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UA / OTHER / HY / Who is andrew jackson?

Who is andrew jackson?

Who is andrew jackson?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: OTHER
Course: History of American Civilization to 1865
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Amercian and history
Cost: 50
Name: HY 103 Final
Description: This is all the terms from the last half of the semester, and some ideas on 3 of the paper topics. Good luck!
Uploaded: 04/28/2019
20 Pages 27 Views 14 Unlocks

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It kept charging me a month later this site is a scam.

1. Andrew Jackson was particularly popular among non-elite men in southern and western states. Discuss how the changing political system, Jackson’s history and personality, and his policies as president all contributed to his popularity. Which factor would you argue was most critical to explaining his appeal?

Who is andrew jackson?

● Political systems

○ formed because of how they felt towards Jackson

○ more disorganized than when the country was founded

○ people started forming their identities based on their political parties

● Jackson’s history

○ dirt poor from backcountry Carolinas

○ Made a name for himself as a lawyer & military officer

● Jackson's personality

○ He was an awful person who never wanted to do his job

● Jackson’s policies

○ “Tariff of Abominations”, Indian Removal Act, Jackson’s Bank Veto Don't forget about the age old question of What is neoliberalism?

● Jackson leaves behind a depression

● People in the South & West liked him because of where he came from and how he rose up out of nothing

How was the isolationism of the 1830s different from the anti-slavery efforts of earlier generations?

● Terms to think about

○ Inauguration Day (1829), “Old Hickory”, Martin Van Buren, Democratic Party, “Tariff of Abominations”, John Calhoun, Nullification, Indian Removal Act, Seminole Wars, Trail of Tears, Whig Party, National Bank, Nicholas BIddle, Jackson’s Bank Veto

2. Although Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson both supported American independence from England, they had different ideas about the future of the United States. Describe the visions of both Hamilton and Jefferson. Whose vision would you argue matched the ways America grew and developed between 1790 and 1840? If you want to learn more check out What is current account balance?

● Hamilton was for a strong federal government

● Jefferson was for small federal government & larger state governments

● Hamiltons because the state governments have say in some things, but ultimately the federal government was established and took over for the well being of the country

What is reign of terror?

● Terms to think about

○ Report on Public Credit, yeoman farmers, Reign of Terror, Matthew Lyon, Alien & Sedition Acts, Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Thomas Cooper, “Revolution of 1800”, Northwest Territory, Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance, Louisiana Purchase, Lewis & Clark, War of 1812 Hartford Convention, Tecumseh, Creek War, Horseshoe Bend

3. How was the abolitionism of the 1830s different from antislavery efforts of earlier generations, why was it so controversial, and what sorts of reactions did it provoke from both northerners and southerners?

4. The outbreak of the Civil War resulted not simply from an accumulation of divisive issues and events but also from a political system that became structurally incapable of fostering lasting compromise. How did the political system change over the course of the 1840s and 1850s such that divisions among the American population over slavery expansion became impossible to resolve through political channels? ● Slavery became the talking point Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three main clusters of personality disorders?

○ No one wanted to address it

○ In the south 80% of whites owned land & at least one person on that land had a slave ● Everything gets thrown up for grabs again in the late 1840s which makes everything get scrambled & impossible to resolve

● Reforms take place to try to fix it

● Racism resonated in the North & South differently

○ South had to shove it down people’s throats the way the North didn’t have to ○ Immigrant racism came in and different parties started appealing to them like the democratic party to the irish

● Instead of working for the nation political parties started working for themselves & their best interest

● Terms to think about

○ “Peculiar institution”, slave patrol poor whites, Hinton Helper, Henry “Box” Brown, Nat Turner, Cyrus McCormick, Irish Potato Famine, mechanic, National Trades Union, free labor ideology, minstrel show, Zip Coon, Flying Horse Riot (1834),Seneca Falls, Magdalene Societies, Temperance Society, “The Drunkard's Progress, Sylvester Graham, Phrenology, Transcendentalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, David Thoreau, Robert Owen, John Humphrey, Noyes, “complex marriage”, “know-nothings”, Stephen Douglas, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Republican Party, “Bleeding Kansas”, Charles Sumner, Preston Brooks, John Fremont, James Buchanan, Dred Scott v. Sanford, Lincoln-Douglas Debates Don't forget about the age old question of What is the importance of microbiology?

● Report on Public Credit

○ Alexander Hamilton issued this

○ Federal government would take on national & state debt together

` pay off debt over time by selling bonds & raising taxes to pay interest ` this would strengthen the fiscal government

` help tie the country together

- this would be a national project which would make the interest of Don't forget about the age old question of Studying mind and behavior.
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the factors of socioeconomic?

the citizens & the government the same

○ Thomas Jefferson & James Madison have objections

` southern states like Virginia had already paid off their debts

` this effectively funneled money from the poor to the rich

○ taxes will fall on the small farmers

` bonds would be owned by the wealthy

` because the government would owe bond holders those people would have leverage over the government

○ government passes this

` the solution was to carve out a small part of Virginia & put the US capital there so they would pass this report

● Yeomen

○ People who should be the heart of the US are these people

○ they are virtuous because they are independent

` no one had leverage over them

● Reign of Terror

○ French citizens were executed & the King was executed

○ France declares war on Britain, Holland, & Spain at the same time ○ Federalists used this to stop America from helping

● Matthew Lyon

○ Republican

○ talking to buddies about his views & someone calls him a coward, that man repeats it and Matthew Lyon spits in his face

○ they debate to kick him out of Congress, but it didn’t happen

○ got beat by Griswold with a club on the Congress room floor

` this was a giant brawl

○ Federalists had enough of him

` wanted to stifle political opposition altogether

● Alien & Sedition Acts

○ one: Naturalization Act

` extended waiting period to become a citizen to 14 years

○ two: Alien Friends Act

` the president now had the authority to deport anyone for any reason ○ three: Alien Enemies Act

` if the US went to war all citizens from the country they were at war with could be deported

○ four: Sedition Act

` fines or jail terms who wrote, published, or said anything deemed

false/malicious to either house or the president

` most dramatic & controversial act

- so vague it could be applied anywhere

● Thomas Cooper

○ editor of Republican newspaper in Pennsylvania

○ implied John Adams was a threat

○ couldn’t use truth & judge excluded proof that would help him

● Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions

○ Jefferson & Madison protest these acts by writing these

○ the constitution only gave the federal government the things laid out in that Document

`states could defend their people

○ Jefferson had kentucky to pass & Madison had Virginia to pass

● “Revolution of 1800”

○ Jefferson refers to his own election as this

`meaning the people gave the power to a man with a vision

○ America passed an important test

`almost collapsed under its own weight

` this marked the first peaceful transfer from one party to the nex

● Northwest Territory

○ north of Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, & under the Great Lakes & Kentucky

○ people are flooding this territory

○ fights between Indians & settlers & settlers & the government

○ there was frontier warfare social chaos

● Land Ordinance of 1785

○ systematic survey about land

`this could sell land

○ provides money for government, basic structure of orderly

settlement, pays for schools (provides education)

● Northwest Ordinance

○ passed in 1787

○ how these surveyed territories would become states

○ congress would appoint government & judges for each territory

○ when 5,000 voters lived there they could have elected

○ slavery would be banned

○ when 60,000 people lived there they could apply for statehood

`happened fast

● Louisiana Purchase

○ France was entangled in a war and needed money

○ offered him entire Louisiana territory for 15 million dollars

` Livingston didn’t tell Jefferson or Congress because he thought the

French would change their mind if he waited

` this doubled the US in size

○ they didn’t know what they were buying

○ some people disagreed with this purchase

` the Federalists said Jefferson was overstepping his bounds as president ` they thought there was nothing there

● Lewis & Clark

○ they didn’t find anything they hoped for

○ two things happened

` they brought so much information that would bring wealth

` captivated eastern Americans intrest in the unknown

○ locked eyes of nation on the west

` created desire for conquest and satisfies knowledge

● War of 1812

○ it was hard to say the won

○ the Louisiana Purchase spread resources out thin

○ Britain blockades the Atlantic sea border

` they invade DC in 1814 & bruns it

○ Andrew Jackson held off British on New England

○ war ends because England defeats Napoleon

` they stopped the war because they had no reason to keep going

` they defeated France

○ the American victory is important

` one: it celebrated peace

- they could stand up to Britain & win twice

- would not tolerate the way they were treated

` two: brought an end to trade restrains

- brought an economic boom

` three: political constructions

- Hartford Convention made rules to undermine the Republicans

- The Federalist Party & the end of the war became known at the

same time & the Federalists could never recover

` four: served as a victory over the Indians who resisted US expansion ● Hartford Convention

○ made rules to undermine the Republicans

● Tecumseh

○ military & political leadership

○ get all Indian nations to came together against the US

` he spends two years travelling carrying this message

- gains thousands of followers

● Creek War

○ Subset to the War of 1812

● Horseshoe Bend

○ 1,000 creek warriors blocked by US troops

○ 800 Indians killed by cannon fire

○ more Indians dead than any other battle in history

● Domestic slave trade

○ this was a multimillion dollar industry

○ millions of slaves are sold between states

○ makes slavery more essential

● “Alabama Fever”

○ Younger generation got this cause they were moving too fast

● long/short staple

○ Long staple

` separating seeds was easy

` only grows in coastal areas

` smooth seed

○ Short staple

` grows in the interior

` took one person an entire day to separate the seeds from 1 lb of cotton ` green seeds

● Cotton gin

○ Eli Whitney invented this

○ he puts ideas together that have been around awhile to make this

○ could clean 50 lbs of cotton a day

○ he didn’t make much money off this

○ what makes the cotton revolution possible

● “Manly independence”

○ what men used when describing moving west

○ being on their own takes risks

○ for older generations of men “manly” meant responsibility & duty

○ the new generation “manly” was about adventure & risk

` white families lived in log cabins & on dirt floors

` men worked along side of their slaves & women did domestic work for the first time ever

` lived isolated from each other

- there was almost no social contact at all; the women pleaded

with their family & friends not to forget them

● Missouri Compromise

○ when Missouri wanted to be a slave state Maine wanted to come in free ○ One state comes in free & one state comes in free

○ Nothing over 36-30 can be a slave state

● Erie Canal

○ DeWitt Clinton

` he thought to connect NYC to the Hudson River to Lake Erie & the great lakes

` lots of people thought he was crazy

○ it was 365 miles long, 4 ft deep, & 40 ft wide

○ transformed NYC into the connection point & economic for the US ● Steamboats

○ made travel faster

○ movement with & without a current was now possible

○ made the river a highway of sorts

● Panic of 1819

○ ½ a million of people lose their jobs

○ people have to sell their possessions including slaves

● General incorporation laws

○ let any company obtain a corporation charter

` pay a fee & it was yours

○ states couldn’t interfere anymore after charter is issued

● Inauguration Day, 1829

○ tens of thousands of people crowded the road to watch this

○ after the ceremony people crowded the White House & destroyed furniture & China because they were all drunk & rowdy

○ Jackson had to sneak out the back window of the WHite House get away ○ people didn’t leave till they moved the booze outside

● “Old Hickory”

○ this was Jackson’s nickname

○ this tree was that was the hardest to knock down

● Martin Van Buren

○ senator of New York

○ political circles knew who he was

○ he knew how to organize elections; he was behind the scenes

○ the key to winning elections was changing

○ he implements 3 strategies to win

1) takes advantage of the newspapers

- delivered the same set of political things

2) piercing together politics

3) politics could appeal to the populous’ will by being entertained

● Democratic Party

○ first political party convention

○ Martin Van Buren was part of this & Jackson’s supporters

○ first to capitalize on the party

● “Tariff of Abominations”

○ a tariff that was so high that people named it this

○ South Carolina took this to heart

● John Calhoun

○ published a pamphlet after the tariffs

○ they argued about the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional

` said it didn’t benefit every state & person the same way

` claimed that because of the constitution the states could interpose on the government if they imposed tariffs

● Nullification

○ states could nullify national laws

` they nullified tariffs

○ most people thought this was dumb but Jackson was pissed

` he made Calhoun resign and said if South Carolina didn’t back down then he would invade the state

● Indian Removal Act

○ Put into effect in 1830

○ Jackson proposed to pick them up & move them across the Mississippi ○ they could stay where they were if they abided by the law of the land or else they had to move or be extinguished

○ 1830-1832 many walked away and found new land west but other tribes didn’t leave

● Seminole Wars

○ they set to break white will, these were not popular wars because the land was not where people wanted to live, but by the time the wars end there were not many Seminoles left

● Trail of Tears

○ When the Cherokee left & headed west

○ they only leave because they thought they couldn’t do anything else ○ this was hundreds of miles long walking with everything they had; people suffered from disease, starvation & so much more trying to find new land west ○ the power of the Indians are destroyed

● Whig Party

○ they start to consolidate by the end of his presidency

○ They are united against Jackson

● National Bank

○ holds the money of the federal government

○ keeps local banks from overextending themselves

` make sure they had enough money on hand

● Nicholas Biddle

○ kept inflation low

○ guided American economy for consistent growth

○ he had over 50 branched & was very reliable

● Jackson’s Bank Veto

○ he vetoed a charter to the bank cause of his feelings towards it

` because of this the Whigs & the banks saw economic devastation in the future

○ his veto message was that banks & stockholders took money from the people ` people who went into this profession got privileges

` exploited frontiersmen because the bank was in the east but the loans were going the the South & West

` bank was unamerican

○ he thought people were on his side cause he got re-elected shortly after this ` he withdrew 10 million of the federal budget & distributed it to state

banks: inflation went sky high, he rolled back & said land had to be

bought with hard money now, this led to a depression & panic

○ shifts banks thinking on ideology

● Cane Ridge Revival

○ August 1801 Presbyterian, Baptists, & Methodists pastors preached to thousands ○ said the 2nd coming of Christ is near so people needed to repent; rallied people by telling them God would forgive them if they repented

○ one of the most remarkable events in American religious history

○ known as a symbolic start at least of the 2nd Great Awakening

○ welcomed African Americans as equals in the eyes of God slave or free ● Burned-Over District

○ religious revivals poured in and new religious movements started around the Erie Canal

● Charles G. Finney

○ father of modern religious revivals

○ comes from Utica

○ stores would shut down when he was speaking

● Rochester Revival

○ goes on for 6 months

○ every person was responsible for their own sin & everyone could be saved ○ Charles G. Finney’s greatest success

● Middle-class “respectability”

○ self conscious middle class is about new ideas about work & families ` composed of lawyers, clerks, bankers, etc.

` white collar & blue collar came into view

` imagined themselves as respectable

` align themselves with the whigs

` really good at articulating who they are

- became teachers & taught their values

- most Americans aren’t middle-class

● Shakers

○ founded in England by Anne Lee

` began preaching in the 1760s

` she claimed to have visions

○ went to America after being thrown in jail a lot

○ absolutely rejected materialism

` lived a life of simplicity

` only things that mattered was God & their community

○ God had both male & female components so all things were equal to God ○ sex was the evil of it all

○ genders only came together during worship

` turning in circles, singing, & dancing

○ this was very controversial

● Joseph Smith

○ grew up always moving

` moved 20 times in 10 years

` settled in upstate New York night in the middle of the Burned-Over


○ claimed an angel appeared to him with a book written on golden tablets one day he wa given the gift of translation & translated the Book of Mormon

● Book of Mormon

○ hebrew man came to America to share Jesus & the men lost their way so he cursed them with dark skin & these are the ancestors of Indians

● “Separate Spheres”

○ men were by their nature aggressive

` role was to bring in money

○ women were naturally weak, passive, emotional, religious

` be the moral compass for their husband & children

○ help create new bonds that make families better

○ not values that all Americans agree with

● “Peculiar institution”

○ it was only in the South & slavery was this institution

● Slave patrols

○ made sure slaves stayed put

○ basically police force for slaveholders

○ they have a reputation for violence

● Poor whites

○ 20% of the white class that didn’t own land

○ live on the edge of Southern society

` they struggle to survive

○ bottom of the social ladder

` seen as immoral, outside the bounds of society

○ they don’t like slavery because the idea that slavery made every white man equal wasn’t true

● Hinton Helper

○ writes a pamphlet about the complaints of the poor whites

` he calls on these men to see these ideas of slavery held back the

opportunities of whites

○ he was still a loud & phycotic racist

● Henry “Box” Brown

○ In 1849 had himself packed into a shipping crate & shipped out of the South ` this was a 26 hour ordeal from Richmond to Philadelphia

` he almost dies, but he became a legend because he made it

● Nat Turner

○ he was well known as a preacher & he started recruiting to overthrow slavery in the US

○ August 31st they killed his owner & family

` nearly 60 white people were killed

○ when people got word white units came down & massacred slaves part of the rebellion or not they didn’t care

` 120 were killed, 10 tried, 20 exiled

○ he himself was tried & hung on November 21st

○ Nat Turner Rebellion sent a shock wave because no one thought this perfect slave would rise up

` they thought if he could anyone could

● Cyrus McCormick

○ makes a mechanical reaper to harvest more wheat

● Irish Potato Famine

○ was a humanitarian & economic disaster; fungus on potatoes that turns into years of poverty & death

● Mechanic

○ skilled workers who could work well on one thing

○ worked by themselves with their own stuff

○ take pride in work, had high literacy rates, had high political rates

○ their livelihood was being threatened & the idea that work had dignity ● National Trades Union

○ Mechanics created this union

○ 1st National organization for workers

○ 1836 has over ¼ million members

○ people went on strike all the time & said they were in white slavery ● Free labor ideology

○ people start to say why these people weren't slaves at all

○ led white Northerners to oppose slavery cause it made free white labor cheap & degrading

○ this is not at all new

○ said they weren’t like slaves because they had wages

` slaves weren’t on the ladder at all & they are

● Minstrel shows

○ black face with black stereotypes

○ singing coon songs & talked in a “black voice”

● Zip Coon

○ free & paraded around in ridiculous outfits & wasted his girlfriend money ○ caricature in the show

● Flying Horse Riot (1834)

○ one of the nastiest breakouts

○ was on a merry-go-round

` tensions cause this was integrated

○ 5,000 whites take hand weapons & destroy impoverished black communities ` this went on for 3 days

○ 2 churches, 3 black homes destroyed, at least one killed & many more hurt ● Seneca Falls

○ 1848 was the 1st women's rights movement was held here

○ created a declaration of sentiments

` said women were denied freedom because they were being suppressed by dependency

○ challenged the entire idea of “separate spheres”

○ this was radical thinking in that time

` they got attacked & made fun of on multiple fronts

○ this movement didn’t get very far

○ some women thought they went to far, but others thought there were inequalities that needed to be addressed

● Magdalene societies

○ New York Morale Association became known as this

○ the goal was to eliminate prostitution

` they prayed over people & tried to convert them

○ the focus was not on the women, but men who patronized prostitutes ` they would watch who went in with them & publish their names in the newspaper

○ these societies focused on a very particular evil or wrong

` gambling, prostitution, drinking, cursing, or just distributing bibles

● American Temperance Society

○ said stay away from all hard liquor and that all drinkers would go to hell ○ they told stories about people ruining their lives

○ Evangelicals founded this

● “The Drunkard’s Progress”

○ pyramid of what would happen if you drank

○ it is overblown, but it works

● Sylvester Graham

○ minister from Temperance reform to health reform

○ encouraged people to give up meat, spices, coffee, tea & to basically stick to a pure natural diet

○ hygiene

` bath frequently, importance of exercise, loose clothes, vindicated class ` too much sex was so bad that even if married couples had sex too much it would lead to death

● Phrenology

○ people's personality was told by their skull

` each region represented certain traits

` change faculties based on what your traits are

` with the right school, diet, exercise you could change your destiny that you didn’t need religion to survive

● Transcendentalism

○ believed path to real truth transcended logic & reason

● Ralph Waldo Emerson

○ son of a unitarian minister

○ believed Christianity was to cold

○ argued that society & tradition & religion prevented people from finding meaningful life

○ he believed there was a spark of God in everyone & you could use that spark to create individualism

○ to be a real individual you had to be able to be on your own

● Henry David Thoreau

○ he is like Ralph Waldo Emerson

○ goes into the woods at 28, builds a cabin, & decides to lead simple life there; he stays out there on & off for 2 years & when he comes out he protests slavery, becomes an advocate for peaceful disobedience, & went to jail

○ offered radical defense against the world

● Robert Owen

○ industrialist from Scotland

○ troubled by industrial revolution

○ funds community in Indiana called New Harmony

` entirely secular

` children were raised by the community

` lasts for 3 years

● John Humphrey Noyes

○ most successful was Oneida New York community founded by him ○ he believed that Jesus would only return when people became perfect ○ Thought up complex marriage

● “Complex marriage”

○ communal ownership of all property, even family

○ all men & women belonged to each other

○ any kind of exclusive attachments were forbidden; you couldn’t, however, have sex at random, you had to go through people to basically “register” to have sex ○ birth control was seen as a man not reaching an orgasm

○ had to prove you were trying to conceive

● American Colonization Society

○ the idea to take free blacks in the US take them out & send them to Africa; emancipated blacks & missionaries to convert Africans

` popular in the beginning & Congress put money to it; this is what is now Liberia

● David Walker

○ writes a pamphlet about abolition in 1829

` warning to white Americans that it was a sin & they would rise up

○ born free in Virginia has a clothes store for immigrants

○ encouraging rebellion

○ price gets put on his head & he is found dead a year later

● The Liberator

○ William Lloyd Garrison writes this newspaper

○ writes on immediate end to slavery

● American Anti-Slavery Society

○ William Lloyd Garrison founded this

○ had over 1,000 chapters by the end of 1830s

○ able to bring together a wide array of people that crossed over gender, race, & class

● Elijah Lovejoy

○ In 1837 first martyr of the abolitionist movement

○ he published things & mobs would destroy it & his printing press

` he armed himself when mobs came to destroy his printing press

- they set his workhouse on fire, shot him dead when he came

running out, & dragged his body through the streets

● Gag rule

○ any anti slavery petition would be immediately left & put in a closet locked away ● Thomas Dew

○ writes pro slavery pamphlets

` says abolitionists have awful arguments

` said rights of private property had to be respected

` great civilizations thrived with slavery

` historical & philosophical connections to slavery

○ lays the work for debate for years

● Hamitic Myth

○ in the story of Noah God curses him & says he would be servants of servants & those people would be Africans

○ God gave whites the blessing of servants

● Manifest Destiny

○ John O. Sullivan believed that land in North America was supposed to go to the US

` they had God's given right

` the west needed to be Americanized

● Republic of Texas

○ In 1836 it is its own down but it country

` Mexico tries to shut it down but it doesn’t work

○ US wants this to be in the Union, but it would throw the balance off ` Tyler Pres didn’t want expansion of slavery, so he loses over Calhoun when he says Texas will have slaves

● James K. Polk

○ Kinda like Andrew Jackson, but he didn’t piss anyone off

○ Played off expansion & how it would benefit

○ Wants to have Texas & Oregon

○ Helps keep the balance of free verse slave

○ Barely wins the 1846 election

● Oregon Country

○ Polk teams up with British to get Oregon

○ Polk sends people to California & takes this land

● Free soil party

○ Short lived from 1848 to 1852

○ Main purpose was to oppose the expansion of slavery

● Mexican War

○ May 1846 16 soldiers die & they get a war passed

○ Some people love the war & some people hate it

○ Its Mexico's fault

○ Polk got in trouble for lying

○ 12,000 soldiers die, but the US wins

● Treaty of Guadalupe

○ Mexico gives Polk the territory he wanted

● Wilmot Proviso

○ Proposes slavery would be banned in the territory from Mexico

` Passes in the state fails in the house

- It doesn’t end or give rights to slaves just keeps it from spreading

● Popular sovereignty

○ Let people decide what to do about slavery

○ It doesn’t work because it never said when a territory could decide ● Oregon/Santa Fe Trails

○ these trails aren’t really trails just miles of trampled down road

○ the further you got the harder it got

○ threats to the travellers like Indians (dwindled hunting ground & food supply), terrain itself (heat, prairie fires, flash floods, buffalo stampede), disease ○ can’t go back once you get to the mountains

● Donner Party

○ they didn’t anticipate what they were getting themselves into

` put they wanted in wagons like fancy furniture

○ took a detour around the Great Salt Lake

` they were met with hard & almost impossible terrain

○ it started to blizzard and they had to eat anything they could

` they ate bugs, shoes, mice, and each other

` 17 went out to try & get help & 10 out of the 17 made it

○ 47 out of the 87 survived the journey

● California Gold Rush

○ 1848 Sacramento Valley 1st piece of Gold was found

○ people dropped everything they were doing to cash in on this

○ provided ⅔ of the US gold for 40 years

○ they were white men from eastern America, China, Mexico, Australia, Europe ○ all classes came to find gold

` rich came to invest & poor came to get rich

○ this was a much more collective enterprise than we think

` men came together to share & help each other

● Forty-Niners

○ the 80,000 people who came over to California

○ none had experience

● San Francisco

○ before 1849 this city didn’t exist

○ this place was the central field that people came into

` 3,500 people lived there

○ buildings went up fast

` they were made of wood so they kept burning down, but no one cared they would just be weird

● Compromise of 1850

○ this is Clays attempt to solve slavery

○ there were four components to this

1) to admit California as a free state

2) take the rest of the land into popular sovereignty

3) shut down slave trade in Washington DC but leave slaves

4) passes the Fugitive Slave Act

- needed these stricter laws

○ this only became law when they split the four components & still had to carefully get them passed

○ this didn’t solve anything & it made the fragile political system worse ● Fugitive Slave Act

○ it intensified the problems that were already happening

○ had no statute of limitations

○ if you were suspected of being a fugitive you wouldn’t get a trial or a hearing ` you had to prove you weren’t a slave without testifying

` if federal commissioners decided you were free they got paid $5, but if they decided you were guilty they got paid $10

○ this was found outrageous & dangerous

● Personal liberty laws

○ to get around the Fugitive Slave Act nine Northern states passed these ○ mobs broke out into spring people

○ forbidding states helping give back slaves

● “Know-Nothings”

○ called this cause came from anti-immigration societies

○ 1855 they dominate New England state government

● Stephen Douglas

○ he didn’t care about slavery or its expansion

` controversy over this were distractions

○ he cared about western development

` wanted to build transcontinental railroad

○ he wanted it to start in Chicago, but Congress didn’t want it to go through unorganized territory

○ he had no clue what the consequences would be for this

● Kansas-Nebraska Act

○ this repealed the Missouri Compromise

○ takes the Nebraska territory & divides it into Kansas & Nebraska

○ based this on popular sovereignty

○ it passed

● Republican Party

○ puts together Whig ideas economic development & omitted slavepolicies of the free soil parties

● “Bleeding Kansas”

○ people were butchered especially free soils

○ fights broke out

○ crops were burned

○ 200 people died

○ 2 million dollars worth of land was destroyed

● Preston Brooks

○ rallied the people

○ three days after Sumners spoke he accused him & beat him with a cane so much he was soaked in his own blood

○ he was trialed & sentenced they sentenced him to a $300 fine

● John Fremont

○ was a republican nominee

○ he didn’t have a lot of political experience but he was popular

○ carried the rest of the states & almost all electoral votes that Buchanan didn’t get ● James Buchanan

○ known for having pro southern & slavery leans

○ he is out of the country during Bleeding Kansas

○ won every slave state except for Maryland & won 5 free states

○ wins

● Dred Scott v. Sanford

○ March 1857 the supreme court had the most infamous case in history ○ Dred Scott was enslaved but his holders brought him where they banned slavery & is brought back to the South

○ when his owners died he sued for freedom saying his residency in a free state made him a free man

○ this was a split decision

○ Roger Taney

` ruled that not only Dred Scott was a slave, he shouldn’t have been able to sue because he wasn’t a citizen

` said that black people has no rights & Congress had no rights to ban slavery

○ southerners were thrilled & Republicans were furious

● Lincoln-Douglas debates

○ Lincoln pointed to things like Dred Scott v. Sanford to say it was corrupt ○ to Douglas the threat was what brought moral codes into debate

○ Douglas said he didn’t care about slavery but Lincoln did

` Lincoln was back & forth on black equality but he said it was wrong that they were enslaved

` time had come to stop slavery

● Charles Sumner

○ Senator of Massachusetts got up & spoke heinous things about his fellow senators

○ people from different parties either called this an attack or said his tone was “off putting”

● John Brown

○ a deeply religious abolitionist who believed slavery was against God ○ he was willing to use violence for antislavery

○ wants to trigger a slave uprising that would overturn slave government ○ started a raid

` he survived but he was tried & he wouldn’t answer an insanity plea ` he wanted to die a righteous man

` he was hung on December 2nd 1859

● Harpers Ferry

○ the raid was in West Virginia

○ the plan was to take all the guns & get slaves to come to the town with them ` this was absolutely crazy

` John Brown recruited 22 men & thought people would just come when they heard about it

` relatively few slaves were here

○ this lasts 36 hours before they were surrounded & many were killed ● John Breckinridge

○ Southern democrats nominated him

○ swore he wasn’t a secession candidate

○ didn’t try with the North

○ wins every southern state except Kentucky, Virgina, & Tennessee ● Constitutional Union Party

○ nominate John Bell

` he was a compromise candidate

` only won Kentucky, Virgina, & Tennessee

○ former Whigs

○ didn’t think they will win in electoral college

○ they hope voters will deadlock & the election will go to the House Representatives

● Fort Sumter

○ under command of Robert Anderson

○ Lincoln does nothing when South Carolina surrounds this

○ he send provisions but no military things

○ South Carolina already decided any provision would be an act of war ○ April 12 1861 confederates open fired & they surrendered

● Anaconda Plan

○ send army down the Mississippi & split Confederacy

○ economic strangulation

○ this was a lot harder to pull off then just talking about it

` there are tons of ports, a lot of land, white southerners knew their own terrain

● George McClellan

○ made head general in the Union

○ never used his men in battle

○ he was a Democrat

` he was very suspicious of Lincoln & Republicans

○ before he was willing to risk his men he wanted to make sure they were perfect & wouldn’t lose

` this infuriated Lincoln

○ he finally wants to fight in 1862

● David Farragut

○ Union leader who took over New Orleans

○ blew past two forts & over 100 artilleries

○ leaves New Orleans & heads up Mississippi River until he is stopped ● Peninsula Campaign

○ get 100,000 men down chesapeake & march to the capital & capture it ` while he stalls Robert E. Lee launched another attack & forced

McClellan to retreat & then Lee attacked as much land as possible

● Antietam

○ September 17th 1862 Lee & McClellan’s armies collide

○ nearly 6,000 people died

○ this was devastating for Lee

` after that England & France wouldn’t help the Confederacy

● 1863 bread riots

○ people loot shops, write letters to officers begging for their men to come home, wrote to soldiers begging them to come home

● “Twenty-negro laws”

○ exempted anyone responsible for 20 or more slaves

○ could be owners or overseers

○ government knew they needed men but they needed plantations

○ made men mad cause it protects rich men & what they owned

● Emancipation Proclamation

○ any slave in the Confederacy would be freed

○ rules out compromise with the South

○ presenting it as a military necessity dulled protests

● Bureau of Colored Troops

○ after the Emancipation Proclamation occurred to them they could use former slaves

○ most of these men were southern slaves

● New York City Draft Riot

○ lasted for 3 days

○ 12 African Americans were lynched

○ militia from the union had to come put this down

● Siege of Vicksburg

○ formal assault was impossible from the river

○ assaulting from Southeast was Grant’s plan

` this took him four tries through the swamp

○ Grant loads supplies on April 16th 1863 & meets up & they are where they needed to be

○ the Confederacy blocks off city but Grant decides to block off & starve out the city ● Battle of Gettysburg

○ Started on July 1st

○ troops flood into counter Confederacy

○ it was the biggest & bloodiest battle in the world

○ union secured the best spots for battle

○ July 2nd the Confederacy launches attacks & Lee decided to launch a full scale assault on the union army

○ more than 51,000 men died

● George Pickett

○ his men go to try to break union lines, but the union troops are stronger than Lee thought & the union frie mows them down; more than half his men were dead or wounded

● Andersonville

○ it held 33,000 union soldiers

○ provided no shelter so prisoners had to make shelter by sticks, blankets, & clothes

○ this is virtually a death camp

● William Sherman

○ his job was to inflict as much damage as possible & divide the lower South into two

● Siege of Petersburg

○ June 1864 Union pins the Confederacy in Petersburg & started this ○ they put them under siege because Richmond was to hard to out under siege ○ it was under siege for 9 months before they fell & were taken

● Andrew Johnson

○ Republican nominee was Lincoln but they replaced his old VP with him ○ he was a democrat & a slaveholder but he supported the war

● Sherman’s March

○ Sherman & his men march through the countryside

` they bust cotton gins, eat crops & livestock, destroy railroads

○ Sherman said to not destroy civilian stuff unless it could be used for military purposes

` some of his men took advantage of the chaos

- there was lots of looting and stealing in this march

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