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SLHS 303 Exam #2 StudyGuide.pdf

by: Rachael Cruz

SLHS 303 Exam #2 StudyGuide.pdf SLHS 303

Rachael Cruz
Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism
Dr. Sivasankar

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About this Document

A very broken down study guide for the material on Exam #2 with direct pictures and diagrams from the powerpoints in lecture.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism
Dr. Sivasankar
Study Guide
SLHS, SLHS 303. Sivisankar, Purdue, Speech Language and Hearing Sciences
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachael Cruz on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SLHS 303 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Sivasankar in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 214 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 09/03/15
SLHS 303 Exam 3 Study Guide Spinal Cord Bony structure Protects spinal cord from injury 5 regions 0 Cervical 7 o Thoracic 12 o Lumbar 5 o Sacral 5 fused o Coccygeal Location gt Top to bottom Breakfast at 700 Lunch at 1200 Dinner at 500 o Begins at bottom of medulla 0 Runs from 1st cervical vertebrae C1 to lower border of 1st lumbar vertebrae L1 0 Conus Medularis gt tip of spinal cord lower end 0 Filum Terminale gt protective fine filament from end of spinal cord conus medlars to end of vertebrae Structure Cylindrical in shape Central canal opening in center An 39r and po median su 39 ivide into L and R halves Gray matter center p surrounded by wh39 e matter Note the stain used for this picture changed the colors of the grey and white matter Grey and White Matter Gray matter Cervical Vertabrae 7 C1C7 Thoracic Vertebrae 12 T1 T12 Lumbar Vertabrae S L1L5 Sacrum 5 fused Shaped like a butter y Ventraanterior orn Cell bodies of motor rves Dorsal posterior horn Nerve cells related to sensation Many nuclei are present White matter contains many ascending and descending tracts Vm 139 l 3374 u 7 1 V r 5 39 4 r gt Cm r39tdli r39 SENSORY back quotI 93 turn i lmll quotl39 MOTOR front Peripheral Nervous System A AND L i AUTONOMIC 5 394 1 N E RVO U S SYSTEM Spinal Nerves 31 pairs 0 Carry motor an sensory info to body 5 Regions 0 Cervical 8 o Thoracic 12 o Lumbar 5 o Sacral 5 o Coccygeal 1 Each segment of the body is innervated by a single pair of spinal nerves Named by the vertebrae level at which they exit O CerViCal Spinal cord gt example C1 0 Thoracic example T1 Cauda equina o Lumbar gt example L1 0 C1C7 exit above vertebrae o 08 exits below last 7th cervical vertebrae o The rest of the spinal nerves exit below vertebrae Sciatic nerve ADAM Lumbar and sacral nerves form the caudal equina below end of spinal cord Spinal Cord Main Functions Spinal nerves are mixed nerves 0 both motor and sensory Each spinal nerve has a motor component which innervates muscles Sensory component which provides sensation Definitions Root neuron of a nerve o where it begins on the spinal cord or brainstem Ramus o a primary divisionbranch of a nerve dorsal root ventral quot ramus ventral 00 Pathway for Spinal Nerves Motor fibers 0 cell bodies in ventral horn o emerges as a ventral root Sensory fibers 0 cell bodies in dorsal root ganglion spinal ganglion C3 rw ail and quotpaw Iquuul l6l 339 w T H39 39 39 mm 2 Ventral and dorsal root neurons merge together beyond the spinal ganglion to form a spinal nerve one on each side L amp R of body Spinal nerve divides into ventral primary ramus and dorsal primary ramus Each ramus carries fibers from ventral and dorsal roots 0 So ventral and dorsal primary rami have both a motor and sensory component Sensory Affarent exiting the brain Motor Efferent arriving to the brain qusal prlmary Patterns of Spinal Nerves ramus m amp s Ventral primary rami 0 supply anterior front of body Ventral Dorsal primary rami primary 0 supply back of posterior back of ramus W m amp s Dorsal root ganglion Nerve m amp s Pathway for Spinal Nerves Dorsal root neuron sensory Ventral root neuron motor Loss of Function If spinal cord is severed function to all muscles below the level of the damage is lost 0 ex If there is a complete cut of spinal cord a the level of gt C2 innervation to everything innervated at or below C2 will be lost gt gt T6 innervation to everything innervated at or below T6 will be lost gt Cranial Nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves 0 some motor 0 some sensory 0 some both Nuclei in the brainstem Denoted by roman numerals I Olfactory smell VIII Vestibulocochlear ll Optic vision hearing amp balance S 10Cuomotorz eye IX Glossopharyngealz speech pharyngeal sensation MampS X Vagus speech pharyngeal swallowing M86 XI Accessory speech M 39 IV Trochlear eye V Trigeminal speech mastication MampS VI Abducens eye VII Facial speech oral prep M86 XII Hypoglossal speech oral manipulation M Names 1 Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final Very Good Vacations Are Hopeful Motor or Sensory Some Say Money Matters But My Brother Says Better Brains Matter More CN Emerging From Brainstem CN I CN v1 CN II CN v2 CN VIII CN v3 CN IX CN r a CN V Trigeminal Nerve Both 0 Motor muscles of chewing mastication o Sensory sensation from gt face gt scalp gt oral gt nasal mucous membrances gt teeth gt tympanic membrane gt anterior 23 of tongue 0 if someone touches your face this nerve helps you feel that touch 0 3 branches gt each branch innervates 13 of the facehead V1 Ophthalmic forehead to eyes 0 sensory from upper 13 of face V2 Maxillary midface o sensory from middle 13 of face V3 Mandibular lower jaw o sensory from lower 13 of face and motor to muscles of chewing and a few miscellaneous muscles CN Vll Facial Nerve Both 0 Motor innervated muscles of the face gt labial seal and sucking gt stapedius in ear gt a few miscellaneous muscles 0 SensoryTaste provides sensation from gt skin behind ear gt some auditory structures gt taste from anterior 23 of tongue front of tongue 0 Visceral functions stimulation to gt 2 of the 3 salivary glands gt lacrimal glands tears gt mucous membrane of nose and hard and soft palate CN Vlll Vestibulocochlear Nerve Sensory o Sensory gt carries auditory info from cochlea in the ear gt carries balance info from the semicircular canals a vestibule needs to be balanced on both sides ears CN IX Glossopharyngeal Nerve Both 0 Motor to one muscle The Glossopharyngeal Nerves IX gt stylopharyngeus l ruy39tcfc x x Glossopharyngeal new on o SensoryTaste sensation from gt posterior 13 of tongue gt tonsil gt skin on external surface of ear gt internal surface of tympanic membrane in ear gt pharynx J Ar tower Sm pay 3 239 r n x gt taste from posterior back 13 of tongue om xv r quot ELNtTa39wxu o Visceral function mm rm m gt one salivary gland and carotid artery quot3 quot rm quotL 2433 hitquot I quot15 o If damaged may not be able to sense food at the back of your mouth I b 35739 CN X Vagus Nerve Both 0 Motor gt velopharyngeal muscles gt pharyngeal muscles gt laryngeal muscles 0 Sensory sensation from skin in gt back of ear gt external surface of tympanic membrane gt external auditory meatus gt pharynx gt larynx 0 Ex if you39re choking on food this nerve helps you cough 0 Visceral Sensory sensation from gt larynx gt trachea gt esophagus gt thoracic gt abdominal viscera gt cardiac structures 0 Viceral Motor gt smooth muscle and glands of pharynx gt larynx gt thoracic gt abdominal viscera to anterior 13 of large intestine gt cardiac muscles 0 3 branches to pharynx and larynx gt Pharyngeal motor and sensory to pharynx gt Superior sensory to upper part of larynx and 1 intrinsic laryngeal muscle gt Recurrrent sensory to lower part of larynx and the rest of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles CN Xl Accessory Nerve Motor 0 Has 2 branches gt Spinal branch general motor sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles gt Cranial branch general motor pharyngeal muscles along with the vagus nerve 0 CN X and Cranial part of XI together are called the pharyngeal plexus 0 ex needs to be activated to move head to the right Lingual brancn Y0 tongue 0 ivgonunm muscms CN Xll Hypoglossal Nerve Motor 0 glossal tongue 0 general motor gt muscles of the tongue 7 O thyrohryoxi muscle Spinal vs Cranial Nerves Am To gonsoh39mrd CONKA IHS muscle lolnlrahyo 5 39na39 ewes Cranial nerves mm 39 OUt 0f Spinal cord 0 Out of brainstem 39 supply bOdY below 0 Supply head and neck head and new Some are motor some Are both motor and sensory some both sensory Autonomic Nervous System ANS part of the peripheral nervous system which supplies glands smooth muscle etc 0 our internal organs viscera 2 parts 0 parasympathetic craniosacral o sympathetic thoracolumbar ANS Parasympathetic System craniosacral o outflow from cranial nerves and sacral spinal cord 0 ganglia where the never synapse for nerves are in the periphery 0 acts to maintain homeostasis or conserve energy Spinal 7quot r M Cord H 1 5 I 0 Mm 050 39 1 Wquot 39 quot quot V I1 liochtal mnchi liver Abdominal blood vtzszlz Pnnmcni Adrcnal medulla u q i 1 H I war Inquot in x l l V 39 M a madch 3nd Gcnilals a E fa ANS Sympathetic System thoracolumbar o outflow from thoracic and lumbar spinal cord 0 ganglia are close to the spinal cord 0 quotfight or flightquot response cope with emergencies 0 Ry 221quot O Mink v 05 I llrnrl lvathcal nmncM 39 liver Abdominal blond vcuscl39 I A Pancreas 1 Adrenal mrdulla V quotWWWquot g y as Bladder and Gcnllols dquot A 1


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