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CSU / Astronomy / AA 100 / When is the earth closest to the sun?

When is the earth closest to the sun?

When is the earth closest to the sun?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Astronomy
Course: Introduction to Astronomy
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: seasons, eclipses, solar eclipses, lunar eclipses, moon, phases, moonrise, moonset, sidereal month, synodicmonth, Solstices, and equinoxes
Cost: 25
Name: Astronomy 100 Notes Weeks 2 & 3
Description: These notes cover all material from weeks 2 and 3 in class.
Uploaded: 09/13/2019
3 Pages 112 Views 3 Unlocks
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Seasons 4.2Don't forget about the age old question of What is the battle of little bighorn all about?

Misconception - Earth is closer to the sun in summer and farther in winter - not true!If you want to learn more check out What are the four goals of the 1976 constitution?

When is the Earth actually closest to the sun?

        Perihelion: ~ January 3         Aphelion: ~ July 4

        (closest) (sun)                (furthest)(sun)

  • Peri = closest in orbit        helion: in reference to sun
  • AP = farthest in orbit                (during orbit around the sun)

If you want to learn more check out What are the seven characteristics of intamcy?

Cause of Seasons

  • Earth’s tilt on its axis (23.50) causes seasons
  • Summer - Hemisphere tilted toward sun
  • Hemi tilted toward sun = more direct sunlight and longer periods of sunlight = hotter temperatures
  • Winter - hemisphere tilted away from sun
  • Hemi tilted away from sun = indirect sunlight and shorter periods of light = colder

Different planetary tilts = different types of seasons

  • Jupiter = 30 tilt = less extreme seasons
  • Uranus = 980 tilt = very extreme difference in seasons

Don't forget about the age old question of Why do more electronegativity, the better a negative charge is held?

Progression of Seasons

Solstices: first day of summer and winter

  • Summer solstice - longest day of the year
  • Winter solstice - shortest day of year

Equinoxes: first day of fall and spring

  • Same length day - 12 hour light, 12 hour dark

If you want to learn more check out How to convert decimal numbers to other bases?

Sun’s Path in the Sky

  • Rises in East, sets West
  • Highest at ~noon in the sky (changes temporarily with daylight savings)

Analemma - the sun’s position at the same time each day

  • Solstices at each end of the Analemma

We also discuss several other topics like What is a scientific theory that can change over time?

Measuring Sun’s altitude with shadows

  • Maximum altitude of ecliptic changes throughout year
  • Length of shadows of stationary objects can determine sun’s altitude in different seasons

Changing sun direction

  • Summer  solstice - sun rises further to the North
  • Equinoxes - sun rises due East
  • Winter solstice - sun rises a little further south

Seasons around the world

Season at the poles

  • Always cold; seasons = difference between day and night
  • Summer = circumpolar sun; winter = 24 hours darkness

Tropics

  • Always how; seasons = rainy vs. dry
  • Sun can be at zenith in the tropics (equinoxes)

Mid - latitudes

  • Four seasons

Pictures: Black portion = right side of moon

White portion = lit / visible side on moon from Earth

Our Moon / Lunar Phases 4.5

  • Orbital period = 27.3 days = sidereal month (near circular orbit)
  • Perigee - moon appears slightly bigger because it’s closer
  • Apogee - appears slightly smaller because it’s farther from Earth

Wandering Moon

  • Moves .50 per hour to the east
  • (moves the diameter of one moon per hour)
  • Allows for rather quick movement across sky over several days

Moon Phases

  • Complete phase cycle = 29.5 = synodic month
  • Month = “moon”th
  • Phase names

  • Waxing = light on right side of moon (slowing)
  • Waning = light on left side of moon (shrinking)
  • Misconception - the moon’s phases are caused by the earth’s shadow - not true!!
  • Phases are caused by the moon’s angle to the sun and Earth

Crescent Moons                                        Gibbous Moons

  • Always found near the sun                        view from Earth

Moon’s Rotation

  • The moon does rotate
  • Rotate at the same speed that it revolves Earth
  • Therefore we only see one side of the moon = tidally locked

Moonrise / moonset

  • Moon can be visible during the day
  • New moon is only “visible” during the day
  • Not actually visible, just above the horizon
  • Moonrise / moonset times depend on the phase

Estimating Moonrise / Moonset

        Using given moonrise / moonset worksheets from class

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