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PENN STATE BEHREND / Engineering / WFS 209 / What is the meaning of fishery?

What is the meaning of fishery?

What is the meaning of fishery?


School: Penn State Behrend
Department: Engineering
Course: Wildlife and Fisheries Conservation
Professor: Paola ferreri
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: conservation, wildlife, 209, and WFS209
Cost: 50
Name: WFS 209 Study Guide 1
Description: This study guides covers all of the terms learned over the first few weeks of the course for EXAM 1. Subjects include genetics, history of conservation, and ecology.
Uploaded: 09/14/2019
4 Pages 98 Views 2 Unlocks

EXAM 1: WFS 209

What is the meaning of fishery?


DAY 1:

1. Fishery: system composed of 3 interacting components 

a. Biota: living organism in ecosystem (fish, plankton, insects, birds etc), often a  target species

b. Habitat: environment including both abiotic and biotic components where the  organism lives 

c. People: direct & indirect users of resources

i. ­direct user: people that contribute to/directly use system (fishing, 

birdwatching etc)

ii. ­indirect user: people that manage/effect habitat for another purpose and  effect system (ex: farmer using fertilizer)

What is the meaning of biota?

2. Target species: such as largemouth bass, lobsters, whales, snapping turtles etc. 3. Consumptive Users: organism harvested/removed from habitat (hunting/farming) 4. Non­Consumptive: organism “used” but not removed from habitat (birdwatching/hiking) 5. Game Species: used/harvested for food, pelt, or sport ex: black bear, elk, deer a. Fur bearers: fox, raccoons, skunks

b. Small game hares, crows, squirrels

6. Non­Game: everything else (ex: bald eagle)

Q1: What is not wildlife?

­feral pigs

­llamas on farm

7.     Values: regard that something is held to deserve (importance/worth)

What is the meaning of habitat in the fishery?

8. Benefit: advantage/profit gained If you want to learn more check out What are the 12 principles of all biological organisms?

DAY 2:

1. Values/Profits from Wildlife and Fisheries 

a. Jobs: created due to tourism and other industries created by WF (wildlife/fisheries) b. Food: fisheries provide high quality/low fat proteins

c. Cultural Identity: Native Americans, commercial fishing towns, family tradition d. Aesthetic: beauty/appreciation 

e. Ecological Value: vital role in functioning of ecosystem, used to monitor quality of  environment, tool for education

2. Endothermic: control internal body temperature by using aerobic metabolism (ex: birds,  mammals)

a. Few young, more parental investment (better chance of survival)

3. Ectothermic: temperature regulated by outside conditions (reptiles, amphibians)

a. Many young, no/minimal parental investment (less survive)

4. Determinate growth: grow to adult size and don’t change (mammals and birds) 5. Indeterminate growth: can grow throughout life if conditions are optimal (fish)

DAY 3: We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the hydrosphere?

1. Science: process of obtaining knowledge 

a. Ex: learning migratory patterns

2. Management: art and science of manipulating biota, habitat, or human users to produce a  desired result

a. Ex: producing more food at commercial fishery

3. Conservation: effective management and use of natural resources

4. Biology: the study of living things

5. Ecology: the study of interrelationships of organisms with other organisms  6. Biodiversity: the applied science of managing the Earth’s biodiversity a. Biodiversity: the diversity of life at all levels of ecological organization  7. Era of Abundance (1600’s to mid 1800’s)

a. Abundance of natural resources and few consumers We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of cytology?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main types of rewards?

b. Resources “in­exhaustible)

c. Harvesting wildlife, found a variety of species in high #’s

8. Era of Over Exploitation (1850­1899)

a. North America transformed (cities and industrialization)

b. Wildlife populations declines

c. Habitats modified, repeating firearms, transportation, markets for wildlife 9. Beginning of Conservation (mid 1800’s) 

a. Resources dwindling 

b. George Marsh identified the cause, humans 

c. John Muir wanted National Park Creation, led to Yellowstone (first park) d. Development of government agencies such as Fish and Fisheries, precursor to  Fish and Wildlife, led to growth of fish populations (culture in lab)

e. Forest Resource Act (1891): president given authority to set aside western lands  as national forest reserves

10. Era of Protection (1900­1929)

a. Theodore Roosevelt president

b. Increase of land in forest reserves 

c. Pelican Island Fed Bird Reserve, shorebirds hunted for feathers

d. Antiquities Act of 1906: president authority to set aside historical, archeological,  or scenic value as national monuments. We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between primary and secondary sources?

e. U.S Forest Service (1905)

f. National Park Service (1912)

g. Growth of conservation organization, non­profits, private organizations h. Preservationist: philosophers, uses of nature, not just for food, spiritual value  (Henry David Thoreau), nature has intrinsic value

i. Resource Conservation View: or Utilitarian view

j. Gifford Pinchot: use resources and benefit but allow future generations to use it

k. “Greatest good for the greatest number of people in long run”

11. Era of Game Management (1930­1960)

a. Dust bowl (1930s)

b. 1930: FDR president, Civilian Conservation Corps plant trees and develop  parks/recreation Don't forget about the age old question of What are the differences between passive transport, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, active transport, and mass transport?

c. Aldo Leopold: made recommendations for research and management, founder of  American wildlife management

12. Federal Bird Hunting Stamp Act (1934): waterfowl hunter buys “duck stamps” to  generate funds manage refugees 

13. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of (1937): Pittman Robertson Act, tax on guns  and ammo to fund management for recreation (ex: land inquisition, research, and wildlife intro)

14. Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act of (1950): Dingell­Johnston Act, 10% excise  tax on sales of fishing rods, reels, lures, baits, files to manage fisheries.

a. Shift from max sustainability yield to optimum sustainability yield 15. Aldo Leopolds: “a sand county almanac published” in 1949 

a. Key things in wildlife still used today 

b. Predator importance 

c. Land ethic

16. Era of Environmental Management (1960­1980): 

a. Rachael Carson wrote “Silent Spring” talked about harm of fertilizer  b. Rise in environmental concern 

i. Earth Day

ii. Environmental protection agency (1972)

iii. Clean air and water act

iv. Wilderness Act of 1964: mandates preservation in a natural state of large  tracts of remote, federal lands

v. Endangerment Act of 1973: list endangered species, threatened and make  plans to recover

vi. Looking at environmental problems as global issues 1980’s 

vii. Montreal Protocol (1987)

viii. Kyoto Protocol on Global Climate Climate (1997)

DAY 4:

1. Ecology: the study of interrelationships of organisms with other organisms and the  environment

2. Individual: one organism

3. Population: group of interacting individuals of the same species in the same basic place 4. Metapopulation: a set of geographically separate sub­populations of the same species connected by dispersal

5. Community: an interacting assemblage of different species occupying a particular area a. The biotic portion of ecosystem

6. Ecosystem: interacting system of biotic and abiotic components in a particular area 7. Landscape: A mosaic of connected ecosystems

8. Biosphere: the global ecosystem, entire portion of earth inhabited by life 9. Species: must be able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring

10. Biological species concepts: specie are naturally occurring groups of individuals that can  successfully interbreed and produce fertile offspring 

11. Requisites of life 

a. Energy and nutrients

b. Space for activities and lifecycle

c. Suitable abiotic conditions

12. Law of tolerance: abiotic factors can be present in to little or too large amounts where it  can limit success

13. Individual Tolerance Range: range of intensities of a particular factor in which an  organism can survive 

14. Optimum range: range of intensities within the tolerance range where an organism  function best 

15. Preferendum: intensity of factor

16. Individual/Biological Variation: variation in a trait exhibited amount individuals of a  population (due to genetic variation)

a. Varies across populations and individuals

b. Tolerances also vary among species

17. Specialist: species that can use a wide variety of resources/conditions

18. Fundamental Niche: entire range of abiotic conditions and resources within which an  individual (or pop) can survive in the absence of biotic constraints 

DAY 5:

1. Genetics: DNA, genes and relationships of traits

a. Inheritance and variation

2. Gene: unit of heredity on a chromosome which singly or in groups, determine expression  of structure, behavior, physiology of organism.

3. Diploid: 2 sets of chromosomes

a. Each chromosome has 1 allele for given gene

4. Allele: alternative form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific  chromosome

5. Locus: location of a particular gene on a chromosome

6. Genotype: specific genetic info of individual (AA, Aa, aa)

7. Gene Pool: all genetic components/alleles in population

8. Gene/allele frequencies: proportion of alleles in a population that are of a particular type 9. Phenotype: physical expression of genetic traits, product of genetics and environment 10. Natural Selection: non­random process where biological traits become more or less  common due to differential reproduction of bearers

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