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HUNTER / OTHER / BIOL 150 / What is cellular differentiation?

What is cellular differentiation?

What is cellular differentiation?


School: Hunter College of the City University of New York
Department: OTHER
Course: Forensic Biology
Professor: Saranna belgrave
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Forensic, Biology, and forensicbiology
Cost: 50
Name: Bio 150, Exam 1 review sheet
Description: Covers modules 1 and 2.
Uploaded: 09/14/2019
7 Pages 14 Views 8 Unlocks

BIO 150: Forensic Biology Fall  2019

What is cellular differentiation?

Exam 1: Modules 1 & 2

Review Sheet

*Order of Life:

•life is very ordered

•organisms are complex & even single cellular ones are complex in their own  way.

•cellular differentiation-(define this)-The process by which a cell becomes  specialized in order to perform a specific function, as in the case of a liver cell,  a blood cell, or a neuron.

What is a stimulus?

Any change in the environment which garners a reaction from an organism.  

What is chemotaxis?

The movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.  

What is phototaxis?

The movement of an organism towards or away from a light source.  

What is the difference between external stimuli and internal stimuli? (Be able to  identify examples of each).

Internal stimulus  a stimulus from within the body  

Ex: Hunger, thirst, sleep, blood PH, temperature, hormone levels

What is the importance of homeostasis?

External stimulus  a stimulus from the environment  

Ex: toughing a hot surface, seeing someone yawn

Define: Homeostasis. Why is it important?

Homeostasis  towards stable equilibrium, maintained by physiological processes. It is important because certain processes in the body will not function properly and  cells in the body depend on that.

Give 1 reason why reproduction in organisms is important. Reproduction is important in organisms because it allows genes to be passed down  to the next generation.

What is adaptation?

Adaptation is how an organism evolves or changes (biologically, physically, or  behaviorally) to fit its environment to increase their chances of survival.  

What usually fuels (pushes it to occur) adaptation?

Adaptation is fueled through the process of natural selection where more favorable  genes are passed down to offspring for survival.  

How does biological evidence help a forensic scientist?

We also discuss several other topics like pastritis

Why is adaptation important?

Adaptation improves the chances of reproduction and survival for a species.

BIO 150: Forensic Biology Fall  2019

Give an example of a structural adaptation in an animal, plant or insect. 1. The Thorny Devil uses its scales to collect moisture from the air in the arid  desert environment.  We also discuss several other topics like psci rumors

Give 1 example of a behavioral adaptation in an animal, plant or insect. 1. Flying squirrel glides from tree to tree to look for food and avoid predators.

Are genes the only thing that impacts the growth and development of an organism?  Explain.

The growth and development of an organism is also determined by their  environment. This happens because the expression of genes in an organism can be  influenced such as light, temperature, drugs, and chemicals.  

*Remember this hierarchy: Atom--> Macromolecule--> Organelle-- >Tissue--> Organ Systems

What is biological evidence? How does it help a forensic scientist? Biological evidence is samples of biological material. It helps a forensic  scientist by being a source of DNA, allowing individuals to be linked to a crime  scene.  

Give 4 things that can be collected as biological evidence:

1. Blood  

2. Semen  

3. Skin cells  

4. Urine  

Identify 1 advantage of biological evidence in determining "whodunnit"? Biological evidence could contain DNA.

Are there multiple branches of toxicology? List 1 branch other than post mortem  toxicology.

1. Analytical (Applied, Clinical, Environment, Reproductive and developmental)

What is the main focus of postmortem toxicology (what is mainly analyzed)? Analysis of biological samples.  

What is the main focus of seized drugs analysis (toxicology)?

Physical evidence collection and characterization such as pills and powders.  

*We discussed main goals of postmortem toxicology. What questions does  this branch help determine? If you want to learn more check out baseball study guide

1. What was taken?

2. When was it taken?

3. How much was taken?

4. Did this substance contribute to cause of death?


BIO 150: Forensic Biology Fall  2019

1. Manner of death

2. 2.Mechanism of death

Define: xenobiotic

Substances that are foreign to the body (any substance, not just poison).  

Define: drug

A compound that caused a physiological effect.  

Define: poison

A substance that when ingested results in a toxic or damaging physiological  response.  

Who is Mary Anne Cotton, who did she poison and what did she use to kill? Mary Anna Cotton was a serial killer who killed 21 people is also called the  Angel of Death. She poisoned her children and husbands with arsenic.  

What is "inheritance powder"?

Arsenic used to kill someone to get money.  

Arsenic was used to create what color?


List 2 items that this particular arsenic generated color was used to make: 1. Cake dye  

2. Wallpaper  

Who is Mathieu Orfila and why is he important to prosecuting poison cases in the  1800's?

Mathieu Orfila studied chemical forensics, specifically arsenic. He used the Marsh  Test which was able to detect small amounts of arsenic in food, tissues, or stomach  contents.  

What test did Mathieu Orfila use to identify the cause of death in the Marie Lafarge  murder case?

The Marsh Test.  

What is the key indicator created as the product of the test used by Mathieu  Orfila to determine presence of arsenic in Marie Lafarge's dead husband? Arsenic was deposited as a black “mirror” (soot) on any part of the tube by being  heated.  We also discuss several other topics like what submicroscopic particles are the building blocks of matter

List 3 reasons why arsenic is an ideal poison to use in food?

1. No color  

2. No odor  

3. Tasteless  

What is an isotope? How many does Arsenic have?

An isotope is a different form of the same element that has the same number of  protons, but a different number of neutrons.

BIO 150: Forensic Biology Fall  2019

Arsenic has 33 known isotopes.  

What is a covalent bond? List 2 characteristics of them.

 A Covalent bond is a type of chemical bond between two or more atoms.  1. They do not dissociate in water  

2. Low melting and boiling points  

What is the difference between a polar bond and non-polar bond? Be able to  recognize a polar bond versus a non-polar bond

In a polar bond, the electrons shared by the atoms spend more time closer to one  nucleus than to the other nucleus.  

In a non-polar bond, they form between two atoms of the same element or between different elements that share the electrons equally.  

Is arsenic only used to poison people? Or does it have other socially acceptable  uses? Don't forget about the age old question of psy 320

Arsenic is also used in industry and pesticides and Arsenic Trioxide is used as an  anti-cancer chemotherapy drug.  

What are 2 other socially acceptable (without homicidal intent) uses of arsenic? Industry and pesticides.  

List 3 things that can affect a drugs ability to be toxic.

1. Tolerance  

2. Dosage  

3. Combination of drugs  

Look at the graph below. The "Effective dose" is also considered the "Therapeutic  dose". Be sure to understand the relationship between dose and response as it  relates to toxicity.

We also discuss several other topics like tcu accounts payable

List 3 modes of entry for a drug.

1. Inhalation  

2. Oral  

3. IM Injection

BIO 150: Forensic Biology Fall  2019

List 2 contributing factors to toxicity in poisoning.

1. Individual metabolism  

2. Tolerance  

We had a lot of discussion around the level of toxicity and how important dose is for  opiates and opiods. Please look at the picture below and identify the drug that has  the most toxicity given the displayed dose.

What are opiates derived from?  

Poppy seed pods of the opium plant.  

Give 1 example of an opiate.

1. Morphine

What is the difference between an opiate and opioid.

An opiate is naturally occurring and an opioid is a synthetic opiate.  

What effect does the drug naloxone have on opioids?

It immediately reverse the effects of opioids.  

What does the acronym ADME stand for?

A  Administration  

D  Distribution  

M  Metabolism  

E  Excretion  

Look at the graph below: be familiar with what the arrows are pointing to and what  they mean.

BIO 150: Forensic Biology Fall  2019

What is a metabolite?

A metabolite is a product of metabolism.  

What can metabolites tell us about a death caused by a drug?

Drug metabolites can be found outside the body.  

Where in the body is the primary location for the metabolism of drugs? The Liver  

List 3 places in the body that drug metabolites can be found.

1. Urine  

2. The brain  

3. Hair (and nails)

Where is vitreous humor located in the body?

The eye

What is a key advantage of vitreous humor collection when testing for drug  metabolites?

Is a reliable sample when other tissues have begun decomposition.  

Look at the image below and identify where the vitreous humor is by placing an "X"  over it.

BIO 150: Forensic Biology Fall  2019

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