Sociology test 1
an idea or practice that a group of people agree exists. maintained over time by people taking their existence for granted.
social processes through which children develop an awareness or social norms and values, and develop a distinct sense of self.
coined the term sociology, wanted to scientist human behavior
science can be used to predict and control human behavior
"structrual functionalism" studied suicide and components of society.
coined the phrase capitalism, but did not like it. founder of communism, wanted a society with no difference from rich and poor
studied bureaucracy and heirarchy, obsessed with status and bureaucracy
first prominent female sociologist, studied institutions, introduced it to england
helped found NAACP, studied theories of race and ethnicity
who focused on mutual integration and interconnection of society emile durkheim
aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals
social cohesion resulting from the various different parts of society functioning as a integrated whole, everyone has their own role. Rose w industrialization
cohesion results from shared common traits, homogeniety, family/ kinship. PREINDUSTRIAL
karl marx. society is divided between those who own production and those who dont, those who labor and those who profit. history of society is conflict between the classes.
conditioning influence in our behavior of the groups and societies of which we are members
everyone works together in an industrial society, emile durkheim. theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can best be explained in terms of the functions they perform
discussed by durkheim, feeling of aimlessness and despair, durkheim linked to religion
materialist conception of history
material and economic factgors have a primary role in determining historical change
believed that values and ideas have just as much affect on social change as material and economic factors
some less high paying jobs are highly thought of, like teachers, and some high paying jobs dont have good reputations, like reality tv
type of organization with clear heirarchy of authority
process by which modes of precise calculation and rule based procedures dominate human society
iron cage of bureaucracy
weber saw society growing inevitably more bureaucratic
george herbert mead, emphasizes the role of symbols and language as core elements of human interaction.
an item used to stand for or represent another. stop sign example If you want to learn more check out ku math 115
social functions that are recognized and attended to by individuals in a given social activity. INTENTIONAL
unrecognized and unintended consequences of social acgtivity. UNINTENTIONAL
study of everyday face to face interactions
study of large scale social systems
emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world , focused on the social construction of gender and gender inequality.
the goal of sociological research, being able to generalize an entity beyond to others of its kind
sociologists must ensure the paths to their findings can be retraced by other researchers
what should you try to minimize in research.
research should be?
PUBLIC and TRANSPARENT Don't forget about the age old question of soo yuen jien
social scientists must be able to reflect on how they are part of social scenes they study Don't forget about the age old question of tisko chemistry
sociological research process
7 step process to sociological research.
STEP ONE: DEFINE RESEARCH PROBLEM Don't forget about the age old question of phi 1020 class notes
select a topic for research
STEP TWO REVIEW THE EVIDENCE
familiarize yourself with existing research on the topic
STEP THREE MAKE THE PROBLEM PRECISE formulate a testable statement, or hypothesis
STEP FOUR: WORK OUT RESEARCH DESIGN decide a plan to collect tjhe research materials/experiment
STEP FIVE CARRY OUT RESEARCH
do the plan you designed in step four
STEP SIX INTERPRET RESULTS
work out implications of data and relate to research problem. make sure it is answering your initial question.
STEP SEVEN REPORT THE FINDINGS
relate nature of research and justify conclusions
diverse methods of investigation used to gather empirical evidence
independent variable is on the
dependent variable is on the
relys on observations, archival data, and interviews
relies on numerical data
three primary research methods
ethnography, expiriment, survey
qualitative, first hand study of people using participant observation or interviewing
research method in which researchers take part in activity of study group
strengths and weaknesses of ethnography
strength: generates richer and more in depth info
weakness: can only be used to study small groups
method of research in which questionaires are administered to the population being studied
strengths and weaknesses of surveys
strenghts: enables efficient collection of data
weaknesses: material may be superficial or oversimplified, you cant tell if people actually believe what they say
research method by which variables can be analyzed in controlled and systematic ways, either artificially or naturally
strengths and weaknesses of experiments
strenghts: allows researcher to control the influence of specific variables, usually easy for others to replicate.
weaknesses: difficult/impossible to recreate many aspects of social life in a lab
comparitave historical research
research that compares a set of findings on society with the same types of findings on other societies
ex: french and russian revolution comparisons
natural sciences vs social sciences
social sciences require a more careful negotiation of the issues of influence, power, and subjectivity than do most natural sciences.
thinking of theories but not carrying them out
Robert Park and William Ogburn
both sociologists at the University of Chicago, who sought to create scientific sociology, differed on how.
Park wanted to be more qualitative, and do a lot of face to face interaction and ethnographies. believed they should get involved in policy
Ogburn wanted to do a lot of quantitative numbers work, was a purist and believed sociology was designed to stay away from policy.
people who are the focus of social research
questions on surveys where you can only answer with a fixed range of responses.
advantage: easy to count/compare
disadvantage: dont allow for subtleties of opinion
open ended questions
allows survey respondents to use their own words and elaborate their answers.
both standard and open ended.
How often do you attend this event? (standardized) If never, why not? (open ended)
trial run in survey research, preliminary survey gathering info prior to a large scale survey
small portion of a larger population
studying a proportion of individual cases from a larger population as a representative of a whole
method where every member of the populatiion has the same chance of being included in a sample
lingering challenges/issues with sociological research Cause and effect can be difficult to ascertain
exploitation: cash rewards in surveys for the poor
we cant describe social life accurately unlelss we grasp concepts people apply in their own behavior
humans are social and self aware, this impacts behavior at any given moment. You want to see people be natural, not perform.
the imaginative capacity to connect individual experiences with larger social and historical forces
underlying regularities or patterns in how people behave in their relationships with one another