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MSU / Engineering / BIO 110 / What is the meaning of the word “im full”?

What is the meaning of the word “im full”?

What is the meaning of the word “im full”?

Description

School: Montclair State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Biology of Human Life
Professor: Cj urso
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Fed, state, fasted, metabolic, pathways, ketogensis, Obesity, Diabetes, insulin, Metabolic syndrome, polysaccharides, Biological, Molecules, Glocolysis, Gylcogenolysis, and gluconeogenesis
Cost: 50
Name: BIO OF HUMAN LIFE: OBESITY EXAM
Description: these notes cover all weeks of the obesity unit. these topics include: metabolic pathways (ketogensis, Glocolysis, Gylcogenolysis, etc) fasted state, fed state,
Uploaded: 05/09/2019
8 Pages 44 Views 6 Unlocks
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“Final Exam Study Guide”


What is the meaning of the word “im full”?



BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

April 15, 2019

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Week One

The Apple and Eve” 

Modern Day Stats on The Obesity Epidemic

- Current day size 4 dress would have been a size 8 dress in 1991

Deciding WHEN to Eat:

Thalamus + hypothalamus decide sensations of hunger

“Im full” also known as the fed state triggers the following:

- Increased blood sugar

- Pancreas produces insulin

- Increased blood fats and fatty acids

- Fat cells produce leptin

- Full stomach content produces ghrelin (a hormone which sends signals to stop eating) “I’m hungry” also known as the fasted state triggers are as following: - Decreasing blood sugar


What is the meaning of the word “i’m hungry”?



If you want to learn more check out What are the zones of the respiratory system?

- Pancreas stops producing insulin

- Decreasing blood fats

- Fat cells slow down production on leptin

- Stomach contents decrease

- Slow down of ghrelin production

Signal transduction: series of biochemical chain reactions that occur in a cell - Ex: when a molecule such as a hormone attaches to a receptor on the cell membrane Insulin: a hormone that circulates blood and binds receptors to act as a signal - helps get sugar inside cells to produce energy

- secrets from pancreas

- Extra is stored as fat for later use

Insulin Functions:

1. Stimulate glucose uptake

2. Simulate fat synthesis We also discuss several other topics like Why study the history of earth?

3. Regulates blood circulation


What are the functions of insulin?



Insulin receptor: goes into receptor + acts as a linker to bring receptors close to activating receptors

Insulin Resistance: result after years of too much insulin secretion/overactivity the body stops sending signals to release the hormone

Type I Diabetes: pancreas doesn’t make insulin

- Insulin intake has to be done manually

“Final Exam Study Guide”

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

Type II Diabetes: usually associated with obesity + is the result of not passing on messages because of insulin overdose

Thalamus + hypothalamus: sends action potentials to frontal lobe that you’re hungry

Frontal Lobe: triggers memory of what you like to eat as potential food options - Dopamine releases as memory trigger what foods make us happy

Metabolic Syndrome: traits links to obesity Don't forget about the age old question of What is the largest part of the human brain?

- Hypertension

- Lipid problems

- Heart disease

- Demotic

- Cancer

- Polycystic ovarian syndrome

- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

The process of your body deciding WHAT to eat:

The 5 flavors:

1. Sweet: high in immediately available sugar

2. Salty: trigger action potential + replenishes sodium from sweets

3. Unami: hearty/meatiness

4. Bitter: most poison in nature that affect heart processes (evolutionary) hold this taste 5. Sour: overly sour food is often associated with sour or spoiled food ***we do not have tastebud regions

Cranial Nerves that receive taste receptors (determine taste):

(7) Facial

(9) Glossopharyngeal Nerve

(10)Vagus Nerve

Demonstrations of variated genetic differences in taste receptors:

Certain population of people tastes differently

**taste papers with different chemicals If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of habitat in the fishery?

‘You Are What You Eat’’ Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 12 principles of all biological organisms?

Nervous system highly influenced by what we eat

**refer to in class packet

Center for Disease Control believes that in 3 years 1 in every 3 Americans will be diabetic

“Final Exam Study Guide”

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

April 22, 2019

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Week Two

Metabolic Pathways, Fed & Fasted State” 

Biological Molecules (video #1)

- carbohydrates (saccaharinous)

Source of energy

made up of sugar (the simplest form is monosaccharides)

glucose: comes from the sun, fundamental (monosaccahride) 

organisms gain this through photosynthesis/respiration

fructose: sweeter>glucose, processed differently (monosaccahride) 

disaccharides: two monosaccharides put together

-sucrose: glucose + fructose joined by covalent bond (disacchride)

polysaccharides: chains of simple sugar units (store energy)

- cellulose: most common organic compounds

- An example of a polysaccharide is a disaccharide which is composed of two monosacchrines

plants store glucose in the form of starch We also discuss several other topics like Lithosphere means what?

glycogen: glucose left over in muscles/liver to be used after we eat (polysaccharide) - Glucose goes through the blood system, transfers to the muscle and liver then transforms into glycogen 

- lipids (group together and can not be broken bc of nonpolar bonds)

fat is the most common form

- fat make up most of the chemical ingredients glycerol (kind of alcohol) + fatty acids (longs carbon-hydrogen chains)

triglyceride: made up of 3 fatty acids + glycerol; butter, peanut butter, white meat (saturated or unsaturated)

phospholipid: class of lipids which is made up phosphate group, 2 fatty acids and glycerol:: these makeup cell membrane walls (on side rejects water and other ends attract water) steroids: class of lipids (4 interconnected carbon rings used to make structures) - cholesterol: binds with phospholipids to help form cell walls + can be activated to turn into different lipid hormones (testosterone + estradiol)

unsaturated fatty acids: when some carbon atoms of fatty acids are connected with double bonds which does not allow hydrogen moluecules to attach to the compound (oils) (found in triglyceride)

saturated fatty acids: when carbon atoms in fatty acids are connected through single bonds which become coupled with hydrogen atoms (found in triglyceride)

“Final Exam Study Guide”

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

- proteins (forms solids at room temp)

omega 3 fats: fatty acids needed to be eaten to break down them

enzymes: regulating chemical processes which help digest food

antibodies: connect themselves to invaders such as bacteria + viruses so the immune system is not attacked

protein endorphins: effect brain + curate feelings of emotions

20 different ingredients: amino acids

- have to get nitrogen from high protein food

Amino acids: organic compound that is the foundaion of proteins

R groups are siding chains which adjust the functions of amino acids

amino acids form long chains: polypeptides (these break down protein) protein synthesis is only possible if you have all of the amino acids necessary 9 amino acids we can not make ourselves:

- histidine

-isoleucine

-leucine

-lysine

-methionine

-phenylalanine

-threonine

-tryptophan

-valine

***usually foods that have animal protein have all amino acids

Amylose: found in animal protein:: polysaccharide

studies human pee: William proud

oleaginous (fats)

albuminous (protein)

carbohydrates (saccaharinous)

Fed State (video #2)

Fed state: what the body does right after we eat

Small intestine: the main area where food is absorbed by the body

- Duodenum: end products of digestion

- Monoscahhrines (glucose: absorbed in blood and goes to liver)

- Amino acids

- Fatty acids

- Monoglycerides

Liver is the most important organ in the metabolism and storage energy molecules Stores glucose as glycogen which can be converted to pyruvate to produce energy APt Pancreas: important in metabolism

“Final Exam Study Guide”

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

After we eat:

Increase in blood glucose

Increase of parasympathetic neuron

Increase in plasma glucose

- The pancreas secretes insulin after this occurs

Introduction to Energy Storage (video #3):

ATP is our body main source of chemical energy

- We gain this through the break down of glucose, fatty acids + proteins 3 major types of fuel that’s stored:

Glycogen (our bodies way of storing carbohydrates: long chain of glucose molecules) - Stored mostly in liver and some in muscles

The recommended intake of energy is approx. 2000 kilocalories

Proteins (long chain of amino acids)

- mostly stores in muscles

Fats (major source of storage fuel in our body)

- Mostly stored in adipose tissue (volume of storage is much higher and can be extracted more than glycogen + proteins)

- Triacylglyceride is the common stored fat in our bodies

- 3 acyl (type of organic chemical function group:: anything that had a carbon double bond of oxygen side chains)

- We could survive 60 days on fat storage alone without food intake

Why Triacylglyceride/fat are good for energy storage

- Energy-rich molecules

- Triaclgycerides doesn’t have a dramatic main function

- Inert; unlikely to react with other things in the body unlike gulose which is highly polar that can react with many things in the body (because they’re not soluble by water)

- No large or prominent mole unlike proteins whose main function is to made enzymes

- Triacylglyceride fats are hydrophobic; unlike glycogen + it won’t be weighed down by water

- There is an approx. 7-8x weight difference in body if glycogen was the main source of energy source

“Final Exam Study Guide”

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

Fasted State:

Glucagon: secrets when triggered by pancreas realied decrease in blood glucose levels -main hormone of fasted state

- broken by liver>gluose>blood stream to rise levels

Metabolic Pathways:

Gylcogenolysis: glycogen >(broken down in liver) glucose> blood stream; triggered by insulin Gluconeogenesis: liver protein are broken down to amino acids converted to keto acids to create more glucose

- Muscle protein are the last to be broken down for energy (goes to liver) to make more glucose

- Adipose Tissue breaks down triglyceride storage >free fatty acids >glycerol> liver> glucouse

- Heart & muscle utilizes fatty acids

Brain usually uses glucose as dependent energy when not in fasted state - In fasted state it’s dependent mostly on glucose from glycogen/fats and some ketone bodies

Fatty acids develop in starved state as glucose levels drop

- Can enter liver to oxide to create Acetyl CoA

- What occured when there is Acetyl CoAoverdos & it can’t enter the Kred Cycle (1) can not be processed, turned into something else (2) compounds already being used as energy to feed gluconeogensis

Skeletal muscles breaked down glucose energy for muscles

- Uses free fatty acids from adipose tissue after fasted states

Lipolysis: triglycerides > glycerol >fatty acids

Gylogensis: amino acids> glucose; glycerol>glucose

Ketogensis:synthesis of ketone bodies; Acetyl CoA>Ketone Bodies

Ketone bodies in brain transfered to Acetyl CoA, after kregs cycle created ATP, and CO2 (carbon dioxide) as waste

- Ketone bodies:molecules with ketone group on them; can be used as energy during prolonged fasting (by liver) (levels rise past glucose and fatty acids levels after a week of fasting; this is when ketone bodies provide most brain energy)

- 3 types of ketone bodies used by liver during fasting

1. Acetone

2. Acetoacetate

3. beta-hydroxydutrate ***main one

Glocolysis: triglycerides>fatty acids

Kreb Cycle:Acetyl CoA>CO2>ATP

- aka citric acid cycle

- one molcule of ATP and 2 molcules of CO2 are created

“Final Exam Study Guide”

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

Lipogensis: triggered by insulin, stopped by glucagon

Metabolic routines triggered by insulin:

- Glyconeogensis

- Lipogensis

Metabolic routines stopped by glucagon:

- Uptake of glucose/fatty acids from blood stream

- Kreb cycle

- Glycogenesis

- Lipogensis

Pathways that trigylceridemolecules in adipose tissue can create ATP for sodium-potassium pump in brain during long term starvation:

1.

2.

“Final Exam Study Guide”

BIO110: Obesity Unit:: Personal Notes Collective

Work Cited

Biological Molecules https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8WJ2KENlK0 Fed State https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZEm8cxKaas8 

Fasted State https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9wb-XexfkEY 

Introduction to Energy Storage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GnXNTC3EyWg

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