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MASON / Biology / BIOL 124 / How many electron shells can an electron occupy?

How many electron shells can an electron occupy?

How many electron shells can an electron occupy?

Description

School: George Mason University
Department: Biology
Course: Human Physiology & Anatomy I
Professor: Ray otto
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: chemical, bonds, Chemistry, basic, Biology, anatomy, college, class, 124, Bio, notes, handwritten, neat, organized, electron, Shells, iconic, stable, reactive, unreactive, forms, Of, Energy, factors, Enzymes, Reversibility, kinetic, potential, Electrical, mechanical, exergonic, and endergonic
Cost: 25
Uploaded: 09/07/2019
9 Pages 49 Views 1 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_ynwnhmdt4317-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_hhlazy94mjst-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hhlazy94mjst-0 0}.lst-kix_wzegpybnaulr-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wzegpybnaulr-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p1q0a6qbl2yn-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p1q0a6qbl2yn-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p1q0a6qbl2yn-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ebi5rye09mbp-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ebi5rye09mbp-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wzegpybnaulr-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ebi5rye09mbp-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ebi5rye09mbp-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_27jyezbil511-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hhlazy94mjst-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hhlazy94mjst-7}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pojely9ptk3q-5 0}.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pojely9ptk3q-6}.lst-kix_yen0b4a2885e-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yen0b4a2885e-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_yen0b4a2885e-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p1q0a6qbl2yn-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_31h9722os4qn-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_27jyezbil511-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_27jyezbil511-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_31h9722os4qn-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_31h9722os4qn-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_31h9722os4qn-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pojely9ptk3q-2 0}.lst-kix_27jyezbil511-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_27jyezbil511-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_27jyezbil511-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pojely9ptk3q-7}.lst-kix_hhlazy94mjst-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hhlazy94mjst-1,lower-roman) ". 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0}.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pojely9ptk3q-1 0}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kemmkfiql9ln-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kemmkfiql9ln-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kemmkfiql9ln-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_kemmkfiql9ln-0 > li:before{content:"- 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li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_hhlazy94mjst-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hhlazy94mjst-1 0}ul.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pojely9ptk3q-0 0}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nfs8stwg1jw5-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_hhlazy94mjst-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hhlazy94mjst-8 0}.lst-kix_wm6lsztra64r-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pojely9ptk3q-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pojely9ptk3q-7 0}ol.lst-kix_hhlazy94mjst-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hhlazy94mjst-2 0}.lst-kix_hhlazy94mjst-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hhlazy94mjst-0}ul.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wzegpybnaulr-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wzegpybnaulr-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wzegpybnaulr-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p59uboscip31-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p1q0a6qbl2yn-8 > 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Chapter 2: chemical bonds and reactionsWe also discuss several other topics like Who inspired the behaviorist revolution?

Chemical Bonds

  • Definition: energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms (interactions between electrons)
  • Atoms form molecules or compounds
  • 2+ atoms held together by chemical bonds
  • Molecule - 2+ same atoms
  • Compounds - 2+ different atoms

Electron shells

  • Electrons can occupy up to 7 electron shells

(energy levels) around the nucleus

  • Electrons in valence shell(outermost electron shell)
  • Have most potential energy
  • Are chemically reactive
  • Octet rule - (rule of eights)
  • Except for the 1rst shell (2 electrons) atoms interact to have 8 electrons in their valence shell

Stable and unreactive

  • When?
  • Valence shell fully occupied or contains 8 electrons

[noble gases]If you want to learn more check out Why is the role of inheritance important in the study of population?

Unstable and reactive

  • Valence shell - not full
  • Tend to gain, lose, or share electrons (form bonds) with other atoms to achieve stability
  • More electrons = more power

We also discuss several other topics like Why is it difficult to view a microorganism with bright-field microscope?

Types of chemical bonds

  • Ionic, covalent, hydrogen bonds

Ionic bonds

  • Ions - atom gains or loses electrons and becomes charged (number protons = number electron
  • Transfer of valence shell electrons from 1 atom to another forms ions
  • Anion (negative charge) - gained 1+ electrons
  • cation(positive charge) - lost  1+ electrons
  • Attraction of opposite charges result in an ionic bond
  • Usually between a metal and nonmetal
  1. Sodium gains stability by losing 1 electrons, and chlorine becomes stable by gaining 1
  2. After electron transfer, oppositely charged ions attract each other

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the fundamental unit of heredity?

Ionic bonds

  • Most ionic compounds formed are salts
  • Dry salts form crystals instead of individual molecules

Don't forget about the age old question of What is aqueous solution?

Covalent bonds: single

  • Formation of 4 single covalent bonds: carbon shares 4 electron pairs with 4 hydrogen atoms

If you want to learn more check out What are the participating countries in the berlin conference of 1884-85?

Covalent bonds: double

  • Formation of a double covalent bond: 2 oxygen atoms share 2 electron pairs

Covalent bonds: triple

  • Formation of a triple covalent bond: 2 nitrogen atoms share 3 electron pairs

Covalent bonds: nonpolar

  • Electrons shared equally
  • Produces electrically balanced, example CO2

        O = C = O

  • Equal pull - no one is winning

Covalent bonds: polar

  • Unequal sharing of electrons produces polar molecules
  • Small atoms with 6 or 7 valence shell electrons are electronegative
  • Most atoms with 1 or 2 valence shell electrons are electropositive

Review Chart!!!

iconic

Polar covalent

Nonpolar covalent

Complete transfer of electrons

Unequal sharing of electrons

Equal sharing of electrons

Separate ions (charged particles) form

Slight - charge at one end, slight + charge at other end

Charge balanced among atoms

Hydrogen bonds

  • Attractive force between electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule
  • Not true bond
  • Common between dipoles such as water
  • Act as intramolecular bonds, holding a large molecule in a 3 - dimensional shape

  • Very weak bonds
  • Common bonds between dipoles, like water forms a ‘firm’ of water [surface tension]
  • Important intramolecular bonds of proteins and DNA

Chemical reactions

  • Occurs when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
  • Represented as chemical equations using molecular formulas
  • Chemical equations contain
  • Reactants - number and kind of reacting substances
  • Products - substance created
  • Relative proportion of each reactant and product in balanced equations

Reactants                product

H + H                →         H2 (hydrogen gas)

4H + C                →         CH4 (methane)

        **Subscript indicates atoms joined by bonds prefix denotes number of unjoined

atoms or molecules

Types of chemical reactions

  • Synthesis / anabolic; decomposition / catabolic; exchange / anabolic and catabolic
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