What is chemistry?
The study of the composition, structure, property, and reaction of matter, it happens everywhere
What are the two ways physical quantities are accounted for? Metric or International System of Unit
What is the unit for "Volume"?
What is the unit for "Length"?
What is the unit for "Mass"?
Grams and Kilograms
What is the unit for “temperature”?
degrees Celsius and Kelvin
What is the unit for “time”?
1 liter = ____ milliliters
1 meter = ____ centimeters
1 kilogram = ____ grams
1 millimeter = ______ meters
1 milligram = ___ micrograms
Metric Base Unit
Length=meter (m) 1 kilometer=1000 meter mass=gram (g) 1 Kiloliter=1000 liter volume=liter (l) 1 kilogram=1000 gram Time+second (s)
Significant figures are all the digits including the estimated digit
1. Nonzero numbers are always sig figs
Ex: 122.35cm=5 sig figs
2. Zero is a sig fig when it is between two non zero digits
Ex: 503=3 sig figs
3. At the end of a number with a decimal point
Ex: 29.05= 4 sig figs
4. Zero doesn't count when it is at the beginning of a number
Ex: 0.0245= 3 sig figs
5. At the end of a number without a decimal point
Ex: 2570= 3 sig figs
In multiplication and division, the final answer is written so that has the same number of sig figs as the measurement with the fewest sig figs
In addition and subtraction, the final answer is written so that it has the same number of decimal places as the measurement having the fewest decimal places.
An object that floats is _______ dense than water.
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An object that sinks is ________ dense than water.
What is the formula for density?
Density = mass/volume
1. HDL is a type of cholesterol that is measured in a blood test. If a 0.258gram sample of HDL has a volume of .215mL, what is the density in grams per milliliter of HDL sample? massof HDL=0.258−gramvolumeof HDL=0.215mL
what is the formula for specific gravity?
specific gravity = density of sample/density of water
A unitless quality
When measuring a large mass, do you use grams or kilograms? kilograms
What are the two types of pure substances?
elements and compounds. A pure substance is a matter that has a fixed or definite composition.
What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?
What are the two groups matter can be classified as?
"pure substances" or "mixtures"
On earth, everything exists in one of three physical forms: solid, liquid, gas
Temperaturethree scales: Fahrenheit, Celcius, Kelvin
Tf = 1.8 Tc + 32
Tc = Tf−32
Tk = Tc + 273
Kinetic and Potential Energy.
1. Any object that is moving has kinetic energy (walking)
2. Potential energy is determined by the position of an object or by the chemical composition of a substance.
Energy can be measured in a calorie or a Joule. SI unit (Joule)
1 calorie = 4.184 Joules
1 Kcal = 1000 calories
1KJ = 1000 Joules
Ex: 360 Joules×1calorie
Food was measured as Calories or kilocalories.
1 Cal = 1 Kcal = 1000 cal
1 Cal = 4.184 KJ = 4184 J
The heat of vaporization = The heat of condensation
What is the specific heat?
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius.
How do you determine the amount of heat lost or gained by a substance? by multiplying its mass, the temperature change, and its specific heat
The heat of fusion is the amount of energy needed to convert 1gram of solid to liquid at the melting point. Don't forget about the age old question of cdfs csulb
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Ex: H2O solid + 80 cal/g (or 3345) = H2O liquid
When does melting occur?
when the particles in a solid absorb enough energy to break apart and form a Liquid