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sociology practice midterm

sociology practice midterm

Description

Sociology test 1


What is social construction?



social construction 

an idea or practice that a group of people agree exists.  maintained over time by people taking their existence for granted. 

socialization 

social processes through which children develop an awareness or  social norms and values, and develop a distinct sense of self. 

August comte 

coined the term sociology, wanted to scientist human behavior 

social physics 

science can be used to predict and control human behavior 

emile durkheim 

"structrual functionalism" studied suicide and components of  society. 

karl marx 

coined the phrase capitalism, but did not like it. founder of  communism, wanted a society with no difference from rich and  poor 

max weber

studied bureaucracy and heirarchy, obsessed with status and  bureaucracy 

harriet martineau 

first prominent female sociologist, studied institutions, introduced  it to england 


Who is August comte?



web dubois 

helped found NAACP, studied theories of race and ethnicity 

who focused on mutual integration and interconnection of society emile durkheim 

social facts 

aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals 

organic solidarity 

social cohesion resulting from the various different parts of society  functioning as a integrated whole, everyone has their own role.  Rose w industrialization 

mechanical solidarity 

cohesion results from shared common traits, homogeniety, family/ kinship. PREINDUSTRIAL 

CONFLICT THEORY

karl marx. society is divided between those who own production  and those who dont, those who labor and those who profit. history  of society is conflict between the classes. 

social constraint 

conditioning influence in our behavior of the groups and societies  of which we are members 


What is social physics?



We also discuss several other topics like abkas
If you want to learn more check out anatomy and physiology final exam study guide

bourgeoisie 

upperclass 

proletariat 

working class 

structural functionalism 

everyone works together in an industrial society, emile durkheim.  theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can  best be explained in terms of the functions they perform 

anomie 

discussed by durkheim, feeling of aimlessness and despair,  durkheim linked to religion 

materialist conception of history 

material and economic factgors have a primary role in  determining historical change 

max weber

believed that values and ideas have just as much affect on social  change as material and economic factors 

social status 

some less high paying jobs are highly thought of, like teachers,  and some high paying jobs dont have good reputations, like  reality tv 

bureaucracy 

type of organization with clear heirarchy of authority 

rationalization 

process by which modes of precise calculation and rule based  procedures dominate human society 

iron cage of bureaucracy 

weber saw society growing inevitably more bureaucratic 

symbolic interactionism 

george herbert mead, emphasizes the role of symbols and  language as core elements of human interaction. 

symbols 

an item used to stand for or represent another. stop sign example If you want to learn more check out ku math 115

manifest functions 

social functions that are recognized and attended to by individuals  in a given social activity. INTENTIONAL

latent functions 

unrecognized and unintended consequences of social acgtivity.  UNINTENTIONAL 

microsociology 

study of everyday face to face interactions 

macrosociology 

study of large scale social systems 

feminist theory 

emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world ,  focused on the social construction of gender and gender  inequality. 

inference 

the goal of sociological research, being able to generalize an  entity beyond to others of its kind 

replicability 

sociologists must ensure the paths to their findings can be  retraced by other researchers 

what should you try to minimize in research. 

UNCERTAINTY

research should be? 

PUBLIC and TRANSPARENT Don't forget about the age old question of soo yuen jien

reflexivity 

social scientists must be able to reflect on how they are part of  social scenes they study Don't forget about the age old question of tisko chemistry

sociological research process 

7 step process to sociological research. 

STEP ONE: DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM Don't forget about the age old question of phi 1020 class notes

select a topic for research 

STEP TWO REVIEW THE EVIDENCE 

familiarize yourself with existing research on the topic 

STEP THREE MAKE THE PROBLEM PRECISE formulate a testable statement, or hypothesis 

STEP FOUR: WORK OUT RESEARCH DESIGN decide a plan to collect tjhe research materials/experiment 

STEP FIVE CARRY OUT RESEARCH 

do the plan you designed in step four 

STEP SIX INTERPRET RESULTS

work out implications of data and relate to research problem.  make sure it is answering your initial question. 

STEP SEVEN REPORT THE FINDINGS 

relate nature of research and justify conclusions 

research methods 

diverse methods of investigation used to gather empirical  evidence 

independent variable is on the 

x axis 

dependent variable is on the 

y axis 

qualitative research 

relys on observations, archival data, and interviews 

quantitative research 

relies on numerical data 

three primary research methods 

ethnography, expiriment, survey 

ethnography

qualitative, first hand study of people using participant observation  or interviewing 

participant observation 

research method in which researchers take part in activity of  study group 

strengths and weaknesses of ethnography 

strength: generates richer and more in depth info 

weakness: can only be used to study small groups 

survey 

method of research in which questionaires are administered to the  population being studied 

strengths and weaknesses of surveys 

strenghts: enables efficient collection of data 

weaknesses: material may be superficial or oversimplified, you  cant tell if people actually believe what they say 

experiments 

research method by which variables can be analyzed in controlled  and systematic ways, either artificially or naturally 

strengths and weaknesses of experiments 

strenghts: allows researcher to control the influence of specific  variables, usually easy for others to replicate.  

weaknesses: difficult/impossible to recreate many aspects of  social life in a lab

comparitave historical research 

research that compares a set of findings on society with the same  types of findings on other societies 

ex: french and russian revolution comparisons 

natural sciences vs social sciences 

social sciences require a more careful negotiation of the issues of  influence, power, and subjectivity than do most natural sciences. 

armchair speculation 

thinking of theories but not carrying them out 

Robert Park and William Ogburn 

both sociologists at the University of Chicago, who sought to  create scientific sociology, differed on how.  

Park wanted to be more qualitative, and do a lot of face to face  interaction and ethnographies. believed they should get involved  in policy 

Ogburn wanted to do a lot of quantitative numbers work, was a  purist and believed sociology was designed to stay away from  policy. 

population 

people who are the focus of social research 

standard questions

questions on surveys where you can only answer with a fixed  range of responses.  

advantage: easy to count/compare 

disadvantage: dont allow for subtleties of opinion 

open ended questions 

allows survey respondents to use their own words and elaborate  their answers. 

mixed questions 

both standard and open ended.  

How often do you attend this event? (standardized) If never, why not? (open ended) 

pilot study 

trial run in survey research, preliminary survey gathering info prior  to a large scale survey 

sample 

small portion of a larger population 

sampling 

studying a proportion of individual cases from a larger population  as a representative of a whole

random sampling 

method where every member of the populatiion has the same  chance of being included in a sample 

lingering challenges/issues with sociological research Cause and effect can be difficult to ascertain 

exploitation: cash rewards in surveys for the poor 

we cant describe social life accurately unlelss we grasp concepts  people apply in their own behavior 

humans are social and self aware, this impacts behavior at any  given moment. You want to see people be natural, not perform. 

Sociological Imagination 

the imaginative capacity to connect individual experiences with  larger social and historical forces 

social structure 

underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave in their  relationships with one another

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