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SDSU / Engineering / BIO 212 / What are the functions of the respiratory system?

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

Description

School: San Diego State University
Department: Engineering
Course: BIO212
Professor: Cassie johnston
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Anatomy Final Study Guide
Description: There is a lot of information covered in this study guide: Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive Systems. Important lecture information is included for each system, as well as the tracings, which will be tested as short answer questions . I have also included important histology details to remember, specific characteristics about each cadaver, and other valuable information needed for the final exam.
Uploaded: 05/10/2019
15 Pages 560 Views 2 Unlocks
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Unit 5 ­ Study Guide


What are the functions of the respiratory system?



Respiratory System

Function

1. Conduction of gases to and from respiratory surfaces

2. Protection of respiratory surfaces

a. Warm, humidify air

3. Sound production

4. Defense against airborne pathogens, allergens, debris

5. Gas exchange (O2 in ­ CO2 out)

6. Regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, fluid levels, blood pH

Zones of the Respiratory System & Function

● CONDUCTIVE ZONE 

○ Transport air

○ Warm, humidify, filter air

○ Sound production

● RESPIRATORY ZONE

○ Defense

○ Gas Exchange

○ Regulation of various blood properties


What are the zones of the respiratory system?



Conductive Zone: Nose → Nasal Cavity → Pharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Bronchi →   Bronchioles → Terminal Bronchioles If you want to learn more check out Why study the history of earth?

Respiratory Zone: Respiratory Bronchioles → Alveolar Ducts → Alveolar Sacs → Alveoli  

Types of Gas Exchange

1. External Respiration: Between lungs (alveoli) and bloodstream

2. Internal Respiration: Between bloodstream and oxygen­starved tissue

Epithelia of Respiratory System

1. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar

a. With goblet cells (mucus cells) that trap debris We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the brain stem?

b. Cilia move rhythmically, sweeping debris along surface

c. Humidifies and warms

d. Part of conductive zone 


What are the types of gas exchange?



2. Stratified Squamous Epithelia

a. Shared regions of conductive zone and digestive zone

b. Protective tissue

3. Simple Cuboidal Epithelia

a. Most Bronchioles = Terminal Bronchioles

4. Simple Squamous Epithelia

a. All respiratory zone!

b. Point of gas exchange

Regions of Respiratory System

Nose & Nasal Cavity 

1. Nasal cavity lined with PSCC

2. Nasal conchae = Turbinate Bones 

a. Bones “swirl” air, throwing it against moist, sticky wall (moistures/filters) 3. Highly vascular to warm air

Pharynx (“Throat”) 

1. Muscular Tube

2. Nasopharynx

a. Hard Palate → Uvula

b. PSCC

3. Oropharynx

a. Fauces → Hyoid Bone

b. Stratified Squamous Epithelia

4. Laryngopharynx

a. Hyoid Bone → Esophagus

b. Stratified Squamous Epithelium

5. Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx share space with respiratory and digestive systems 6. Soft palate seals at back wall to close off oropharynx from nasal cavity If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of habitat in the fishery?

Larynx 

1. Commonly called “Voice Box”

2. Made of cartilages and CT bands (vocal cords)

3. Largest cartilage = Thyroid Cartilage 

a. Enlarges to form “Adam’s Apple” in males

4. Larynx closed off my epiglottis

Voice 

● WOMEN & CHILDREN

○ Shorter, thinner cords

○ Higher voice

● MEN

○ Puberty → Dramatic enlargement of Larynx

○ Longer, thicker cords

○ Deeper voice

Trachea  

1. About 5” long, 1” wide

2. Anterior in neck, posterior to heart

3. Carina (Internal Keel) ­ Highly sensitive

4. “C”­shaped cartilage rings (open in back) If you want to learn more check out What are the 12 principles of all biological organisms?

a. Trachea kept open by cartilage

b. Trachialis Muscle: Constricts during coughing, allows swallowing in esophagus

Bronchi 

1. Trachea split into two branches (Bronchi)

2. 1° → 2° → 3°

3. Get smaller, start to lose cartilage

4. Left bronchus is narrow and more horizontal

5. Right bronchus is wider and vertical

a. Inhaled objects usually go down right bronchus to Right Lung

Bronchioles 

1. Small tubes

2. No cartilage; wrapped in smooth muscles

3. PSCC → Simple Cuboidal

4. Blood/Nerve Supply

5. Asthma affects these tubes

Asthma 

1. Swelling (edema) of tissue lining tube We also discuss several other topics like Lithosphere means what?

2. Increase mucus secretion

3. Smooth muscle contraction

4. Bronchioles may collapse (no cartilage to hold tube open) We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of phospholipid bilayer?

Alveoli 

1. Alveolar duct ­> Sac ­> Alveoli

2. 300­500 million alveoli

3. Majority of gas exchange

4. Found in bundles with bronchiole (like grapes)

5. Networked with capillaries and elastic fibers

Cells of the Alveoli 

● Type I Cells 

○ Simple squamous = Gas diffusion

● Dust Cells  

○ Alveolar macrophages

○ Remove debris and pathogens

● Type II (Surfactant Cells) 

○ Produce surfactant = reduces surface tension

○ Prevents alveolar collapse

CLINICAL ­ RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (HYALINE CARTILAGE DISEASE) 1. Surfactant should be produced at 7­8 months of fetal development 2. Premature infant has “immature lungs” = little/no surfactant produced 3. Lungs collapse with each breath

4. ⅓ of all infant deaths due to RDS

5. In adults, usually due to diseased lungs

Emphysema 

1. Progressive disease

2. Alveolar walls destroyed & capillaries narrow (constrict)

3. Reduced surface area for gas exchange

4. Elastic fiber breakdown (exhaling takes energy)

a. “Barrel chest”

5. 100% of smokers over 40 years have it 

Digestive System

Functions: To provide nutrients to all body cells

1. Ingestion: Intake into mouth

2. Mechanical Digestion: Breakdown of particles 

a. Mastication: Chewing in mouth

b. Segmentation: Mixing food and fluid in digestive tract without direction 3. Propulsion: Moving food through digestive tract towards the anus a. Swallowing: Involuntary and voluntary

b. Peristalsis: Waves of muscular contraction

i. Moves food through digestive tract

4. Chemical Digestion: Breakdown of food by chemical reactions (enzymes)

a. Occurs in the stomach, mouth, and intestines (Carbs, proteins, lipids) 5. Absorption: Movement of particles into blood (*mostly in small intestine) 6. Defecation: Elimination of waste

    Mesenteries: Connective tissue for placement of organs ­ allows for path of vessels,  lymphatics, nerves, and fat: 

1. Falciform Ligament: Suspends liver from the diaphragm and anterior deep abdominal  wall

2. Lesser Omentum: Suspends the stomach from the liver

3. Greater Omentum: Lays like a “fat apron” over small intestines; suspended from  stomach

4. Mesentery Proper: Attaches small intestines to back wall of abdominal cavity 5. Mesocolon: Attaches large intestines to back wall of abdominal cavity

Retroperitoneal Space 

REMEMBER: SAD PUCKER

S = Supra­renal (Adrenal) Glands P = Pancreas

A = Aorta & Inferior Vena Cava U = Ureters

D = Duodenum C = Colon (Ascending/Descending) K = Kidneys

E = Esophagus

R = Rectum

Tunics of the Digestive Tract: 

● Tunica Externa → Adventitia & Serosa (Visceral)

● Tunica Muscularis → Myenteric Plexus

● Tunica Submucosa → Submucosal Plexus

● Tunica Mucosa 

The Mouth 

1. Flexible lips and muscular cheeks hold food in

2. Uvula helps guide food down the pharynx

3. Muscular tongue moves food over teeth for mastication

Pharynx 

1. Muscular tube: Mostly voluntary

2. Two regions

a. Oropharynx

b. Laryngopharynx

3. Lined with protective Stratified Squamous epithelia

4. Directed posterior

Esophagus 

1. One foot long muscular tube moves food to stomach

2. Lined with protective stratified squamous epithelia

3. Uses peristalsis

4. Lower sphincter weak

a. Stomach acids may move up into lower esophagus 

b. Acid Reflux ­ Damage tissue

Stomach 

1. Function in protein digestion

2. Gastric glands secrete pepsin → protein

a. Chief cells → Pepsinogen

b. Parietal cells → HCl

3. Stomach pH: ~2-3 (Pepsinogen + HCl → Pepsin ---- Protein Breakdown) 4. Large amounts of mucus coats the stomach to protect against self­destruction 5. Muscle layers allow for strong contractions (segmentation)

Stomach Absorbs… 

● Water

● Electrolytes

● Some drugs (Aspirin)

● Alcohol → The stomach secrets alcohol dehydrogenase to break down alcohol before it        enters blood in its more toxic form ­ Females produce less than men

Small Intestine 

● First Segment: Duodenum (10”)

○ Liver/Pancreas secrete fluids into this segment

○ Enzyme “soup” with food

○ Brush Border Enzymes → C/P/L

○ Duodenal Glands here (Brunners Glands)

● Second Segment: Jejunum (8’)

○ Most nutrient absorption here

○ Enlarged villi and plicae for greater absorption

● Third Segment: Ileum (12’)

○ Leads to colon

○ Ileocecal valve

Increased Absorption in Small Intestine 

1. Plicae 

a. Permanent ridges that “corkscrew” along inner surface of intestine 

b. Larger in Jejunum

2. Villi 

a. Finger­like projections along surface

b. Largest in Jejunum

c. Have lacteal within to absorb fats

d. Capillaries absorb non­lipid nutrients

3. Microvilli 

a. Small projections along surface of columnar cells = Absorptive Cells b. Brush Border Enzymes attached to BB

i. Proteins on membranes breaking down carbs, proteins, lipids

Large Intestine (aka Colon) 

1. About 5 feet long

2. Bacteria in colon

a. Produce Vitamins K and B (some)

3. Primarily functions in:

a. Water & vitamin absorption

b. Compaction

c. Defecation

d. Goblet Cells: Produce mucus

● Appendix attached to Cecum

● Taenia Coli ­ 3 bands of longitudinal muscle (tunica muscularis) ● Colon leads to rectum

Salivary Glands 

1. Produce saliva with salivary amylase

a. Chemical digestion of carbs

i. Parotid Salivary Gland: At back of oral cavity

ii. Sublingual Gland: Below tongue

iii. Submandibular Gland: Below mandible

Teeth 

1. Enamel Layer: Hardest substance produced in the body

2. Upper Arch (16) and Lower Arch (16)

3. Mechanical Digestion

● Incisors ­ (4x2), blade like

● Canines ­ (2x2), grab food

● Premolars ­ (4x2) shear food

● Molars ­ (6x2) grind food

Pancreas:

1. Endocrine and Exocrine gland

2. Secretes strong pancreatic enzymes into duodenum

3. Bicarbonate neutralizes acids from stomach

4. Digests carbs, proteins, and fats

Pancreatitis 

1. Pancreatic enzymes escape from ducts

2. Digestion (destruction) of pancreatic cells

3. May be acute or chronic 

4. Can be due to alcohol = Causes sphincter muscle to constrict and secrete enzymes Liver & Gallbladder 

1. Liver is largest visceral organ; largest blood reservoir

2. Functions → Removes toxins, stores/releases glucose, produces plasma  proteins & bile salts

3. Kupffer Cells: Located within sinusoids to clean blood

Bile Functions 

1. Bile Salts → Break down fats in small intestine (Duodenum); stored in  gallbladder

Cirrhosis of Liver 

1. Normal architecture of liver lobules is disorganized

2. Scarring of liver lobule

3. Hepatic artery and Hepatic portal vein scarred

4. Impaired liver function

a. Portal hypertension

b. Fluid leakage into abdomen (distension)

c. Gynecomastia

5. Peripheral veins in abdominal wall, esophagus, rectum, anus, etc. enlarge to  accommodate increased blood flow

Male Reproductive System

Male Accessory Organs

● Seminal Vesicles

○ Makes up 60% of semen

○ Fructose for energy

○ Fibrinogen to “clot” semen

○ Alkalize to neutralize vaginal secretions

○ Prostaglandins: Reverse peristaltic contractions within uterus and tubes ● Prostate

○ Makes ~20­30% of semen

○ Seminalplasmin: Antibiotic­like to prevent + UTI’s

○ Milky (Alkaline) secretions

● Bulbourethral Gland

○ Clear mucus secretion

○ Pre­ejaculate (lubricate Glans)

○ Alkaline to neutralize the urethra in urine

Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH)

● Description: Multiple benign nodules form = narrow & lengthening

● Symptoms: Weak stream, failure to empty bladder, straining to urinate, dribbling, acute  urinary retention, renal dysfunction, prostate­specific antigen (PSA) levels may be  elevated

● Treatment: Surgery

Location of Male Gonads:

1. Scrotum

a. Allows for temperature regulation (2 degrees lower) for healthy sperm b. Cremaster Muscle: Adjusts distance of testes from body 

Descent of the Testes:

1. Testes originate within abdominopelvic cavity (near kidneys)

2. Gubernaculum Testes: Anchors the testes to the scrotum

3. As fetal growth continues, testes are “drawn down” through abdominal wall (inguinal  wall)

a. Vessels, nerves, and ducts follow

b. Part of abdominal wall becomes part of the scrotum

4. Descent completed by birth (usually)

5. Takes part of the wall with it

a. Cremaster muscle from Internal Oblique Muscle

Crytorchidism (Hidden Testes):

1. Testes do not descend by birth

2. Mostly in premature infants

3. 80% descend spontaneously by 1 year

4. Increase in infertility & testicular cancer if undescended as adult 

Inguinal Hernia:

● Causes: 

○ Indirect Inguinal Hernia → Inguinal canals fail to close after descent of  tests

■ Most common & mostly in males

■ Usually found early

■ May fall into scrotum/labia

○ Direct Inguinal Hernia → May re-open inguinal canal after abdominal  contraction

■ Less common and usually around 40+ years

■ Does not fall into scrotum/labia

○ **RISKS**: Small intestines & peritoneum may drop into canal; Intestinal  strangulation or torsion

Testes:

● Two encapsulated organs containing seminiferous tubules 

● Seminiferous Tubules

○ ~½ mile long

○ Spermatogenesis occurs here

○ At puberty, the interstitial cells enlarge and divide, as do the seminiferous tubules ● Cells of Seminiferous Tubules

○ Sustentacular Cells: (Nurse Cells) Nourish and protect sperm, form “blood sperm” barrier

○ Interstitial Cells: Secrete testosterone

■ Secondary sex characteristics & aid in sperm production

Epididymis:

● “On top of the twins”

● Tubular mass on top and back of testes

● ~23 foot long tube

● Sperm can be stored for ~2 weeks (Maturation occurs)

Ductus Deferens:

● Ascends through inguinal canal (in abdominal canal)

● Travels up and over to back of the urinary bladder

● Found within spermatic cord

● Sperm moved (PSCC and Peristaltic movement)

Vasectomy

● Cut and tie­off section of ductus deferens to prevent pregnancy

Urethra

● Three Regions

○ Runs through prostate, urethral sphincter, and erectile tissue of penis ○ Urinary & Reproductive organ

Penis

● Composed primarily of 3 tubes of erectile tissue

○ Urethra runs down middle of spongy tissue

● Vessels of penis

○ Arteries run through erectile tissue

○ Large dorsal veins run along the dorsal surface 

● Head of penis (Glans)

○ Covered with prepuce

○ Foreskin removed during circumcision

Female Reproductive System

Follicles Within Ovaries:

1. Maturation of follicles stimulated by FSH

2. Follicular cells secrete estrogen

a. Growth & repair of Endometrium

3. Ovulation of egg

a. Due to LH surge → causes Follicular cells to become corpus luteum 4. Follicular cells remaining in ovaries become corpus luteum

5. Corpus Luteum secretes Progesterone and some Estrogen

a. Stimulate thickening of Endometrium

Ovaries:

● Located at lateral ends of uterine tubes

● Function: To produce follicles

○ Follicles = Oocyte (Ovum/Egg) + Follicular cells (Protection)

Uterine Tubes

● ~4 inches long

● Fimbriae on infundibulum move to help collect egg

● Cilia + Peristaltic contractions move egg along tube

● Ampulla ­ usual site of fertilization

● Takes 3­5 days to pass through the tube

Uterus

    Anteverted and Anteflexed                                                             Retroverted and Retroflexed a. 80% “normal position a. 20% “tilted position” b. Uterus sits on bladder b. Fundus points toward back c. Fundus points anterior c. Cervix points towards vagina d. Cervix points towards tailbone

Layers of the Wall:

a. Perimetrium: Visceral peritoneum

b. Myometrium: Smooth muscle layer

c. Endometrium: Inner wall (sloughs off monthly)

● Cervix = Narrowed region at opening to vagina

● Closed with mucus plug → breaks down at ovulation

Vagina

● 4­5” muscular tube

● Erectile tissue in wall

● Hymen: Thick, vascular, incomplete diaphragm at entrance to vagina

Vaginal Orifice

● Opens to vagina

● Hymen found around opening

● Vestibular glands delivers mucus secretions as female “pre­ejaculate” ● Vestibular glands analogous to male bulbourethral glands

External Reproductive Organs

Mons Pubis

● Fat pad over pubic bone

● Thought to function as a cushion for pubic bone during intercourse

Labia Majora & Labia Minora

● Outer “lips” Covered in mucus membrane  ● Covered in keratinized skin and hair  Joins with clitoris  ● Continuous with mons pubis Inner lips

● Analogous to male scrotum

Clitoris 

● Anterior bulb of erectile tissue

● Covered in mucus membrane 

● Analogous to male penis and has “prepuce” hood

Menopause

1. Reproductive Hormones

a. No progesterone and estrogen from ovaries

b. FSH and LH increases

c. Surge in LH causes temperature drop = “hot flashes”

2. Reproductive Organs

a. Decrease in size of internal reproductive organs & breasts

b. Thinning of urethra and vaginal wall

c. Decreased mucus production and elasticity of vagina

d. Increased osteoporosis and atherosclerosis

TRACINGS TO KNOW

Respiratory: External Nares → Nasal Cavity (PSCC) → Nasopharynx (PSCC) →  Oropharynx (Stratified squamous) → Laryngopharynx (Stratified squamous) →  Larynx (PSCC) → Trachea (PSCC) → 1st/2nd/3rd Bronchi → Bronchioles (PSCC) →  Terminal Bronchioles (PSCC) → Respiratory Bronchioles (Simple squamous) →  Alveolar Ducts (Simple Squamous) → Alveolar Sacs (simple squamous) → Alveoli Digestive: Oral Cavity (Salivary Glands) → Pharynx → Esophagus → Stomach (Gastric  Glands) → [Small Intestines] → Duodenum (Brush-Border Enzymes/Pancreas/Liver) → Jejunum → Ileum → [Large Intestine] → Ascending Colon → Transverse Colon →  Descending Colon → Sigmoid Colon → Rectum → Anus

Through Glomerulus: Glomerulus → Bowman’s Capsule → Proximal Convoluted  Tubule → Loop of Henle → Distal Convoluted Tubule → Collecting Tubule → Collecting  Duct → Minor Calyx → Major Calyx → Renal Pelvis → Ureter → Urinary Bladder →  Urethra → Out

Heart to Kidney & Back: Renal Artery → Segmental Artery → Interlobal artery →  Arcuate artery → Interlobular artery → Afferent Arteriole → Glomerulus → Efferent  Arteriole → Peritubular capillary network → Interlobular vein → Arcuate vein →  Interlobular vein → Renal Vein

Sperm: Spermatocytes in Seminiferous Tubules → [Straight Tubule → Rete Testis →  Efferent Ductules] → Epididymis → Ductus Deferens → Ejaculatory Duct (Seminal  Vesicle) → Prostatic Urethra (Prostate Gland) → Membranous urethra → Spongy  Urethra (Bulbourethral gland) → Out

Egg: Egg in ovary → Fimbriae → Infundibulum → Ampulla → Uterine Tube → Uterus →  Vagina → Out

DETAILS TO KNOW ON SLIDES 

● Trachea:

○ PSCC

○ Tracheal Ring (Hyaline Cartilage Ring)

○ Trachealis Muscle

○ Layers: Mucosa (PSCC) → Submucosa → Muscularis (Cartilage) →

Adventitia (CT)

● Lung:

○ Alveoli: Individual little “bubbles”

○ Alveolar Ducts/Sacs: Larger spaces of white bubbles

○ Bronchioles: Small, wavy­edged with branches

○ Capillaries: Circled and wrapped around alveoli and ducts

○ Arterioles: Smaller artery with RBC’s inside

● Esophagus:

○ Tunica Mucosa → Stratified squamous, Muscularis Mucosae ○ Tunica Submucosa 

○ Tunica Muscularis: Circular and longitudinal muscle (outer)

○ Tunica Adventitia 

● Stomach

○ Rugae: Ridges in the lining

○ Tunica Mucosa: Simple columnar, Muscularis Mucosae, Gastric glands/pits ○ Tunica Submucosa

○ Tunica Muscularis: Oblique, Circular, Longitudinal 

○ Tunica Serosa

● Small Intestine (Duodenum)

○ Villi

○ Tunica Mucosa: Simple Columnar w/ microvilli, Intestinal Glands, Musc. Mucosa ○ Duodenal Glands: Peyer’s Patches

○ Tunica Muscularis: Circular and Longitudinal Muscle

● Large Intestine

○ Tunica Mucosa: Simple Columnar w/ Microvillli, Goblet cells, Intestinal glands  and crypts, Muscularis Mucosa

○ Tunica Submucosa: Peyers Patches

○ Tunica Muscularis: Circular muscle, longitudinal muscle (Taenia Coli) ○ Tunica Serosa

● Liver

○ Liver Lobule: Central vein, Hepatic Triad, Hepatocytes, Hepatic Plates,  Sinusoids

● Pancreas

○ Pancreatic Acini

● Kidney

○ Cortex (Outer Portion): Renal Corpuscles, Convoluted Tubules,  ○ Medulla (Inner Section): Loop of Henle, Collecting Ducts

● Testis and Epididymis

○ Testis: Tunica Albuginea, Seminiferous Tubules, Developing sperm, Interstitial  cells

○ Epididymis: PSCC, Sperm

● Penis (Looks like a face)

○ Corpora Cavernosa: 2 “eye holes”

○ Corpus Spongiosum: “Mouth” = Urethra

● Ovary

○ Tunica Albuginea

○ Medulla (Center)

○ Cortex (Outside): Oocyte, Primary Follicles

■ Mature Follicles: Antrum (space) and Follicular cells (Line circle)

Female Cadaver:

Lungs: Lobes/Bronchi, Cardiac Notch, cut Trachea and Thyroid Cartilage Digestive: Submandibular Gland, Esophagus, Mesenteries***

Reproductive: Ovaries, Uterus, Uterine Tube w/ Fimbriae, Mons Pubis

Male Cadaver: 

Neck: Thyroid Cartilage

Abdomen: Diaphragm, Gallbladder, Lesser Omentum, Falciform Ligament, Stomach,  Mesentary Proper

Digestive: Cecum & Appendix

KNOW ALL DIAGRAMS AND CHARTS!!! LET’S FINISH STRONG

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