SLHS303 Exam#1 StudyGuide.pdf
SLHS303 Exam#1 StudyGuide.pdf SLHS 303
Popular in Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism
Popular in Linguistics and Speech Pathology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachael Cruz on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SLHS 303 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Sivasankar in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 467 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Key Definitions Anatomy the study of the structures of organisms and the relations of their parts 0 body regionsareas Physiology a science dealing with the functions of living organisms or their parts 0 body systems Speech verbal means of communicating 0 Typically includes gt Articulation how speech sounds are made gt Voice sound produced by vocal folds and breathing gt Fluency the rhythm or flow of speech Swallowing acceptance manipulation and transportation of food from lips to stomach Anatomical Terms 395 1 Standard anatomic position 3 u 5 I gt Standing straight up 3 39J gt palms forward yr39J gt thumbs facing out quot quotquotquot39 5 1quot gt legs slightly parted l 39 i9 VentralAnterior farther from the back bone front side 3 x 0 toes ventral to the ankle LA 39 l DorsalPosterior closer to the back bone back side lt4 O Jr 31 i S 52 4quot Anterior closer to the front or head of the body 0 heel posterior to toes Posterior closer to the back of the body or away from the head CranialRostral closer to the head of the body 0 heart cranial to stomach Caudal closer to the tail of the body or feet External outer surface Internal inner surface Superficial closer to the surface external 0 muscles are superficial to bones Deep away from the surface internal Superior upper 0 head superior to feet Inferior lower 0 hips inferior to neck Medial A closer to the midline of the body 0 little finger is on medial side of hand LateralB closer to the side of the body 0 thumb is on lateral side of hand Proximal closer to the trunk or start of an extremity point of attachment 0 shoulder proximal to hand Distal away from the trunk or start of an extremity 0 feet distal to knees lpsilateral same side Contralateral opposite side Anatomical Planes FrontalCoronal vertical plane splitting the body into an anterior and posterior portion 0 front and back Sagittal vertical plane splitting the body into left and right halves o Midsagittal sagittal cut at midline of the body 9 Skeletal Divisions T1 39 rm J25quot quot0177 Bids3quot Axial Skeleton vertebrae rib cage skull face and hyoid bone 39 qr natal Appendicular Skeleton bones of the upper and lower limbs appendages including the pelvic and pectoral girdles Bone Specialized connective tissue in the body 2types o DenseCompact appears homogenous gt usually forms the outer surface of bones o SpongyCancellous appears porous gt usually forms the inner surface of bones Cartilage Connective tissue Flexible and strong Forms entire structures and lines articular surfaces and facets of bones o where bones meet to form a joint 3 types 0 Hylaine gt large amounts of collagen gt poor blood supply gt ossifies with age more bone like gt found in articular surfaces of bones and in larynx 33 6 39A 3 1 12311 l 4 0 Elastic gt flexible gt very little ossification with age gt found in ear and ear camel o Fibrous gt tougher than other cartilages gt present in areas most subject to frequent stress vertebral discs Joints Classified based on degree of movement 0 High mobility synovial 0 Limited mobility cartilaginous o No mobility fibrous Synovial Joints Synovial fluid fluid secreted by articular capsule which lubricates the joint cavity Articular capsule fibrous tissue between the bones that form the joint Articular facets opposed ends of the bones covered with hyaline cartilage Types of Synovial Joints Gliding Joint o articular surfaces are convexconcave or flat 0 allow gliding or sliding motion 0 found between articular processes of vertebrae and in larynx Hinge Joint 0 allow movement in 1 plane 0 found in elbow Condyloid Joint 0 oval articular facet in elliptical cavity 2 0 allows for all types of movement except rotation j 0 found in temporomandibular joint Pivot Joint w in W 7 0 allows for rotation 0 found between 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae Saddle Joint I o Articular surfaces are saddleshaped and at right angles to one another I w39 0 allows for all movement except rotation j W 0 found in the middle ear 15 l Ball and Socket Joint V 03 o rounded end of bone in a cup like cavity 0 allows for all types of movement 0 found in the hip and shoulder Nervous System Neurons and Glia 0 Basic elements of the nervous system gt Neurons electrically excited cells building blocks of nervous system information processing and signaling of elements gt Glia support neurons Neurons Func on o transmit information 0 information is carried as electrical signals called action potentials AP Pads 0 Cell Body soma gt has a cell membrane around it gt cell membrane has small pores which allow certain ions to move through the membrane 0 Dendrites 239 0 n a a 39Frt u39lnt Nucleus Presynaplic terminal gt projections carrying messages to the cell body 0 Axons gt projections carrying messages from the cell body Synapse connection between neurons or between a neuron and a muscle messages coming to a neuron synapse on the dendritic spines axons branch at the end and each branch ends in a terminal button messages coming from the neuron synapse at the terminal button Axons axon hillock junction between axon and soma 0 determines if AP will be fired terminal buttons of axons contain neurotransmitters o neurotransmitters are made in the neuron o neurotransmitters are released from the terminal synapsing axons may be militated or unmyleinated Myeline white fatty wrapping 0 also called myeline sheet 0 formed by glia buttons and interact with the structure on which the axon is gt oligodendrocytes CNS brain and spinal cord gt schwann cells PNS spinal and cranial nerves insulate the axon and increase the speed of conduction of nerve impulses along the axon Nodes of Ranvier spaces between myelin astrocyte glial cell 6 oligodendrocyt 5 axon 9 call 3 dendrite a I 7 axon terminals 2 nudous 1 neuron cell body Glia all neurons have glial cells even if unmyelinated Func ons 0 Transport nutrients 0 Repair damaged axons o Insulate the electrical activity moving down the axon at the synapse 0 Maintain fluid balance around the neuron 0 Support neurons Axon Neural Connective Tissue Endoneurium Myelm sheath Perineurium x K Endoneurium surrounds Schwann cells which are wrapped around 1 or more axons Perineurium surrounds several sets of neurons each covered by endoneurium to form neural bundles fascicle Epineurium surrounds several neural bundles to form nerve trunks Epineurium Fascicle Blood vessels Ions electrically charged atom o Chloride Cl ions negative charge 0 Sodium Na ions positive charge 0 Potassium K ions positive charge Ion Movement Electrochemical Gradient o similarly charged ions repel o oppositely charged ions attract Concentration Gradient o lons move from high to low concentration Resting Potential in neuronal cell cell membrane separates ions inside cell from ions outside cell intracellular and extracellular compartments of cell have slightly different charges 0 bc of different concentration of ions outside and inside cell Extracellular more Na and Cl Intracellular more K and negatively charged molecules 0 negative charge Resting Membrane Potential RPM 0 voltage charge difference across cell membrane when cell is at rest Small electrical potential 70mV 0 due to difference in concentration of ions inside and outside soma cell body Diffusion of Ion at Rest Inti39accllulm r at rest K ions diffuse in and out of cell potassium channels 0 In due to attraction to protein 0 Out due to concentration gradient Na ions move in to some extent 0 due to concentration gradient if diffusion at rest was allowed to continue concentration would equalize across membrane and resting potential would be 0 u m Na Na Hi How is resting potential maintained Sodium Potassium Pump 0 pumps 2 K ions into cell for every 3 Na ions pumped out Leaky Potassium Pump 0 facilitates diffusion of K out of cell What can disturb resting potential Mechanical stimuli 0 open mechanicallygated sodium channels gt ex touch smell vision Neurotransmitters 0 open ligandgated sodium channels gt ex chemical substances Both of these allow more Na in o reducing resting potential depolarization gt if resting potential drops below threshold 50mV an AP is triggered Action Potential the reduced potential at threshold causes hundreds of voltagegated sodium channels to open on that part of the cell membrane the depolarization of the cell causes more voltagegated sodium channels to open in adjacent parts of the cell membrane 0 so wave of depolarization moves down axon o depolarization begins at the axon hillock quotall or nonequot phenomenon 0 once depolarization reaches threshold AP occurs 0 sizestrength of AP remains consistant o strength of stimulus is reflected in the frequency of the AP potentials triggered 0 do not degrade in strength as move down axon Steps in Action Potential Neuron at resting potential 70mV External stimulus reaches neuron Na channels open and Na enters cell Threshold reached at 50mV and AP triggered P PWNT channels At 40mV Na channels close and K channels open K leaves cell Repolarization starts S 9 NP Neuron returns to resting potential 70mV Refractory Period period when neuron is reestablishing resting potential Absolute Refractory Period no AP can be triggered Depolarization begins with opening of voltage gated Na Hyperpolarization occurs not all K channels have closed 30 Resting potential A 40 gt E T o 39Depolarization 2 Repolarization 39 phase phase 2 O Q a 40 5 Threshold 3 60 J E o E 3 Undershoot 6 139 i i A Time msec Relative Refractory Period when neuron potential is bt 50 and 70m AP can be triggered by a stronger stimulus Means that AP are unidirectional can only go 1 direction Conduction of AP Continuos Conduction AP moves along entire length of axon unmyelinated neurons 0 Slower Saltatory Conduction AP jumps quotsalta y gritaquot along axon due to myeline 0 Fast Divisions of Nervous System Somatic quotvoluntaryquot part of the system 0 responsible for observable actions 0 allows for sensation of environmental events and stimuli Autonomic quotinvoluntaryquot part of the system 0 responsible for lifesustaining activities and sensation heart beat mucus production Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS o Spinal nerves 0 Cranial nerves 0 Autonomic nervous system ANS gt Sympathetic gt Parasympathetic PNS Bram quot it Cent39al nervous Crarral nerve L Penpherai nerves I Spma new 39 4 J 39V Spinal nerves nerves coming out of the spinal cord to go to body below head and face Cranial nerves nerves coming out of the brainstem to of to head and face ANS o Sympathetic quotflight or flightquot o Parasympathetic helps restore resting state Covering of the CNS Provide protection for the CNS 0 bones of skull and vertebral column 0 3 layers of tissue bt bones and CNS gt Dura matter outermost layer latin word for tough gt Arachnoid matter middle layer looks like spiders gt Pia matter inner layer 0 Cerebrospinal fluid in subarachnoid space moistens lubricates and protects CNS The meninges are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord Dura mater 2 layers Arachnoid Pia mater Brain
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