PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY °Physical Geo. - Field of knowledge tht. Studies natural
features & phenomena on Earth in a spatial perspective Geography - Study of natural and human constructed
phenomeha relative to a spatial dimension Q Term most associated with a geographic out look?
DISCIPLINES of... Phys. Geography
Human water - hydrology
Social climate - Climatology
cultural living organo biogeography
Behavioral atmosphere weteorology
.° Important geographical explorers: Christopher Columbus,
Vasco da Gama, John Davis, Jacques Cartier, etc...
I Quantative revolution - (after 1950) of physical geo. when
measurement became the central focal point primarily used & for hypothesis testing * (models, maps, statistics, math)
• (1964) - William Pattison Journal of Geography
acadenuc traditions : Spatials Investigates phenomena of geography from a spatial perspective
Area drudies Geographical study locally, regionally, or global -Human- Lands Geo. study of human interaction w.the
2 We also discuss several other topics like What is the Law of definite proportions?
1 Earth Science ; study of natural phenomena in a soct
UNIFORMITARIANISM - Concept tht. the geographical processes of Earth have already been in continuous processes causing the Earth to be in its past i present conditions -rejects the idea of catastrophism
Phenomena of nature simplified to understand Structured set of related components which operate. together as a complex whole .
MASS Mass —
solar energy a
Don't forget about the age old question of Who was the composer of the opera DON GIOVANNI?
thermal energy Lithosphere
OPEN Sys; energy / mass pass through Ex i body
CLOSED Sys. I energy passes, mass is contained
ISOLATED . j energy/mass both contained MORPHILOGICAL i we understand relationships between elements attributes in a kauge way based on measured features.correlations. (Basically, we understand).
| CASCADING sys. Primarily interested in flow of energy matters
from one element to another a understand the cause process (We don't fully understand quantative relationships of this)
1 PROCESS RESPOND sys o mtegrates characteristics. Of.
morphological / Cascading. Can model processes with movement,
Storage, and transformation of energyl matter. (We fully understand )
Systenis have 3 types of properties with 4 elements | sun, plant, herbivore, carnivores
the main characteristic, or attribute, is units of energy
- last component that makes up the system is the o causel effect relationship between elements & Cottributes We also discuss several other topics like psy 101 exam 2
unts 10 units _EX SUN
Y GRASS 1000 ons Cowroo unti
*fluctuates valves M
o this describes average condition.
of a system, measured through one steadylsame valves lof its elements or attributes over a period If you want to learn more check out chem 211
of time Ex: Bucket of water, business sales, ldand ecosystems
THRESHOLDS s a big change in system I'Straw tht, broke camel's back 'Tipping point' Ex: soil erosion
after small event
• FEEDBACK - chal
CEDBACK - change in one component leads to change in second, then the change in second causes change in first
return to equilibrium
NATURE'S SELF REGULATION
INEGATIVE FEED. - Self regulating
after perturbation Aî BÎ AL.
POSITIVE FELD. - Sys. Keeps changing does NOT return to
M 3T AT
PERMA FROST - frozen permanently ice (is now warming ) CYCLES Earth (closed system) EX: CARBON CYCLE
Earth - solar sys.- Galaxy Galaxy Cluster - universe. TONE KILOMETER
- EARTH RADIUS - 6400 km 1-Distance to moon 400.000 km
- To sun 150,000,000 km - Radius of Solar Sys. 6x 109km (6 billion in the me
• EARTH in the Universe - Distance to next star 103 km
-Diameter of Milky way 10 km - Best telescopes see 1023 KM Don't forget about the age old question of baylor bic
Solid's has a shape, nothing can pass through |-Liquidi no definite shape, takes Shape Of Surrounding
- Gas i no shape at all, no definite volume
Plasmai no definite shape, no definite volume, Very fast If you want to learn more check out how were the gospels of charlemagne different from the ottonian manuscripts?
C (electrons separate from nucleus) Atoms i made of protons, neutrons, électrons 1) Positive electrical charge.(+) 2) Neutral-no charge 3) Negative charge
# of electrons = # of protons so atom electrically neutral Elements determined by protons
Nuclear Fission - break up nuclei and rearrange protons Inew trong become different elements Nuclear Fusion - Merge nuclei together
FORCES (4 types) electromagnetic jthings either positive or negative.(
t o attract), C+ + do not attracts 2-st Strong/weak; work within nucleos, more powerful than EM SO
Inuclei held together (smallest kole) 4 - Gravitational any two bodies attracted, strength depends on mass/distance = strongest Force beyond atonis scale
dominates at scales larger than molecules
• Origin of the Universe
Albert Einstein: Special relativity (universe getting byger or smaller) [Theory] -Edwin Huble (1920's) - galaxy moving away from us , expandling Cevidence] Implication: Universe started ting & is growing
• BIG BANG - 14 billion yrs. all of universe was in a very hot ball of pure energy .
-as energy expanded it cooled le=mc energy = mass (speed of light) - 9 First second subatomic particles formed, strong weak forces I created protons neutrons, form nuclei of hydrogen & deuterium (sometimes heliom). - continuous expansion? Cooling -When temp. dropped a few thousand degrees electromagnete force came into play - eletrons joined nuclel a atons Formed (Hydrogen, deuterium, helium, etc.)
Formation of Galaxies - some areas had more mass then gravity pulls the stuff together in to galaxy clusters Within these clusters, areas of higher dens Hy formed stars
ULTIMATE FATE OF UNIVERSE 1) theory of expansion continues forever. Cone shot onwerse) 2) theory if there's enough mass expansion will eventually Stop and gravity will contract it back into a small ball Canother Big Bang?)
• STARS - alittle bit of hydrogen helione plasma 1-50 dense the fusion occurs inside and release energy
Lightest elements (hydrogetheliom) created in initial Stage OF Big Bang
PLANET EARTH - Sun, Spinning disk of interstellar olust Igas ? some became earth
Blagers ; Core Ciron/nickle) - Mantle, Krust lighter elements loceanie: heavier) getements)
Moon- core joined Earth, mantle Flew of creating moon Cleading theory
Ocean early mantle 20% escaped during melting
about 4 billion yrs. ago
Atmosphere-gasses from mantle became the atmosphere 1-nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide , CO2 |-Oxygen came later - breakup of water Iphotosynthesis
• LIFE - we don't fully know how it orginated 1- Chemical changes led to comino acids, proteing DNA ERNA [replication 1- Amino acids created when stimulating lighting in ocean - Single cell organism, then photosynthesis 1 ozone blocks ultraviolet rachation allowing living things to survive above water.
- Life and atmosphere changed each other
Excoluton-Led to diversity, Variation, surin val of the fittest, ladaptation NA TURAL SELECTION
EARTH'S INTERIOR Core - inner core Cirond solid, outer core (liguid tron) MANTLE - lower (solid), Asthenosphere, Upper (sólid) Crust - oceanic I continental.
thosphere -upper most mantle in crust -
TRADIOACTIVE DECAY causes heat of core, some isotope of potassium unstable, decays, becomes isotope of Argon. - Uranium, thoniam potassium lare radioactivegenerate heat, driving tectonic processes
of Rate of decay predictable
-Half life time for half of substance to decay itime .. varies by iso tope
EX 100g potassium isotope i one half life 15.50 g potassium
50g of argon 1-2 half lives 25g pot. & 15g argon!
3 half lives 12.59 pot. ? 87.59 argon Ussher counted begats" came up with 4,004 B.C. largely Shapec by noah's flood
• Hutton, uniformitarianism tarthage 4.6 billions