×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UMB - Study Guide - Final
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UMB - Study Guide - Final

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

UMB / Psychology / PSYC 100 / what does the hausman test do?

what does the hausman test do?

what does the hausman test do?

Description

School: University of Maryland
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Curtis
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Psychology, Psyc100, theories, cognition, research methods, behaviorism, conditioning, motivation, Biological, memory, brain, Sensations, perceptions, consciousness, emotions, sex, Relationships, personality, TheBig5, socialthinking, and lifespan development
Cost: 50
Name: Final Exam Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the chapters that we discussed this year.
Uploaded: 05/17/2019
17 Pages 8 Views 16 Unlocks
Reviews

frank4college (Rating: )


summersc (Rating: )

Really didn't help me on the exam at all. Didn't seem to have anything about any specific mental disorders for example



PSYC100 Final Exam Study Guide 


what does the hausman test do?



Theories 

❖ Behaviorism 

● observable

● Environment is the main influence

● Blank slate when born (Tabula Rasa)

● Rough draft

○ Innate ≠ fixed

○ Innate = organized in advance of experience

❖ Freudian 

● Deeper, subconscious meaning

○ Freudian Slip- error in speech/ memory

● Early, childhood experiences shape adult lives

● Superego, ego, and Id

❖ Evolutionary 

● Natural selection

● Repro. fitness, adaptation

○ thoughts/behavior can be acquired

● Drunken Monkey hypothesis

○ Fruit good, but hard to find fresh in the jungle

○ Solution: enzyme ADH4 -> consumes partially rotten/ fermented fruit ❖ Learning Bias 

● Templates through milestones

○ Guides learning

○ Flexibility to diff, social environments

○ Contrast to “fixed action patterns” (imprinting)


who is Till Lindemann?



❖ Personality Perspective 

● Experience -> stable traits

● Personalities = individual differences

● biological/ acquired

❖ Situational Perspective 

● Environmental cues & norms

❖ Sociocultural Theory 

● Groups develop norms

○ Conformity, obedience

❖ Cognitive Psychology 

● Information processing

● Mind = computer

❖ Social Cognitive Theory

● Schemas: determine activities

○ Beliefs, knowledge, memories

○ Attitudes

❖ Positive Psych 

● Contrast 2 Disease model

○ Emotions

○ Behaviors

○ Outcomes

Cognition 

● Metacognition- thinking about thinking

● Conjunction Fallacy

○ Probability of A + B is less than probability of A or B alone

● Stroop Test

○ Congruent: faster, more accurate (“RED” in red ink) We also discuss several other topics like What is the energy of motion?

○ Incongruent: slower, need to think (“RED” in blue ink)


who is Immanuel Kant?



If you want to learn more check out What are the Sources of Law?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is a Civil Society?
We also discuss several other topics like Where are ionotropic receptors found?

○ Reading is an automatic process

● Cognitive load- brain occupied with an effortful task

● Limited cognitive resource = memory determines allocation

● Cocktail Party Effect - you hear something about you -> you focus only on that ● Schemas 

○ Cognitive structure representing ideas

■ Concept (topics)

■ Specific person

■ Group (stereotypes)

■ Self-concept

■ Events

○ Think 2 quick & shallowly

○ Heuristics & bias - mental shortcut for making decisions

■ Availability - hear about it more -> easily accessible

■ Representativeness - judgments about categories

■ Expensive = Better: evaluating products & Placebo effect

■ Halo Effect: pos. traits influence the impression of a person

■ Beautiful = Good: physical attractiveness -> good qualities We also discuss several other topics like What are the importance of prerafolites?

■ Hot Hand Fallacy: athlete keeps making shots in a game

■ Gambler’s Fallacy: chance events will “even out”

■ Bias - Statistics doesn’t matter, fueled by anecdotes & imagery

● Confirmation - notice & remember info related to our beliefs

○ Information Processing

■ Unable to disregard prior information even if it wrong

● IQ test measures g -> g is the overall intellectual ability

○ Gardner’s Theory - multiple intelligences (*hard to limit)

● Memory

○ Short term can hold 5-9 items (Miller’s magic number)

■ Increase by chunking

○ Processes of long term:

■ Encode -> store -> retrieve If you want to learn more check out What is power cycle theory?

○ State-Dependent - environment influences memory

■ Drunk remembers drunk memories, study in the classroom where you take the exam, learn & recall on land or in water

■ Contextual information becomes part of your schema

○ Memory issues:

■ Disorganization- somewhere in storage but can’t recall

■ Interference- never encoded right due to cognitive load

■ Decay- encoded but no longer in storage

■ Insufficient priming- not enough activation to recall

■ Retrograde amnesia- can’t remember prior to memory loss

■ Anterograde amnesia- can’t produce new memories

○ Elaborative rehearsal - connecting schemas through associations

Methods 

● Scientific

○ Hypothesis - specific prediction for variables in a study

● Operationalization

○ Convergence - conceptual replications (same construct, different method) ● Meta-Analysis

○ Compare published and unpublished data

● Validity - construct, internal, external, statistical conclusion

● Research Design

○ Correlation - correlation ≠ causation

● Experiments

○ Random assignment is key

○ Sampling = selection of participants

○ Assignment = experimental conditions

○ Need at least 1 control group (not affected by the stimulus)

● Why study might fail:

○ Original study wrong

○ Replication study wrong

● Psychological science

○ Probabilistic not deterministic

Behaviorism 

● Classical Conditioning

○ Pavlov - conditioned dogs to salivate

■ Used metronome -> bell

○ Garcia Effect - only for Taste

■ Eat something -> get sick -> aversion to that food

○ Placebo Effect

■ biological conditioning - association b/w drug and physical effect ○ Stimulus generalization

■ Little Albert generalized small animals & white object

○ Stimulus Discrimination

■ Differentiating b/w stimulus

● Eliminating Associations 

○ Habituation - repeated exposure; flooding

■ Ex: someone goes on a plane who is scared of heights

○ Systematic desensitization - exposure to a range of related stimuli ■ Ex: slowly exposing lady to clown objects

○ Counter-conditioning - replace undesired response by replacing stimulus ■ Ex: getting a dog to like the vacuum

■ Aversion does opposite

● Operant Conditioning 

○ Punishers (discourages) & Reinforcers (encourages)

■ Primary- naturally want/ avoid

■ Secondary- learned to avoid

■ Positive- adding a new stimulus

■ Negative- removes a stimulus

● Schedule of Reinforcement

○ Continuous- every single time behavior occurs

th

○ Fixed ratio- every n occurrence (after 3 crimes)

○ Fixed interval- exact time frame (after 5 years)

○ Variable ratio- an unpredicted number of occurrences (slots)

○ Variable interval- an unpredicted amount of time (pop quiz)

● Other Types of Learning 

○ Insight: sudden understanding of a solution to a problem

■ Trial & error -> pause & reflect -> sudden inspiration

● Latent learning

○ Observational learning

■ Mimicry, role models, Bandura’s doll study

● Doll study = kids more aggressive when adults aggressive

● Motivation 

○ Extrinsic ->Reinforcements & punishments

○ Intrinsic -> value in the activity

○ Overjustification

■ Less interested when you have to do it in order to reach a goal

○ Self-determination

■ Intrinsic motivation

■ Interests that one grows in knowledge and skills

Biological Foundations 

Memory

● Hippocampus 

○ Stereotype: “brains library”

○ Reality: switching point- directs info based on recollection

● Memory Types

○ Implicit/ automatic -> cerebellum 

○ Emotional -> amygdala (Angry Amy)

● Neuroplasticity 

● Repair & extend functions - response to learning/ damage

*most of brain’s activity is geared towards simulating the world

Issues of causation

● Brain influenced by social factors

● Social environment -> drain development, regulation, output

○ Correlation NOT = causation

● Teens show intense exploration and independence, coinciding with prefrontal cortex development

Why study neuroscience

● Research errors - internal validity issues

● Implicit vs. conscious processes

● Measurement validation

● Disambiguation

Evolution

● Reptilian

○ Brainstem, cerebellum

● Mammalian

○ Limbic system, cingulate

○ “Common denominator”

○ Maternal care, audio-vocal communication, play

● Neomammalian

○ Massive cerebral cortex

○ More influenced by socio-cultural processes

● Loss Aversion

● Risk Aversion

Sensation and Perception 

❖ Sensation- awareness resulting from the stimulation of a sense organ

❖ Perception- organization and interpretation of sensations

❖ Psychophysics- effects of physical stimuli on sensory perceptions & mental states

● Virtual reality

○ Uncanny valley -> extreme moral revulsion

○ Terror management theory: artificial life elicits mortality salience

1. Machines are “dead”

2. Machines are “soulless”

3. Machines are “doppelgangers”

○ AI = indistinguishable from humans

○ Turing test: can people tell if they are interacting w/ human or machine

❖ Transduction- conversion of stimuli to electrical impulses, then transported to brain ❖ Absolute Threshold- bare min stimulus for detection, just noticeable diff. (relative, not absolute) , signal detection analysis (distinguish true signals from noise)

Evolutionary perspective

○ Response bias

■ Favor false alarms over misses

■ Risk aversion & loss aversion

Decision

Act 

Not Act

Reality

True 

Hit

Miss

False 

False Alarm

Correct rejection

○ Applications for foreign Policy, medicine

■ Over-testing & positive diagnosis

■ The Cheney 1% Doctrine

○ Pareidolia - mind makes shapes out of random objects

○ Autokinetic effect

○ Survival/adaptive

■ Predator detection

● Detection Bias

○ Quantities are relative to:

■ Stimulus (e.g., rain, snow)

■ Situation

■ Background (personality, culture)

■ Other info

● Anchoring effects

❖ Top-Down Processing- whole>> sum of parts, Gestalt philosophy ❖ Bottom-Up Processing- individual parts not in context

● Olfactory Illusions

○ Phantom odors

○ Overactive sensing cells in nasal cavity

○ Overperception in brain’s ability to interpret odor signals ○ Phantom vibration

■ Might stem from conditioning

● Sensory Adaptation 

○ Habituation/desensitization to stimulus

■ hot/cold water, noise

● Pheromones 

○ Attractive when people have complementary immune system ■ Subconscious

States of Consciousness 

➢ Combination of introspection, self-awareness, meta-cognition

Functions:

● Evolutionary Perspective 

○ Personal construction of reality

○ Cultural construction

● Sophisticated mental representation

○ Aids in survival

Self-awareness (~18 months)

● Knowing you exist independently from external world ○ Forehead mark test - elephants, kids, primates

○ Rug tied to shopping cart test

Theory of Mind (~4 years)

● Knowing that others have minds w/ different info

○ Sally & Anne w/ the ball test

■ Where she looks when she returns 2 bathroom

○ Lying involves Theory of Mind (chimps & 2 yr olds)

■ Banana box w/ nice and mean trainer

Emotions

➢ Negative-Positive, High-Low arousal

● Misattribution of Arousal 

○ Bridge Study

○ Optimal delay

■ Exercise ->view erotic material @ dif times

■ 1 min was too short, 5 mins were optimal, 9 mins was too long ○ Polarization effect

■ Misattributions amplify natural inclinations

● Basic

○ The same throughout everyone

○ Sad, contempt, surprise, anger, disgust, fear

● Non-basic

○ Blend of basic emotions

○ Jealousy, shame, pride, guilt

● Types of expressions: 

○ Macro (Genuine)

○ Micro (Genuine)

■ Very brief, last few seconds

○ Masked (exaggerated or fake)

Sleep

➢ Conservation, restoration & consolidation

● Issues w/ sleep & electricity

○ Polyphasic sleep - doesn’t chunk sleeping into 8 hr shifts

○ Societal norms

● Sleep hygiene

○ Only use bed for sleep, sex, and cuddling

○ Regular sleep routine

○ Don’t procrastinate on bedtime

○ Eat last big meal 2-3 hours before sleep

○ Naps are GOOD

○ Avoid electronics late at night

■ Use blue light filter

○ Sleep NAKED

■ Helps circulation

Dreams

➢ People mostly dream about familiar people and activities

● Simulations of reality

○ Continuity theory

○ Problem-solving & rehearsal

○ Social bonding theory

■ Social simulations

Meditation

● Enhances:

○ Well-being (physical & psychological)

○ Cognition (attention, regulation)

○ Physiology (immune system, vision, pain)

○ Social interaction (empathy, prejudice)

Sex & Relationships 

● Sex 

○ genitalia; contributes to gender

○ Physical actions involving erotic body parts

● Relationship

○ Emotionally significant bond

○ Need to belong

● Friendship vs Romantic love

○ Attraction, intimacy, disclosure, sex, betrayal, jealousy, breakup, “friends w/ benefits” ● Sociosexual orientation 

○ Restricted vs unrestricted sex activity

○ Attitudes, desires, behavior

○ Sex w/o love is ok

○ ≠ sex drive/ satisfaction

○ Men >> women

● Evolutionary 

○ Need to belong

■ Your desire to be included and cared for

■ Emotional pain -> drives to reconnect

■ Isolation = depression, suicide, anxiety, insomnia, etc.

○ Sexual selection

■ What is attractive 2 potential mates 

■ Intersexual - choosing mates (dancing)

■ Intrasexual - competition

○ Mating prime cause men to be more:

■ Flashy, Risky, Reckless, Creative

○ Attraction 

■ Culture examples

● Clothes, skin color, hair color, body shape

■ Similarity

● Race, religion, appearances, education lvl

■ Women show preference to dominance

● Size, strength, muscle, agility

● Social capital, money, resources

● Intelligence, humor, warmth, creativity

■ Men & women prefer physical attractiveness and social dominance

○ Sexual Double Standard

■ Women may mask their sexual preferences b/c of social desirability

■ Female >> male proposers:

● Intelligence, warmth, success, std history, mental health, sexual skill

● Hookup Culture 

○ Journalist focus on outliers, overestimates, Rosy retrospection (inaccurate views of the past) 

○ Definition is intentionally vague

■ Self-serving bias

■ Pluralistic ignorance

● Infidelity dilemma 

○ Men -> sexual infidelity is worse

○ Women -> emotional infidelity is worse

● Pre-agricultural sex

○ Chimps, bonobos, & humans show hypersexuality & promiscuity

■ Partible paternity

■ Consensual non-monogamy

● Sociocultural perspective 

○ Monogamy is the norm in 43/238 societies

■ Most societies- social monogamy & sexual polygamy

● Sexual orientation

○ Heritability

■ Homosexuals are more likely to have siblings who are homosexual 

■ Homosexuality is more common in identical twins than in non-identical 

Personality 

● Individuals consistent patterns of feeling, thinking, and behaving

● Stability in behavior over time

● Freud’s conception of the Human Psyche 

○ ID- primitive impulses

○ Superego- morailty, society

○ Ego- decision maker

○ Iceberg metaphor

● Jungian Theory 

● Older Theories

○ Phrenology = bumps on skull

○ Somatology = body shape

● Physiognomy 

○ Personality in face

■ Narcissism, political affiliation, sex orientation

○ Caveat -> biology/social norms

○ Also, ~55-60% accuracy

● Behavioral genetics 

○ Twin studies (MZ vs DZ twins)

○ Shared genes - heritability

○ Shared environment

○ Nature vs Nurture - predisposition ≠ certainty

● Big 5 traits (OCEAN)

○ Openness

○ Conscientiousness

○ Extroversion

○ Agreeableness

○ Neuroticism

● Other traits

○ Sensation-seeking

○ Locus of control

○ Need for achievement

○ Need for cognition

○ Attachment style

○ Sociosexual orientation

● Barnum Effect 

○ Vague statements that can be applied to anyone 

○ People are motivated to believe them

○ Unscientific evidence

■ Self-appointed

■ Invalidated tests

○ Horoscopes, astrology, tarot cards

○ Only do for fun -> don't give money!!

● Processes

○ Behavior -> personality & situations

○ Behavior -> personality X situations

● Attribution biases

○ Fundamental attribution error

■ Correspondence bias

○ Actor-observer bias

○ Cognitive miser, analytic vs holistic

Social Thought 

● Commons Delima

○ Resources, land, environmental protection

■ Collectively want to do good but individually want the best 4 u ○ Game Theory

■ Prisoner’s dilemma

● 2 individuals who decide not to cooperate

■ Decisions not always rational

● Social Dilemmas

○ Reduce overconsumption

■ Identifiability: transparent

■ Establish norms, social influence: conformity

■ Behaviorism: role models & incentives

■ Group-level morals: religion

■ Altruistic punishment: sacrifice points

● Social Groups

○ Exposure 2 others

Lifespan Development 

● Stage Theories -> suggest change

○ Social experience

○ Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Kohlberg

● Schemas = conditioning (behavior) + acquisition (social-cog) ○ Attraction - preference for beauty, Halo effect

■ “Golden ratio”

■ Baby w/o life experience look longer at pics they prefer ■ Cultures vary on common themes

● Right vs wrong

○ Babies morality

■ Many say no

■ Looked/reached for good guys in studies

■ Ball thief deserved punishment

■ Universal morals vs bias

● Those that are different deserve punishment

● evolution-> be wary of “the other” 4 survival

○ Temper w/ age and knowledge

● Attachment theory

○ Learning bias- babies innately attend to caregiver, imprinting ● Nature + Nurture

○ Evolution -> emotional bonds w/ primary caregivers

○ Quality of bond predicts future socio-emotional variables ● Strange Situation

1. Exploration

2. Reunion after separation

3. Stress management

■ Safe haven

■ Secure base

● Adult attachment styles

○ Avoidant

○ Secure

○ Anxious-ambivalent

● Secure Base

○ Social learning, exploration

○ Developing relationships

○ Identity exploration

○ Goal-seeking, health & maintenance, raising a family ● Secure attachment

○ Individuals in relationships

■ Satisfaction, positive emotions

○ Couples

■ More & better sex, communication, conflict resolution

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here