex in human)

iii. Change in posture allowed for more complex vocal chords and  brains

13.Describe examples of honest and dishonest communication. Describe  experiments showing vocalization behavior in the toad is honest and  the firefly is dishonest.  

An honest signal provides accurate information about an animal.  

a. Honest communication: constraint that prevents animal from being  dishonest

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b. Toad

i. pitch is an indicator of an animals size. Therefore, this signal  allows an animal to communicate its size without having to win  an all-out fight.  

ii. Experiment: Place mating pair in tank with other male. Silence  mating male with rubber band.

1. Play a low or high pitch call.  

2. Examine the number of attacks of large or small mating  


iii. The tone that the male vocalizes at is key to whether or not it  will be attacked

iv. Small male frog on top of female gets attacked more often  

when high pitch tone is played but when a lower tone is  

played, attacks lessen. Therefore, low pitch tone signals not to  


v. There is no way you could generate a small toad with a low  

pitch tone in real life. The small toad will always have a higher  

pitch tone and the large toad will always have a lower pitch  

tone and that’s because the tone is an indicator of the animal’s  

size. Therefore this is an honest signal because it cannot be  

cheated in nature.

Deceptive communication  

• Fireflies

o Aggressive Mimicry

o Male fire flies display species-specific pattern of illumination that is  critical for courtship

o Photurius: large female responds to male signal with signal  

resembling a female of that species.

o Photinus: This smaller male sees response and approaches.

o Photurius then preys on smaller Photinus.

o The small males learn not to go to this signal however, as a  

consequence it also doesn’t got to signals from actual females and  never reproduces

▪ Cost of getting eaten is outweighed by the cost of never mating

14.Describe experiments studying raven vocalization at carcasses.

Phenomenon: Ravens call loudly when while feeding on a carcass A number of competing hypothesis are provided for why ravens may vocalize  near food:

a. Hypothesis 1: Indirect fitness Ravens groups may be comprised of  closely related animals. Vocalizing the presence of food may lead to  sharing with family, thereby providing indirect fitness benefits

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i. If you help your siblings survive, it’s an evolutionary benefit to  yourself

ii. Evidence against: pairs of ravens produce 6 offspring/year,  

whereas >12 were seen at carcass sites.

1. DNA fingerprinting showed these to not be related

b. Hypothesis 2: Attract a carcass opener: Vocalizing may get attention  of wolves or similar animals that can open up a tough-skinned animal i. attract something larger to open the carcass for them

ii. Evidence against: Birds did not yell at goat provided to them. 1. Were observed yelling at carcasses that were already  


c. Hypothesis 3: Reduced predation: Greater numbers of ravens make an  individual less vulnerable to predation

i. safety in numbers. The more of you there are, the less likely  

you are to be eaten

ii. Evidence against: Found birds still yelling after mob had  

already formed, and suggest this argues against this hypothesis

d. Hypothesis 4: Gang-up-on-the-territorial-residents: Unmated males  travel alone and have no territory. Attracting many birds may make  them less vulnerable to attack from a pair of birds defending territory i. the more birds there are the less likely you’ll be chased away

ii. Exp: if this is the case then …

1. Territory owners should not yell

2. Non-resident ravens should yell

3. Yelling attracts non-resident ravens

4. Resident pairs are unable to repel communal assault

5. Carcass should be eaten by a pair alone or by large mob

iii. this hypothesis turned out to be most accurate according to  stats

1. You either see 2 birds or a whole mob (15+) because a  

pair of birds can fight off a couple birds but can’t fight  

off a whole mob

15.Why is courtship song in flies an important communication signal, how  is it studied, and how can it signal species specificity?

Drosophila Courtship Behavior

a. Composed of multiple steps

Communicate with touch, pheromones, and species specific songs There are many different species of fruit flies and each species has it’s own  specific courtship song to indicate that they are of the same species as the fly they’re  trying to attract.

The songs differ in pulses

Fruitless (and period) were the first genes ever identified to regulate behavior.

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Final Exam

Fruitless gene is involved in fruit fly courtship

When gene is mutated, Males form chains but won’t mate with females b. There brain is capable of singing the courtship song

To test the significance, you would artificially manipulate the inter-pulse interval c. you could play it back (like with toads) and make the pulses bigger or  longer

16.Why are dogs and interesting model of artificial selection and describe  experiments seeking to identify the genetic basis of traits in these  systems? What are some limitations of this system?

a. Dogs are an experiment in artificial selection for spectacular  behaviors

b. Ex. Some dogs innately know to herd sheep which is a very complex  trait and humans also have complex traits

Darwin’s Dogs

c. Uses pet dogs to identify genetic basis of behavioral traits

d. Collected various dog breeds DNA and identified which genes  associate with which behaviors  

i. Like 23 and me for dogs

e. High throughput genomic approaches can be used to determine  relationship between breeds

f. Develop Chip-SNP called Illumina CanineHD Genotyping Array i. Chip-SNP is like the microarray but processes DNA instead of  RNA  

1. Quantifies whether the dog has a SNP

ii. You can use genetics to understand the relationship between  breeds of dogs

g. Equivalent of microarray, only detects single nucleotide  

polymorphisms in DNA

Haplotypes (SNPS) are associated with specific morphological (and  behavior traits)

o Problems with Darwin’s Dog experiment

▪ The dogs grow up in different environments and develop  


▪ This experiment deals with a lot of data  

▪ Uses self-report which are often biased and therefore  


• By studying dogs, it could help us better understand humans (ex. Narcolepsy)

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Final Exam

17.Describe artificial selection, how it can be a useful approach to  investigating behavior, and how it differs from other genetic  approaches e.g. knockout mice.

Artificial Selection: Selecting the animals that reproduce to acquire traits • Breeds for desirable traits/or traits that benefit humans

a. Many common vegetables were cultivated from wild mustard b. Artificial selection began long before people understood evolution or  genes

c. You have to have genetic variation in order to select for traits in  artificial selection

• Experimental evolution: the use of laboratory or controlled field  manipulations to investigate evolutionary processes  

o It usually makes use of organisms with rapid generation times  and small physical size to observe phenomena that occur to  

slowly in larger organisms  

• A knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which researchers have  inactivated, or "knocked out," an existing gene by replacing it or  disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA

o selection for wheel running results in dramatic increases in  

locomotion over a relatively small number of generations

▪ Selected for wheel running in mice which made them  

want to run more

▪ Experimental evolution

• Rodents and alcohol

o Two-bottle choice test allows for investigation of drinking  


▪ Place a novel liquid in one bottle, water in the other

▪ Measure the amount consumed over a given time  


▪ Use with alcohol resistant mice and determine whether  

they have developed a preference for alcohol.

• As point of reference, this assay predates Pearl  

Harbor, Jeep, Ball Point Pens, the Slinky, and  

microwave ovens, and Polaroids.  

o Experiments: Select outbred mice that consume more alcohol  and breed for next generation.

o Is increase in alcohol consumption due to increased fluid  

intake or specific to alcohol?

▪ Experiment: Vary the concentration of alcohol and  

measure the total amount consumed

o Alcohol preference is persistently increased in HDID (selected)  mice

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Final Exam

o Hypothesis: Hamsters evolved eating fermented seeds/fruits  and therefore have higher alcohol tolerance

• It wouldn’t be advantageous if they quickly got drunk from eating  seeds

18.Describe a study discussed investigating factors governing sexual  preference in humans. Make an argument (using evidence) for, or  against, this resulting from sexual selection.

a. Proposal (from book): Women select for men that can provide  resources

i. Experiments: Study relationship between hunting ability or  

wealth in nomadic or aboriginal societies. Find a correlation  

between these traits and women’s reproductive success

b. Experiment: Video-tape men talking or reading

i. Have women rate sexual attractiveness

ii. Findings: Women prefer men with higher verbal intelligence c. We can infer the pattern of sexual selection with Bateman’s  principle: the sex with the steeper sexual selection gradient will  compete to mate, the other sex will exercise choice

d. Experiment:

i. 1) Generate composite image of women at high and low  

fertility levels

ii. 2) Claim visual differences associated with estrogen levels.

iii. Many other factors (voice pitch, scent, walk) have been  


e. Experiment

i. Experiment: Computer modify facial images

ii. Ask subjects to rate attractiveness

1. Experiments find female preference for masculine facial  

features (also muscular upper body, deep voice and  

facial symmetry.  

2. Having a symmetrical face is an indicator of  

health/good genes

19.Describe an experiment aimed at localizing brain regions regulating  morality, altruism, or empathy? How can people lacking these traits be  studied to understand the biology of these complex traits?

• Altruism: concern for happiness of other human beings  

o Experiment: Measure fMRI while participants make or withhold  $ from charity

o -Keeping and giving away money activated the reward center. Why? o -Giving money away also activated the pineal gland.

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• Higher order ‘decision making centers’ are proposed to regulate morality • Experiments: Show people fearful situation. Measure brain activity o Shows how well people empathize with others situations

20. I will ask one general questions about the different experimental  approaches used in this course (lab studies, field studies, knockout  mice, genomics etc) and ask for synthesis.

• GWAS and QTL  

▪ provide two mechanisms for identifying genomic regions involved in  behavior (and other traits)

▪ Genome-wide association study (GWAS): Examining genomic variation  between individuals to determine if there is variation that associates with a  trait.

▪ Quantitative Trait Mapping (QTL): Typically involves crossing animals to identify genomic regions associated with a trait.

▪ Both GWAS and QTL focus on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms  (SNPS): A variation at a specific location in the genome.  

▪ GWAS has been used to identify genomic regions associated with  complex traits including diseases and behavior

o Basic concept: Look for genetic differences between two  

populations e.g. disease and control

o Requirements: Large sample size, robust phenotype

o Each circle represents a genomic-trait associated region and its  

chromosomal location identified by GWAS.  

▪ QTL mapping

o Take a male and female with dramatically different traits, cross  

them together multiple times, test progeny for behavior and  

determine if SNPs correlates with behavior

• Microarrays

▪ Grinding up bee brains at different stages to extract RNA  

▪ Used the different florescent colors to indicate different RNA levels ▪ Tests found that young nurse were more similar to old nurses than they  were to young foragers  

▪ Transition states were more similar than the ages of the bees  

• Social Manipulation Experiment

▪ Completely remove one group of worker bee (nurse or forager) and see  how it affects the rest of the hive

o Remove foragers from hive and old nurses will replace them

o In a hive with only young nurses and young nurses are added the  resident nurses become the foragers

Comparative Animal Behaviors  CBH 4024-001

Final Exam

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