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TEXAS A&M / OTHER / LAND / Humans evolved socially through controlling their environment, fire, w

Humans evolved socially through controlling their environment, fire, w

Humans evolved socially through controlling their environment, fire, w


School: Texas A&M University
Department: OTHER
Course: History of Landscape Architecture
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Neolithic age, Paleolithic era, GreeekandRoman, Studyguide, StudyGuide1, exam1, LAND240, Landscape Architecture, TexasA&M, and TexasA&MUniversity
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide LAND240 Exam 1
Description: These Notes cover the Prehistoric Era, Neolithic Era, and Greek and Roman Era. including vocab for every chapter
Uploaded: 09/14/2019
23 Pages 2 Views 6 Unlocks

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

Humans evolved socially through controlling their environment, fire, weapon making, art, religion, and spiritual, is what?

Prehistoric Period  

Landscape Evolution  

Landskip (Pre 17th  

Century) 

Landschap (17th Century)  

Landshaft (18th Century) 

- English  

- Raw wilderness, graceful portrayal of nature

- “A portion of land that  the eye can catch and  

comprehend at a  


- 2D

- Dutch  

- Began to refer to non  

-human aspects of the  

landscape and spatial  

design of man-made  


- “Rural, agricultural,  

man-made building  

scene mixed with a  

balanced nature”  

- 3D

- German

- Working community and  surroundings  

- “Reshaping Lands” to a  structured society  

- 3D

What is mesolithic?

Don't forget about the age old question of What does an animal need to eat to survive?
We also discuss several other topics like What viscosity means?

The Shaping of Space and Place  

- Space takes on a series of canvases which can encompass:  

- Cultural Values of a specific time/ place  

Who was father of city planning and layouts, first urban planner?

- Artistic expressions of style  

- Philosophies  

- Aesthetic ideas/ creativity  

- Place is more intimate where humans and nature can interact  

- Landscape is an evolving narrative of the concept of a place  We also discuss several other topics like What is the best type of representation?

- The investment of nature with purposeful order and meaning (expressive form and  significance)

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

Prehistoric Time Periods  

- Prehistoric Time Periods include, The Paleolithic Era, The Mesolithic Era, and The Neolithic  Era, all eras were before any written system was invited.  

Paleolithic (The Oldest Stone  Age - 40,000-8000 BC)

Mesolithic (Middle Stone  Age - 10,000-4500 BC)

Neolithic (Newest Stone  Age - 8000-1500 BC)

Adaptive Era → primitive means  - Cave paintings  

- Hunting and Gathering  

- Some Adaptive surroundings  like making fires, some  

language development  

- Simple tools for hunting

Nomadic → moving around for  food

- Pottery, Cave paintings  

- Hunting and gathering,  

started storing food  

- Sedentary villages, more  advanced tools, bow and  arrow, near rivers

We also discuss several other topics like Why are women’s rights and human rights issues like slavery often discussed together?

Sedentary → permanent  villages and livestock/  agriculture

- Pottery, wood carving,  buildings like tombs  

- Farming, permanent  villages, more developed  agriculture  

- More advanced shelters  and complex tools made of more expensive materials  (copper, bronze)

Early Geographic Region Development  

- Natural reasons as to why the civilizations developed where they did and how it shaped  the Earth and landscape of different areas throughout the world.  If you want to learn more check out what is city democracy?

- Continental Drift → the idea of Pangea breaking apart and separating, creating our separate  continents

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Volcanism → forming volcanoes and volcanic activity  

- Terrestrial Folding/ Uplifting (tectonic plate movement) →

tectonic plate  

- Erosion → the natural shaping of soils, rocks, earth features

due to weather phenomena  

- Alluvial Formation → soil that’s perfect for farming, collection

of sediments located in sites that were subject to flash floods,

serves as a major source of life in many settlements.  

Human Adaptation  

- Human evolved from Africa and migrated into different continents and adapted to their  surroundings

- Humans showed signs of social structure and stability including weapon collecting, and boat making - Humans evolved socially through controlling their environment, fire, weapon making, art, religion,  and spiritual. Don't forget about the age old question of What is Bayes Classifier?

Human Adaptation to the Landscape  

- Multiple ways that humans used the landscape to their advantage and developed this societies around such landforms  

- Microlith

- Minute shaped flint, spears  

- Early forms of weapons included, small spears and

arrowheads, cutting tools  

- Megalith (Dolmens)  

- Dolmens: Large stones being used for constructing

structures or monuments (tombs)  

- table type (taller, flat surface on top), go-table type

(checkerboard, multiple support rocks, flat on top, body

underground), stone covered (stone covered grave),

transformative table type  

- Didn't begin until the Neolithic Period

The Human and Spiritual Relationship within the Landscape  

- Multiple ways that humans used the landscape to their advantage and developed this  societies around such landforms  

- Old World Caves  

- Paleolithic Caves  

- Symbolic cave art  

- Rituals for fertility  

- Transferring knowledge

- Hunting  

- Assertion of family powers

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Lascaux Caves (pictured)  

- Dordogne region France  

- Caves with many humans and animals drawn

- Cosquer Cave  

- Marseilles, France  

- Sea level was lower, icecaps on land (melted now)  

- Cave is now accessible through a tunnel because the cave is submerged  

- Stencils of human hands have been found and were the first negative space  drawings

- Cave can now be assessed through a long tunnel now (⅘ of the cave is  


- Stencils of human hands (55 stencils, first found, negative space drawing)


- Chauvet Cave  

- Ardèche Region, Rhode Island,


- Closed but replicated  

- Wombs of the Earth (Sanctuary Cave)


- Tai Hang Mountains, China  

- First worship and burial areas  

- Paleolithic Art  

- Human with Feline Head  

- 30,000-26000 BC

- Mammoth Ivory  

- 11 ⅝”  

- Unsure of its origins (creature,

human with mask, god?)  

- Venus of Willendorf (pictured)  

- 28000-24000BC

- Limestone

- 4 ⅜”  

- Apparent large size of breasts and abdomen, plus detailed reproductive arts → fertility symbol, ideal women

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Two Bison

- 15000-10000BC (theory)  

- Unbaked Clay  

- 25-26”  

- Premating ritual  

- Spotted Horses and Human Hands


- 25000-24000BC; hands 15000BC


- Paint on Limestone  

- Individual. Horses 5”  

- Domesticating animals  

- Hall of Bulls  

- 15000BC

- Paint on Limestone  

- 18’ Bulls

- Included some star charts linking bison and migration patterns  

- Bison

- 12500BC

- Paint on Limestone  

- 8’3

- First cave found with prehistoric paintings  

- Mimis and Kangaroo (pictured)

- Aboriginal  

- Red, yellow, and white pipe clay

- 16000-7000BC

- Believing that everything is going on at

once past, present, future

- Mimis are hunting kangaroos and taught people how to hunt  

- The Genius Loci  

- The Spirit of that place  

- The idea of deities of a place  

- The natural world is embedded with divinity, so the spirit is embodied in  nature

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Paleolithic Non-Cave Shelter

- Mammoth Bone Houses (pictured)  

- Skeletal remains of woolly


- 12000BC

- Circular or oval huts 15-20ft width  

Cosmological Landscapes  

- Multiple ways that humans used larger areas of the landscape for research and/or  unknown reasons as to every usage of these creations  

- Newgrange Ireland  

- 3200BC

- 250ft wide mount with recessed chambers, cremation  

- Sun rises right in from of it  

- Decor: curbstone card with spiral motifs/ marks on the entrance  

- Illuminating the central chamber during winter solstice for symbolic burial sites  - Stonehenge (pictured)  

- 2950BC-1600BC

- Built by different groups of people at

different times  

- Evolved from earthen embankment →

wooden structure → To stone stacks

- All the stones face northeast (towards

the sunrise)

- Burial mounds of families who built,

facing Stonehenge (400+)

- Winter solstice celebrated because of

the light shines through the rocks as

does the moon at its highest point

(could've been used for a calendar)  

- Nazca Lines (pictured)

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Geoglyphs  

- Peru 200 BC

- Intended to act as an observatory to point

to the places on the horizon where the sun

rises (intended for their gods to see them)  

- Cannot fully observe the art shape of lines

unless you are in an aerial position  

- Carnac Stones  

- France 3300BC

- Menhirs: upright standing stone  

- Largest collection of menhirs  

- 3 major groups of Menhirs  

- Menec alignment → straight

lines of menhirs (pictured)

- Kermario alignment → curvy

lines of menhirs  

- Petit menec alignment →

natural style of menhirs  

- Well preserved with multiple family’s

efforts to preserve the stones shape

and design  


Neolithic Period  

Neolithic Era (8000-1500BC)  

- Moving towards a more sedentary way of life  agriculture and animal domestication helped the  transition  

- The shaping of the landscape to become sedentary and the usage of natural resources was a vital  part of the city’s development in the future  

- Functional artwork was coming into existence because of the human development  - Beginning to form social structure (hierarchy)  creating surplus was a huge step in the creation of  a stable town  

- Went from Villages  towns  cities  

- The formation of a writing system began

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

The Agricultural Development  

- Larger populations  

- Domestication of plants

- The range of environments that plants had to endure was an adaptive process  - Spreading agriculture worldwide from multiple locations with arable soil  

Advantages of Sedentary Living

Costs of Sedentary Living

Steady food supply for village  

Greater sustained populations and continuity of settlement  

Organized societies

Heavily dependent on crops (starvations incur) Depleted topsoil  

Diseases from animals and humans spread  faster and the inability to leave the site

The Neolithic Landscape and Urban Settlements  

- First town Development  

- Cedric Price described the city as an egg metaphorically showing different stages of  development of a city  

- Boiled  castle as a wall  

- Fried  expansion  

- Scrambled  complex and dynamic  

- Natural World Determinants VS Man Made Determinants  

Natural World Determinants

Man Made determinants

Topography, Climate, Water supply and soil  yield, materials for construction  

Rivertown, Hills and Valleys, Flat, Alluvia  Area, Island, Peninsula

Economies, defense, pre-existing boundaries,  religious activities, political positions, aesthetic,  trading access

- Organic Growth VS Planned Growth

Organic Growth

Planned growth settlements

- Chaotic growth  

- Permanent water supply and food  sources

- Wasn't planned → relied on natural  occurrences  

- Located on higher ground for defensive  situations

- Trading/ marketplace

- Laid out and planned  

- Social, political, economic reasons  - Fortified towns

- Resettled if population  

exceeded boundaries

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

The City Emerges  

The Neolithic settlements showed hierarchy in space arrangements, a theocratic rule  

Jericho - Palestine  


“City of Palm Trees”  

Oldest Neolithic “City”

Catal Huyuk - Turkey  (7500BC-4500BC)

Zawi Chemi Shanidar - Iraq

(8640 BC)

Jarmo - Iraq


- 10-acre site, 3000  


- Mud structures still  


- Massive rocks/ town  wall around the  


- 700 ft below sea  


- 32 Acres, 6000  


- Mud structures → Close structures  

almost fortress  

like without doors

or infrastructure,  

doors are located

on the rooftops,  

livestock around  

the periphery

- Art: Landscape  

volcanic Eruption  

→ first landscape  


- 3000 ft above  

sea level

- Paleolithic Cave  with village  


- Rounded shaped structures  

- Shared open  


- Stone tool  


- Domesticated  

animals and  


- 2000 ft above  

sea level

- Agricultural  

community wheat,  

barley, acorns plus  

livestock goats, pigs,  


- Oldest sites with  


- Sundried mud and  

stone foundations for  

housing  20-25  

houses (7 people/unit)  

- Advanced housing  

development (divided  


- Courtyards for shared  workspaces  

- 2000 ft above sea level

Mesopotamian Settlements  

Settlements around the Tigris and Euphrates River (6000BC)  

- Floodplain culture  

- Alluvial Soil and Fertile Crescent  

- City Layout  

- Larger settlements around the regional center  

- Larger public buildings with streets leading to them  

- Irrigation  

- Cities  

- Sumerian & Assyrian  

- Ur, Uruk, Erbil  

- City States (Central Cities+ Surrounding Villages)  

- First-Urban Revolution (4000BC-500AD)

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Economic development  

- Social class division emerges  

- Larger religious worship areas


- Religious Beliefs

- Ziggurats were located around the central location or on a separated area from the city for worshiping and accessing the axis mundi, constructed of clay and

brick which were permeable to water, expressed the relationship between humans and the multi-spirited nature

- Animism was a belief that nature, animals, and

elements of nature had spirits and lived in harmony with humans  

- Sumerian City of Uruk (4000BC)  

- 50000-80000 people

- Walled area of 1500 acres and known to be

one of the largest and oldest cities in the


- Shifted from agriculture village to urban

center with bureaucracy, military, and

societal structure  

- Broken into districts  

- The Eanna district is walled off for

buildings with workshops  

- The center of the village  

- Sumerian City of Ur (2332 BC) 

- Religious architecture at the center (not

separated from other districts)  

- Birthplace of Abraham in theory  

- City structure consisted of  

- Hives of residential activity around

religious precincts  

- Massive gates and walls surrounding

the city  

- Open courtyards for gathering

(religious or social)

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Assyrian City of Erbil, Iraq (1500BC) 

- Organized around qanats  

- “parks” were key features  pairidaeza  

- Organized around water resources, canals, moats

- Oldest continually inhabited community in the world  

- Humans settled around 5000BC initially  

Nile Valley Settlements  

Consists of 8 settlements around the Nile Valley River  

- Culture  

- Nubia Culture  

- Pharaohs  

- Structures  

- Cosmological elements of the landscape were prevalent, but the building materials weren’t  strong enough to last except for the pyramids  

- Pyramids  

- A symbolic representation of Ben-Ben Stone

- 3 main pyramids are aligned with Orion’s belt  

- The Pyramid of Khufu (The Pyramid of Giza)  

- One of the biggest pyramids  

- Aligned with the cosmos  

- Processional Axis  

- The Temple of Mentuhotep II in Karnak  

- Built into a rock face with a large

processional axis leading up to the


- Became a primary element (processional

axis in general) for the Nile River Valley

Settlements and religious symbolism

- Obelisks  

- Temple of Luxor – Ramses II (1212 BC)  

- A massive pylon with 2 statues of

himself and 2 obelisks (1 in Egypt and 1

carried to Paris)  

- Thutmose III (Extracted Obelisk in Turkey)  

- Transported from Karnak

- Recycled obelisk (symbolically means

the culture can be continued anywhere)

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Ancient Gardens

- Thebes, Egypt  

- Planned gardens with trees and laid

out plants, vineyards etc. for

courtyards or other social areas and/or

elite housing  

Indus Valley Settlements (7000 BC)

Permanent Settlements (communities, cities, and small villages) around the Indus River of  Northwestern India and Pakistan.  

- Mehrgarh Pakistan (9500 BC)

- One of the oldest cities in the Neolithic period  

- Smaller farming village earliest known village with

planned architecture  

- Mud huts compactly packed together  

- 32K artifacts found  

- Mohenjo-Daro (2200 BC)  

- 4000 people  

- 2 square miles in size  

- Semi-griddled layout in the lower town and detached

upper area called The Citadel (unknown usage)  

- A “good living village, more egalitarian style  

- Sanitation and sewage system were efficient  

- Wells and public baths throughout the city  

- No evidence of a leader or monuments hinting

at one  

Pre-Spanish Cosmology in the Americas

Early Americas and Pre-Columbian architecture built by Native Americans suggested larger  communal and open spaces for these civilizations, many of the landforms are aligned with the  cosmos suggested beliefs in higher beings

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Poverty Point, LA (1800-1500BC)  

- Possible settlement of hundred of people for

trading or religious purposes  

- Multiple mounds covered in trees now for


- Artifacts found on the ridges  

- Watson Break, LA (3500BC)  

- Series of earthen mounds  

- 11 mounds lined by ridges forming an ovular


- Earliest constructued ladnscape  

- Center area was a plaza space for funeral processes or ceremonies  

- Geometrical Mounds, OH (100-500 AD)  

- 7 mil. Cubic feet of earth carried to form mounds  - 2 larger circles and an octagon, square enclosure, and connected by earthen avenues  

- Dancing, fairs, and religious services

- Cahokia Mounds, IL (1050-1350AD)  

- 48 spaces marking positions of the sun and a larger mound in the center (Monk’s Mound)  

- Astronomical marker and observatory or religious ceremonial building

- 22K Acres

- Cliff Palace Mesa Verde, CO (1990-1260AD)  - Small settlement etched into a mountain face  

- Open air caves to communicate with Gods  

- Kivas → ceremonial area sunken into the earth

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Chaco Canyon, AZ (900-1150 AD)  

- Regional center and public space, aligned to

the movement of the Sun  

- A Puebloan festival centers  

- Kivas and Plazas centered around the center

plaza to acknowledge the earth and sun's


Greek and Roman  

 Defining Mediterranean Geography & Landscape  

- Ancient civilizations (human adaptation)  

- Migrants from Eastern settlements moved westward into the Mediterranean  occupying  islands  

- Agricultural development  

- Urban and rural development  

- Villages and towns reliant on extensive agriculture  

- During the Bronze Age (3500 – 1200 BC)  

- The using of stronger tools and metal or stronger materials

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

Aegean Civilizations  

Greek civilizations around the Aegean Sea

during the Bronze Age, including islands due

to the higher elevated landforms  

- The location of the Greek civilizations

around the Aegean Sea were very

peaceful due to their isolation from

external attacks, this made their

society develop more peacefully  

- The islands or Cyclades, were

scattered and showed no mass

unification, they were independent  

- 3 Geographic Civilizations  

- Crete (Greek Island)

- Cyclades (Greek islands)  

- Greek Mainland  

- Ancient Crete Civilization, Minoan Society (3000 BC – 1000 BC)  

- Lavish Living  

- Thriving trade centers  

- Drainage system with paved streets  

- 2-3 story buildings  

- Sophisticated artwork No militaristic social


- Ship building areas for trading  

- Religious Values  

- Goddess worshipping religion  

- Sacred Caves

- Related to Greek mythology  

- Hilltop sanctuaries  

- 2000 limestone caves  

- Connecting religious centers  

- Organic pathway rather than paved processional passageway connecting the  ritual centers with nature

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Knossos, Crete  

- Knossos was a city on the island of

Crete that served as a thriving

religious center and ship building


- Wall-less town, very peaceful

- Natural megaron

- The great hall of the Grecian palace


- Used for social gatherings and

royal functions  

- Labyrinth  

- Megaron used for council gatherings,

worship, feasts, royal events, sacrifice

Classical Greece & Design (Classicism)  

- Classical → the aesthetic values embodied in the ancient Greek and roman art and architecture  - Proportionate and harmonious  

- Simpler structure, but the design was somewhat ornamental (smaller and shadowed)  

- Visions for Cities:  

- good life with citizens being protected and

provided with necessities  

- Intellectually stable and lavishness

- humans and nature bonding harmoniously

within a single space

- exile was worse than death, these are sacred

and respected places  

- Layout  

- Surrounded by walls but loosely because of the proximity to the sea  

- Sidewalks bordered streets → defining the streets  

- Towns directed towards the central intersection of principal roads (Center was a  colonnade roofed walkway)  

- City as a Place 

- Aristotle - order within the chaos through containment

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Topos → when translated means: place, which is an important feature as multiple  spatial containments, enclosed and ordered spaces came about  

- City is categorized into 6 elements:

- Polis → “central city” → easily accessible and defensible, major streets lead to center, abundant resources, contains the Acropolis and Agora

- Acropolis → symbolic center located in the Polis, located on higher ground  

and religious area or traditional area (area where people originally settled  


- Agora → “Public Space” → closer to where people live and activity area  

(athletic, artistic, economic, and political life thrived), marketing and  

commerce (trading), community area (voting): helps define a rough  

democracy within the cities

- Chora → outlying environmental and regional space, material and trading  


- Demes → smaller towns right outside of polis, grow to each have an agora  

eventually, in the meantime share culture with Polis

- Daemon → natural shrine and sacred space  

- Greek Religion  

- Gods and Goddesses were more humanistic  

- They had human characteristics and

personality traits  

- Festivals and athletics for the Gods  

- Democracy  

- Polis was government by citizens who were males and had citizenship  

- Making collective decisions for the collective good → individual rights  

- Ruling alongside Gods  

- Decisions and public life were happening in the Agora  

- Ritual and celebrations  

- Democratic process  

- Artistic and athletics

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

Greek Cities  

- Delphi, Greece 

- The spiritual center sacred to all Greeks  

- Mainland city where pilgrims made pilgrimages to consult oracles (Delphic Oracle is the  most important oracle in the classical Greek world)

The Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia

Kastalian Spring

The Temple of Apollo

Tholos → a circular building which  was for governmental or spiritual  function (an ovular version of the  Parthenon)

Apollo killed the “bloated  great monster who wanted to  do mischief upon men on  Earth”

built atop the grave of Dionysus  (the God of wine)

Pythian Sanctuary of Apollo

The Rock of Sibyl

The Theatre

Greek Sanctuary where the God or  Goddesses celebrate and manifested itself here

the precise spot where the  voice of Gaia offered earthly  wisdom to predecessors

a staple of the Greek Polis with  circular aisles and seats about  5000 people for hymnal worship and playwrights

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- Athens, Greece (500BC) 

- More of an organic city  

- Residential populations abandoned the acropolis and spread out on the lower ground, a very  modest set up (pictured)

- Major civic sites were lavish and nice  

- Acropolis became more of a

sacred area  

- Functional Dispersal  

- Temples were close to


- Academies and first

universities were


- Modest residential

areas, simpler buildings

- Acropolis

- The Civic Core  

- Disorganized layout, organic  

- Panathenaic Way - connected the Agora to Polis  

- Symbolic herms around the area

- Planning  

- Hippodamus → Father of city planning and layouts,

first urban planner  

- Hippodamian Planning → divided the land into 3

zoned categories: sacred, public, and private  

- Based upon a political separation system:

artesian, soldiers, and farmers  

- Miletus, Greece 

- Destroyed in a Persian fire, perfect opportunity to exert

Hippodamus planning and layout for future rebuilt city

- Planned by Hippodamian planning → grid network One of

the first examples of a layout of a city plan

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

Roman Hegemony and Urbanism  

- Hellenistic Civilization  

- Declining power  

- Romans moved the Temple of Areas from

Mount Parnes and reassembled it in the

agora of Athens Library was built in the


- Roman Urbanism  

- Appropriated the Hippodamian grid as

planning device and exploited


- Focused on regulation, repetition, and

inward focus → adding to the Agora

which is changing and becoming a public

space and cultural gathering area. (Museums, market center, cultural center, concert hall →  rebuilt as a lecture hall)  

- Order was the hallmark of Roman urbanism  

- Centuriation → the division of territory surrounding a town into squares measuring  2400’ / side




covered walkways or porticos,  commonly for public usage - lined  principle streets and defined public  spaces, outlined buildings, created  a 3-dimensional connection.

a long sequence of columns joined  by entablature, free standing or  part of the building

a porch leading to the entrance of the building with a roof  structure over the walkway, a  symbolic entrance

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

- The Roman Grid System  

- Cardo → main street populated with more people spanning North→ South  

- Decumanus → the main street East→ West

- Insulae → blocks formed at the intersection of all the streets

- Principal Thoroughfares (Cardo)  

- Sunken grading, width, and decor (fountains, arches etc.)  

- Designed to link forms and spaces  

- Linear marketplaces (shifting the agora) - people selling things on the  


- Early Zoning - residential buildings are regulated  

- Bricks, tiles, and drainage shows a heightened civilization  

- Philosophies  

- Basilicas - public buildings and public baths - larger show of culture  

- Theatres and amphitheaters - larger show and embrace of culture  

- High based temples and arches - a symbol of retained power  

- Paved street and running water - heightened civilization  

- Peristyle  

- Internal gardens within a structure enclosed, resembling a courtyard  


Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

Important Vocabulary Terms:  

Prehistoric Period 

Landscape Architecture  Profession which applies artistic and scientific principles to the  research, planning, design, and management of both natural and built environments  

Place  A narrative of the relationship between human beings and their world  Microliths a minute piece of flint used in spears  

Megaliths  also known as “Dolmens” which are larger stones that form monuments

The Genius Loci  the spirit of a place and the reference to many spirits living amongst one  another in nature  

Menhirs  upright standing stone  

Menec alignment → straight lines of menhirs (pictured)

Kermario alignment → curvy lines of menhirs  

Petit menec alignment → natural style of menhirs  

Neolithic Period  

Fertile Crescent  semi-circle of alluvial soils located around Egypt and the Red Sea  

Axis Mundai  The top of the pyramid signifying the connection between Heaven and Earth, also  known to be natural higher points on Earth  

Ziggurats  massive monuments having a terraced step pyramid with receding stories or levels  link to deities, mimicking mountains to access the Axis Mundai  

Animism  elements of nature, animals all have their own spirits and dwell within the forest or  natural element  

Qanats  horizontal wells that distribute water over long distances  

Pyramids  monuments tomb for a king and rectangular base with the deceased Re at the top  

Processional Axis  ceremonial process where people gather to walk down a long narrow  walkway towards the pyramid for ceremonies or important gatherings  

Obelisks  narrow 4-sided tapering monuments and ends pyramidal shaped at the top  The Citadel  temple complex placed on the highest point  

Kivas  ceremonial sunken in areas of the Earth  

Greek and Roman 

Megaron  a great hall of Grecian palace complexes  

Labyrinth  a maze

City States  a central city and surrounding villages together following the same law and have  one form of government and culture and way of life  

Classical Greece  the aesthetic values embodied in the Greek and Roman art and architecture  Topos  “place”

Study Guide Exam 1 LAND 240

Polis  “central city” and contains both the Agora and Acropolis , major streets lead into the  center

Acropolis  symbolic center in Polis that’s on higher ground and religious area or traditional area

Agora  “Public Space” activity area, marketing, commerce, community area, defining  democracy in cities  

Chora  outlying regional space, trading area

Demes  smaller towns right outside polis, grow to each have an agora eventually, share polis  culture until then  

Daemon  natural shrine and sacred space  

Hellenism the principles and ideas associated with classical Greek civilization  Hippodamus  Father of city planning and layouts, first urban planner  

Hippodamian Planning  grid layout and divided land  

Cardo  main street populated with more people spanning North to South  Decumanus  the main street East to West

Insulae  blocks formed at the intersections of all streets  

Stoas  covered walkways commonly used for public usage, creates a 3D connection  

Portico  a porch leading to the entrance of the building with a roof structure over the walkway, a symbolic entrance

Colonnades  a long sequence of columns join by entablature, free standing or part of the  building

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