Rhetoric and Civic Life - Exam 4 Study Guide
Rhetoric and Civic Life - Exam 4 Study Guide COMM 245 7541 01
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by notes2016 on Thursday September 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 245 7541 01 at Truman State University taught by J Self in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Rhetoric and Civic Life I in Journalism and Mass Communications at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/03/15
Exam 4 Note This test may include but is not limited to the following areas of information Any information that we have either talked about in class or that you have been asked to read is fair game for the test Since the last exam we have read chapters 2 and 4 of the Palczewski Ice and Fritch 2012 book and essays in PDF form on Bb from Lakoff and Johnson 1980 and Burke 1966 Lakoff and Johnson 1980 Metaphors We Live Bv How is metaphor pervasive in our everyday life Our conceptual system is metaphorical It structures our world quotSince communication is based on the conceptual system that we use in thinking and acting language is an important source of evidence for what that system is likequot We can39t go three sentences without using a metaphor How do metaphors structure our understanding of the world The way we think the way we experience and what we do every day is a huge part of metaphor Also through our language use What is the essence of metaphor according to Lakoff amp Johnson The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one thing in the terms of another can also hide aspects of the idea Thus metaphors are not just decoration of language What Lakoff amp Johnson mean by metaphors are systematic Arguments usually follow patterns They are not just words they are concepts There is a system for the way we argue How do metaphors help us illuminate and hide at the same time Re ective and de ective They draw our attention toward some things and away from others Reflection de ection selection Gay marriage What is Richards39 semantic triangle It explains the relationship between our language and what it stands for It works through having all symbols going through a reference point ArbitraryDno direct correlation OWhat does it explain 0 Relationship between words objects and meaning 0 Reference experienceperceptionlSymbolljReferent what you39re referring to o All meaning is in people it is not in words 0 Words are arbitrary OHOW does it work How does Richards explain metaphor How we create meaning method by which a communicator provides listeners with the experience needed Metaphors are ubiquitous and inconspicuous QWhat are the two types 0 Fresh metaphor comparison is new 0 Sun is a red balloon Faded metaphor comparison has been made so many times that we don39t even think about it anymore 0 More dangerous because we don39t question the comparison QWhat are the two parts of a metaphor Tenor the underlying idea or subject 0 Vehicle adjective the means by which we convey the underlying idea what is that the tenor is compared to o quotthe bare facts of realityquot Tenor facts 0 Vehicle bare Palczewski Ice and Fritch 2012 Chapter 2 What is linguistic relativity the language you use in uences the way you see the world the way you see the world in uences the language you use The language you use in uences the way you see the world 0 Label as enemyDaffects the way you act 0 You have a roommate you really like you act differently around them 0 The language you use is different because they39re your friend 0 You have a roommate who is an enemy o The language you use is different you39re mean to them The way you see the world affects the language you use 0 See as outgoinngabel as friend What is a public vocabulary Culturally established and sanctioned terms that compose people39s takenfor granted understanding of the world Society39s terministic screen all societies have a terministic screen Four elements metaphors characterizations narratives and ideographs What are ideographs What is a characterization How do narratives work ldeographs an ordinarv term found in political discourse It is a highorder abstraction representing collective commitment to a particular but equivocal and illde ned normative goal It warrants the use of power excuses behavior and belief which might otherwise be perceived as eccentric or antisocial and guides behavior and belief into channels easily recognized by a community as acceptable or laudable Warrants the use power 0 Freedom charismatic words 0 Richard Weaver Characterization the labels and descriptions attached to acts agencies agents scenes and purposes 0 Building blocks of narratives Narratives plays a large role in public communication form and maintain public memory and teach cultural values o All argumentation is narrative Narrative probability how well it holds together as story does it have a beginning middle and end is it coherent Narrative delity how well the story makes sense with reality how well the story resonates with the audience o Is it reasonable 0 Test for reason Hsher What are discursive and presentational forms Discursive symbolism language use with a linear structure that operates through reason and not intuition Sciencepoitica Presentational symbolism a direct presentation of an individual object that widens our conception of rationality far beyond the traditional boundaries yet never breaks faith with logic in the strictest sense 0 Art and music Explain Weaver39s god devil and charismatic terms quotGod Termsquot D so powerful that whatever you associate with them is automatically positive ex Patriotism change quotDevil Termsquotso powerful that whatever you associate with them is automatically negative ex Socialism war quotCharismatic Termsquot power resides in not being able to de ne them lack of true de nition ex Freedom What is resigni cation What is a truncated passive Resigni cation the process in which people reject the connotation of the symbol giving a word a new meaning also changing into a positive connotation Truncated passive sentences that use a passive verb in order to delete the agent ofacUon Instead of saying quotI broke the toyquot you would say quotthe toy was brokenquot and then you can leave out the words quotby mequot What did Foucault say about the rules that govern discourse Who speaks where and about what is governed by rules of discourse One could trace power by analyzing language The rules governing people places and topics are in constant ux Burke 1966 Terministic Screens What is the relationship between rhetoric and symbolic action Language rhetoric is a subset of symbolic action How does Burke de ne rhetoric The use of words used by human agents to form attitudes or induce actions in other human agents What is dramatism What is the pentad What are ratios Dramatism most wellknown for looks at human behavior like it is a play ONTOLOGIC not about how we know but how we are how we actually behave Pentad AAASP 0 Act in the center what they did Agent who does the act Scene wherezwhen it happens Agency how they do it Purpose why they did it 0000 Ratio 0 Comparison between two things in the pentad 20 possible used to de ne motivation dominating makes the most sense of explaining a particular act 0 Scene Act how does the scene affect the act 0 Church o 3 things pentadic analyses do for us 0 Can lead to understanding of the motives of the rhetor Reveal the personal orientation of that agent their world view 0 Get different perspectives on the same act get unique perspectives on an act see it in a different light 0 What is a terministic screen How do they functionWhat do they do Terministic screen a screen composed of terms through which humans perceive the world and that direct attention away from some interpretations and toward others They affect the way we view the world Selection what you actually select words are limiting re ection shows your world view de ection what39s on the outside what you39re not thinking of because of your view Can we avoid terministic screens Noooo Do terministic screens lead us into relativism Why or why not No because we are all human and we all understand reality through symbols Relative truth to me and truth to you Palczewski Ice and Fritch 2012 Chapter 4 What is the difference between argument1 and argument2 Argumentl argument as a thing the particular speech act in which one presents a claim and provides sufficient reasons to warrant assent to that claim 0 quota kind of utterance or a sort of communicative actquot 0 Argument 1 is a product 0 Because I said so 0 Forms the basis on which decisions are made Argument 2 argument as a form of interaction the way in which argumentas things and the people using them interact with each other 0 quota particular kind of interactionquot 0 Argument 2 is a process 0 The process through which decisions are made O39Keefe says there are two key characteristics of argument What are they Arguments are necessarily interactive Arguments are contingent within a context What is the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning Deductive general to speci c limited by being universall ALL OR NONE syllogisms Inductive speci c to general can never truly be valid because you39re always going to the future enumerated examples What forms does argument take in both rhetoric and dialectic Dialectic syllogism and enumerated examples Rhetoric enthymeme use as few links as possible and example Syllogism dialectic Enthymeme rhetoric What is the Toulmin Model Diagrams of how we argue QWhat is the Toulmin Model based on Jurisprudence QWhat are the parts of the simple and complex models Simple just data warrant claim Complex Data what are the facts What do we know for certain Warrant How do you come to the conclusion Claim What are you ultimately trying to prove Backing Why is the warrant itself true Quali er What do we need to add to the statement to make it more true likely probably Rebuttal UNLESS the warrant may not apply in this particular case OCan you diagram an argument in the Toulmin Model DWBCQR quotYou should do the dishes because I did the dishes last nightquot I did the dishes last night We alternate doing the dishes Because it39s more fair So you should probably do the dishes Unless you wanna go out to eat tonight What is a demonstrative argument What is a refutative argument Demonstrative something that is trying to prove if it is truefalse isis not Refutative seeks to undermine an existing claim that has already been stated tries to discredit a demonstrative argument What are presumption and burden of proof Presumption a predisposition to believe that a claim is correct until overwhelming evidence proves otherwise innocent until proven guilty Burden of proof the obligation to offer reasons suf cient to overcome presumption have to prove if something is rightwrong What are spheres of argument Branches of activity the grounds upon which arguments are built and the authorities to which arguers appeal OHow do they work QWhat are the three types according to Goodnight 0 Personal sphere the place where the most informal arguments occur among a small number of people involving limited demands for proof and often about private topics 0 No rules no time constraints 0 It is not preserved no preparation no expertise 0 Hanging out with friends 0 Technical sphere the argument sphere that has explicit rules for argument and is judged by those with speci c expertise in the subject 0 Advance a special kind of knowledge has to have expertise 0 Medical thing 0 Public sphere the argument sphere that exists to handle disagreements transcending personal and technical disputes o Affects a broad range of people the demands of proof are not as rigid as in technical argument or as uid as in personal argument 0 School board QWhat is the difference between them What are fallacies Can you nameidentify common ones quotAn argument in which the reasons advanced for a claim fail to warrant the acceptance of that claimquot Brydon amp Scott 2000 p 449 quotAn argument that seems sound without being soquot Max Black quotA fallacy claim asserts that an argument must by rejected because it violates a signi cant rule of argumentation relevant to the appropriate decision makersquot Rieke Sillars amp Peterson 2005 p 203 Flaw in logic because I said so Fallacies of Relevance Argumentum ad Bacuum quotThe fallacy of the big stickquot 0 I am right because I say so Argumentum ad Hominem quotAttack against the manquot 0 Homosapiens humans 0 You39re attack the person39s personality instead of the argument Argumentum ad Popuum quotThe bandwagon fallacyquot o The population is doing it 0 Everyone is doing this so should you Argumentum ad Traditio quotThe fallacy of traditionquot o Tradition 0 We39ve always done it this way so why change Argumentum ad Misercordium quotThe appeal to pity quot 0 They39re in misery o I failed this because I three other tests Component Fallacies Begging the Question Circular reasoning 0 Why is it my turn to do the dishes Bc we take turns Why did you do them last night 0 We should listen to the bible we know we can trust the bible because God wrote it Hasty Generalization Too quick to an inductive conclusion 0 Taking too little evidence 0 I failed the rst test so I m gonna fail every other test 0 Red Herring The fallacy of irrelevance o A detail that is irrelevant no bearing on the argument 0 Bad pictures to get them not to vote 0 Obama smoked weed in college has no effect on him now Straw Person Argument Simplify and refute 0 Reducing something down to being more simple than it is 0 Referring to someone as a gay politician but it s not their most de ning feature NonSequitur The conclusion doesn39t follow from the premises 0 Someone wrote a letter to the editor that said you shouldn39t dump dogs out on the road no one wonder you39re all on welfare Slippery Slope Conclusions get progressively worse o If we legalize marijuana it won t be long before heroine is legalized False dilemma More than two choicesoptions 0 There are way more options to choose between 0 False Analogy Things being compared are dissimilar 0 Trying to compare two things that aren39t really similar 0 Obama is the devil Post Hoc ergo Propter Hoc quotAfter the fact therefore because of the factquot o If you have two events A B Just because B happened after A doesn39t mean A caused it lvore Armstrong IA Richards
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