I’m embarrassed to say I spent $30 to view this joke of a study guide
Philosophy Final Exam Study Guide Chapters 69
Determinism: States that everything happens for a reason.
Laplace’s Demon: According determinism, a thing that knows the precise location and momentum of every atom in the universe.
Indeterminism: States that the past does not define the future.
Hard Determinism (for Skinner): Everything can be explained in terms of previous causes and behavioral patterns.
StimulusResponse Model: Pavlov’s experiment with dogs, they salivate when a bell rings before food.
Hard Determinism (for Freud): We are too afraid to govern ourselves, therefore we are guided by circumstances other people, political ideology or irrational feelings, or our unconscious. Superego: The irrational part of your conscience.
Soft Determinism: States that freedom is relative to context.
Compatibilists: Another word for Soft Determinist.
Libertarianism: Asserts the reality of free will.
Free Will: Choices are caused by the agent himself.
Stoicism: The endurance of pain or hardship without the display of feelings and without complaint.
Freedom vs. Randomness: Choices they can make vs choices unpredictable. Existentialism: All humans individually create humanity through their free acts.Don't forget about the age old question of What is the first step in performing a scientific method?
Immorality: Most immoral people know that the acts they engage in are wrong in some sense or the other.
Amorality: To describe people who have no idea that their certain acts are wrong. Frankfurttype Examples: Counterexamples to the principal of alternative possibilities which hold that an agent if responsible for an action only if that person could have done otherwise. [Plato] Don't forget about the age old question of How do we determine whether a country is “developed”?
Thrasymachus’ view of Justice: Being fair is impractical.
Good in itself: Things that are good to have like fun and laughter.
Good for its consequences: Things that are good for something else like eating healthy. Ring of Gyges: The ring that makes people invisible. No consequences to anything. Plato’s Three Classes: Rulers, guardians and producers
Psychological Egoism: Every act is motivated by self interest.
Moral Egoism: Every act ought to be motivated by self interest. If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of a ’gene drive’ using terms from mendel’s laws of inheritance?
Altruism: Being selfless
Hedonism: Pleasure should be at the center of every action.
[Bentham and Mill]
Consequentialism: The outcome of an action.
Bentham’s Calculus: Tried to explain the goodness of outcome with math. Quality Pleasures: Quality and pleasures more important than quantity
Duty: You can’t make exceptions for your own benefit.
Categorical Imperative: This kind of rule lays out the limits of rational (ie moral) action unequivocally or universally.
Hypothetical Imperative: Practical ought. This kind of rule lays out the means toward an end one might adopt in life.
Kant’s Third Formulation: “Act so that you treat humanity whether in your own person or in that of another always an end and never as a means only.”
Arête: Greek word for excellence or virtue.
Character: Disposition to act in a certain way.
(Golden) Mean: The position taken between two extremes.
Phronimos: Greek word that means a man of practical wisdom. If you want to learn more check out What is decolonization and why is it important?
We also discuss several other topics like What roles are assigned in an organization?
Political Philosophy: The legitimacy of government.
Social Philosophy: The problem of justice.
Myth: The overarching belief that keeps everything together, ie keeping society in check. The Noble Lie: The myth of metals. Gold, silver, bronze and iron.
Anomie: A sense of loss of meaning and direction.
Psychological Egoism (in Hobbes): All human actions are motivated by self interest. Equality (for Hobbes): Men are equal by nature.
State of Nature (for Hobbes): Is stated to be a state of war.
Legal Positivism: Justice is whatever legality calls just.
Right of Nature (for Hobbes): All men are free to preserve their own nature. Law of Nature (for Hobbes): 1. Seek peace and follow it, if this fails, by all means, we can defend ourselves. 2. We should be willing to put aside our natural right to everything and be content with only what we are willing to let other people have.
Social Contract (for Hobbes): Foundation of natural right. We also discuss several other topics like What were the organizations like during the feudal era?
Sovereign/subject: Our natural selfishness requires a sovereign authority. Leviathan: The state is a necessary monster. Also the name of Hobbes book.
Divine Right of Kings: asserted that god chose some people to rule on earth in his will. Equality (for Locke): We all have the right to life, liberty, health and possessions. State of Nature (for Locke): Individuals have a natural right to “life, liberty, health, and property. It is moral because there are a priori rational limits on what we can try to do. Natural Property: There isn’t any because property can only be created by laws. Scarcity/Abundance: Locke’s assumption of abundance rather than scarcity. Law of Nature (for Locke): The state of nature has a law of nature to govern it and that law is reason.
Punishment: “Even in the state of nature, one can punish another.” The only right people give up in order to enter civil society and its benefits is the right to punish other people for violating rights.
Meritocracy: A system based on achievement.
Social Contract (for Locke): When the government fails to secure their natural rights or satisfy the best interest of society, citizens withdraw their obligation to obey or change the leadership through elections or other means.
Natural Virtues: Self love and empathy for others.
State of Nature (for Rousseau): War is a relation not between man and man but between state and state. Amoral and free no oughts in nature
Pride/Envy: Empathy + property = selfcomparison and envy
Moral State: Transforming “strength into right” and “obedience into duty” entails the introduction of conventional morality into human beings.
Rights (for Rousseau): Are to be given up to the general will. “The total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community.”
Social Contract (for Rousseau): 1762 starts by observing the inequality in the contemporary world: “Man was born free but everywhere he is on chains.” Humans were not born bad; but society corrupts us.
General Will: The will of every individual that makes up the society as a whole. Tyranny of the Majority: Inherent weakness of the majority rule by which the majority places their own interest at the expense of the minority.
Private vs. Public Sphere: There was a realm that was generally concerned with society but also a realm that was genuinely the concern of the individual and in that realm politics had no business.
Principle of Liberty: To determine criminal law, in order to draw the distinction between the public and the private and encompasses such areas as freedom of thought, expression, and assembly.
State Paternalism: Government as Daddy. Ruling out “victimless crime, the state has no right to criminalize behavior it deems harmful to the agent but to no one else.
Harm: No one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions, or else, he/she will be punished.
Laissezfaire: “hands off.” There are certain realms where government has no business except to protect the existence of precisely those realms.
Minimal State: This state would have the legitimate power to prevent the use of force and fraud and to punish such uses but, without the express consent of all adult citizens, could not have the legitimate power to tax or confiscate property in order to perform any actions above and beyond these minimal duties.
Anarchism: Claiming that the state itself is illegitimate, hence can never play a role in fair distribution or in responding to legitimate claims of individuals.