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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Taylor Rhoten

Final Exam Study Guide POL 1080

Taylor Rhoten
GPA 3.826
Intro to international relations
Dr. Ivan Ivanov

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About this Document

It took hours to put this thing together. Completely comprehensive. Covers what the realist, neo-lberal, and constructivist IR schools of thought thinks about WWI, WWII, and the post 9/11 world. It...
Intro to international relations
Dr. Ivan Ivanov
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Rhoten on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL 1080 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Ivan Ivanov in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to international relations in Political Science at The University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 09/03/15
approaches to 10s functionalism intergovernmentalism supranationalism These are the three 3 ways that scholars have identified of why and how international organizations emerged and advanced The EU European Union is a polyarchaic structure Monstrosity of international organizations Functionalism integration is a certain cooperation that presents itself a huge opportunity for states When states realize how beneficial it is to cooperate that presents itself a huge opportunity for states Spillover effect cooperation starts in the most likely area to achieve success and then spills over to other areas Ex EU and European commission first negotiated similar tariffs saw how cooperation was working and how the economy was growing from similar trading policies so then adopted similar currency The pattern talks about how it goes from economic to eventually political to eventually military Monnet Intergovernmentalism Takes the opposite approach of supranationalism where it looks into government to government relations and negotiates the framework of international cooperation Example To get institutions created you need an intergovernmental bonding that interacts on a bilateral basis and discusses a number of different issues Government to Government meeting negotiating and agreeing on common principles and rules How international organizations operate Supra nationalism there is an idea of higher authority but not total sovereignty Built on the idea of common interests rather than regional specific interests EX European Commission Federalism Idea by Winston Churchill before SN Idea said that if they worked closely enough together they could recognize a higher European authority Through integrating by federalism on a regional level small states that are not as powerful will join together and form some sort of federal entity Voluntarily give up opower to higher authority because the benefits outweigh the costs associated with it Federalism failed because states couldn t come together on defense spending and sharing power Monstrous federal government trying to impose so many constraints was not going to work for them Over time transferred some decision making to Supranational government institutions norms sovereignty territorial integrity responsibility to protect Responsibility to Protect idea that sovereign states have a responsibility to protect their own citizens from avoidable catastrophe and if they cannot the international community has that responsibility This norm changed slowly starting after WWII Used to be that as long as humanitarian disasters were a domestic problem between no other countries than it was solved domestically Today interventions are justified because you are saving human lives and trumps the idea of sovereignty Territorial integrity Idea that constantly changing borders would be crazy and any attempt to do this is an act of aggression according to UN norms Functions of international law Legislation the legislative body that comes together and created the law The government s come together and agree on norms Legislation and creations of laws require mutual consent In International law if something is not signed countries are not bound to it Two problems exist to gain this mutual consent 1 Interpretation Countries when they come together to agree upon a norm they reserve the right to interpret the norm however they want But they cannot just accept some parts of the international agreement 2 Binding Force usually interpreted by government s and legal scholars and signing declarations Enforcement of the laws is a problem of self defense Adjudication judgement In international law decentralized courts do not exist Most of the time these courts have jurisdiction but have no realm to enforce hierarchy of decision who decides which court has primacy What happens is for most cases domestic courts are the first to hear the case and international court can decide if they have the right to hear it Ex 70s and 80s during military invasions many people were tortured People filed complaints to their Supreme Courts and got turned down however they could still file them under international law and not domestic First filed at home and then they can file a complaint for international rights Precedent In international law it very much matters how similar cases have been solved It is important so the implementation of the uniformity of norms can take place Enforcement domestic government are the ones that usually deal with things There is no hierarchy enforcement sides in international relations Exceptions Adhoc tribunals Regional Courts ICJ and ICC Adhoc tribunals created only for specific purposes Has a start date and sometimes an end date and discusses the atrocities that have happened in certain areas such as Nuremburg Trials ICJ government vs government cases EX Nicaragua vs USA ICC some of the major powers such as Russia and the US have not joined If a crime against humanity is committed and the nations refuse to address then it can be taken to the ICC USA accidental killing of civilians Also a lot of countries don t have legal systems to address such issues like the United States does But you the ICC can t have a lot of power with the ratification of major powers Puts international law at a point of self defense The only real way to implement international law is through self defense FORMS OF ENFORCEMENT Interdependence enforces itself Treaty of Guarantee especially when it comes down to protecting a country s national security Ex Budapest Protocal asked you Ukraine to give up nucs in return for protection of territory and recognition of sovereignty by Russia UK and USA Collective Security hierarchy A certain country participates in collective security The idea is country A is a member of broader community of nations If country A is attacked by country B in the borader community than C DE F and so on will join A in a response to the attack from country B Reaction to aggression by B That action is authorized by a higher authority such as a security council that makes the decision for the authorization for the use of force against B because B has already violated the security of A The UN doesn t always work like that because of veto power Human rights regimes The enforcement of international law works at two different levels Global several different pillars Declaratory documents UDHR Multilateral treaties covenants and conventions Organsbodies for enforcement declaratory document documents that declare certain universal human rights that agencies and states respect first document is the Unviersal Declaration of Human Rights 1946 alongside UN charter by major involvement by First Lady Ellenore Roosevelt one of the biggest advocates a number of additional documents that regulate major fundemnatal human rights in specific areas special covenant bigger than special agreement in the hierarchy of documents you have universal declaration Covenants bigger than convention convention treaty agreement Hierarchy of international norms Treaty and agreements can be multilateral or bilateral After universal declaration adopted two covenants One on political and civil rights And one on economic and cultural rights US has ratified the political and social rights covenant Part of the reason was that the eastern social block emphasised the right of economic and cultural rights because that was their main political agenda issue US opposite freedom of speech such like that Always this ideological clash in the Cold War At the lower level you have conventions Some embedded fundemntal rights such as outlawing apartheid convention against discrimination women s rights outlawed child labor and exploitation of children Most of these cases westewrn and eastern countries agreed easily except the US has not ratified the convention on women s rights The problem at the UN level is that it is intergovernmental Countries with the worst human rights record are sitting on commission human rights That is why it always makes the global regime for human rights in terms of enforcement inefficient Regional European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and European Court of Human Rights Organization of American States National Int l Organizations UN and regional IOs EU intergovernmental and supranational institutions Eurozone institutions Sources of International Law Customs habits ingrained as a result of the same predictable behavior Treaties Sometimes originate as customs Authoritative Bodies International law commission at the UN just like US Supreme Court except for international law Supranational courts InterAmerican courts of human rights international court of justice in the UN European court of justice These create a core or authoritative body that interprets norms and adjudicates That core is only authorized to deal with specific aspects of agreements National and local courts Guantanamo Bay case Supreme Court said we had to treat prisoners according to Geneva Convention cause US was member and prison under US control showing the national courts have to follow international norms and constrain governments Int l Human Rights and humanitarian dilemmas that facing IOs Regional and Global Human Rights regimes dilemmas of common interests vs dilemmas of common aversions int39l environmental negotiations the Montreal Protocol 1987 governments agreed to adjust policies in a way that would allow them to minimalize the usages of CFC s and the Kyoto Protocol Sustainable Development World War I Realist Individual 0 Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by Filip Princep was the spark plug 0 Kaiser Wilhelm s attitude policies and weak leadership on a whole Firing of Otto Bismarck Creating bigger naval forces in turn creating naval rivalry with GB NonRenewal of Reinsurance Treaty w Russia furthered Germany s increasing sense of diplomatic isolation State 0 Germany was a rising industrial power Industrial Revolution hit country late Created a nation that could become more powerful from gaining territory Junkers running out of land This posed a threat to other countries in particular Russia and GB These expansionist aims provoked other powers to form alliances Systemic 0 Chain Gang Alliances Serbia backed by Russia who was backed by France who was backed by Italy 0 Triple Entente 0 Triple Alliance 0 Italy example of bandwagoning 0 Anarchy 0 Declining power of Great Britain Pax Brittanica Without a hegemonic power to create rules and norms no one to tell countries what to do NeoLiberal Individual 0 Otto Von Bismark Was a more effective leader than Kaiser Wilhelm Held soft power that allowed him to get people to do what he wanted leaderspeople Set up treaties such as the Reinsurance treaty that caused a period of detente in Europe making sure European powers didn t fight much State 0 Nationalism and disintegration of empires Serbian nationalism Disintegration invited con ict because of borders and struggles for new territory by new nations Divisions in US Congress led to delay into entry in con ict leading to the delay in the balance of power Systemic 0 Hague Conferences tried to establish rules and norms of international relations but failed to do so instead symbolically bringing together small and large states 0 Weakness of institutions to keep the peace 0 Trade liberalization by Britain failed because countries such as US and Germany did not jump on board I insufficient globalization 0 Many countries isolated Critical Theorv Individual 0 After the Russian Revolution in 1917 Lenin gained control and pulled Russia out of the war Felt WWI product of capitalist dynamics and thought they would fight it out When they all were battered and bruised Russia would be there to pick up the pieces Marxism believes Communism is the End of History State 0 Ideas of nationalism These ideas caused internal con ict in Empires Russia also became the vanguard of the proletariat not sure what the means Systemic Russian Leninism Let all of the capitalist countries fight it out in turn building Russia up in order to become the world hegemony World War II Realist Individual State Hitler Leader of German Nazi Party Nationalistic view of Germany Roosevelt s Embargo Economic Crisis in Germany Treaty of Versailles left Germany bankrupt Caused people to work harder and strive for better Germany German Nationalism Because Germany was treated the way they were by the Treaty of Versailles they thought they were entitled to compensation Germany believed they were now the best with their economic successes after their failure 9 I 36 by 1939 Systemic Germany s annexation of Austria and Sudetenland Led to appeasement by Britain and France Treaty of Versailles Forced Germany to pay war reparations give up territory and give up defenses Created a sense of animosity by German citizens Isolated Germany from the rest of the world Put the blame on them for WWI Rapallo Pact 1922 The agreement between Russia and Germany to formally establish diplomatic relations PreWar Period Broken by Germany when they invaded Russia engulfing them in the con ict Locarno Pact 1925 Great Britain and France worried about the GermanRussian relations Signed guaranteeing western European borders Did not guarantee the eastern borders Gave the power to Germany to settle border dusputes with newly formed eastern nations This weakened collective security NeoLiberal Individual 0 Ineffective Leadership in Congress by a dying President Wilson Couldn t convince the United States to join League of Nations State 0 United States rejection of league of nations Senate requires 23 majority 0 Economic collapse in Germany Led to the opening for the Nazi party to gain power Created an avenue to put blame on other groups Jews Western Europe Capitalism Systemic 0 Failure of the League of Nations Didn t have sovereignty No power to punish those that broke rules Italy aggression towards Ethipoia Didn t include major powers of Germany USA or USSR Aggressor states were not members Germany so not subject to institutional constraints 0 Washington Naval Conference Tried to allocate the number of naval capabilities countries would have on a global scale Britain and US 5 France and Italy 3 Japan and Germany 18 0 KellogBrand Pact Made war illegal Failed when people like Hitler came to power 0 Munich Agreement Prime example of Apeasement Gave the Sudetenland to Germany Critical Theory Individual 0 Hitler s Racism Blamed economic collapse on the Jews 0 Lenin s idea of capitalist imperialism To get rid of surplus production Wage war against one another for world markets State 0 German Irredentism Germany believed that all German people should be included in the German state rationalization for annexation 0 American Policy of Isolationism Because America held out of war it let to an uneven balance of power in the war that favored Axis side Until 1942 when America joined Germany had been making strides in Europe Systemic 0 Depression weakens capitalism 0 Lenin idea that capitalists will wage war against each other in order to gain economic power Terrorism and post911 Liberal perspective Believe terrorism is caused from the outgrowth of unresolved grievances and lack of economic development primarily at local and regional levels Also thinks feelings of exclusion poverty and marginalization drives ethnic con icts and fuels terrorism Need intensified effort to reconcile con icts peacefully through international mediation courts and control of arms After 911 the liberal approach called for treating global terrorism as international crime not war and increase international police intelligence judicial diplomatic peacekeeping etc Fundamental mistake to link nonstate actors and state actors and to convert a criminal issue of apprehending individual terrorists into a global interstate war against terrorism Systemic level Failure of UN diplomacy to manage Iraq War largely due to American unilateralism and the International Atomic Energy Agency institutions that had no answer for the delays caused by Saddam Hussein s deceptive diplomacy Domestic level Shift in Congress and American politics towards more conservative policies they reject international agreements weakening international institutions in uence on global terrorism Individual level George W Bush alienates rogue states and belligerent diplomacy Obama extends open hand of diplomacy to rogue states Realist perspective Believe terrorism is the premier use of force in situations with an asymmetric distribution of power or unipolarity Terrorism is not aimed just as local or regional con icts but at the redistribution of power in the international system as a whole Terrorism is more fueled from failure of rogue states such as Afghanistan that are training camps for terrorism rogue states like Iraq Iran and North Korea that could supply WMDS to terrorists and dissatisfied states such as Arab Muslim countries Russia China etc that were not unhappy to see America s hegemonic wings clipped a bit After 911 realists immediately labeled terroristic acts as a war realists accounts suspected a wider conspiracy and reached for the familiar instruments of exible coalitions sanctions and war to terminate financial support for and to defeat the global enemy Advocate partition and a balance of power to ensure stability Systemic level Islamic and other states Russia France Germany China counterbalance the unipolar power of United States potential links between rogue states with WMDs and transnational nonstate actors such as Al Qaeda Domestic level Rise to power of conservative parties in United States in 2000 and 2004 elections that act vigorously to counter terrorism Individual level George W Bush asserts dominance pushes a democratic regime into dictator powers enforces American dominance into nonWestem states causing con ict Critical theoryconstructivist perspective Believe terrorism is socially constructed and reminds us that terrorism is a social fact which requires human institutions for its existence 911 attacks emphasized the importance of understanding culture identity religion and ideas 911 took place because of a constructed identity ie antipathy for the West and also to construct a new identity ie that of a panIslamic movement Systemic level American imperialism causes urgency to impose a Western identity onto nonWestem states American imperialism is lowlevel grade of colonialism Domestic level Individual level


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