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WM / Biology / BIOL 203 / What is sucrose composed of?

What is sucrose composed of?

What is sucrose composed of?

Description

School: College of William and Mary
Department: Biology
Course: Intro Molecules, Cells & Devp
Professor: Lizabeth allison
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Biology and Carbohydrates
Cost: 25
Name: Biology 203 Chapter 5 Intro to Carbohydrates
Description: These notes are based off the textbook as well as the powerpoint slides.
Uploaded: 09/16/2019
2 Pages 76 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 5: An introduction to CarbohydratesIf you want to learn more check out How often does cells replace themselves?

Carbohydrate(sugar): “any of a class of molecules that contain a carbonyl group, several hydroxyl groups, and multiple carbon - hydrogen bonds”

  1. Monosaccharides - “a molecule that has the molecular formula (CH2O)n and cannot be hydrolyzed to form any smaller carbs”
  2. Oligosaccharides - “a linear or branched carbohydrates chain that consists of fewer than 50 monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages”
  3. Polysaccharide - “a linear or branched carbohydrate chain that consists of many monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages”

*Carbohydrates are important building blocks in the synthesis of other molecules important sugars eg: ribose, deoxyriboseWe also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of a variable written in upper case?

~5.1 Sugars as Monomers

Monomers, or simple sugars, are the monomers of carbohydrates

  • Two of the smallest monosaccharides are an aldose and a ketose, they share the same molecular formula (C3H6O3), but their molecular structures are different

We also discuss several other topics like How many neurotransmitters does the brain has?

The presence of a carbonyl group along with multiple polar hydroxyl groups means that even the simplest sugars have many reactive and hydrophilic functional groups

Monosaccharides vary in their carbon count:

  • Triase: a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms

Eg. aldose and ketose

  • Pentose: a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms

Eg. ribose(building block for nucleotides)

  • Hexose: a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms

Eg. glucoseDon't forget about the age old question of Who are john watson and b.f skinner?

**They also vary in spatial arrangement of their atomsWe also discuss several other topics like What is a form of slavery used against blacks?

For example: 2 hexose glucose and galactose

Don't forget about the age old question of How is ecology science?

Key point: because their molecular structures differ, their functions differ

Rare for sugars consisting of five or more carbons to exist in linear chains

  • In aqueous solution, sugars tend to form ring structures

∝ - Glucose hydroxyl group faces downwards

 - Glucose hydroxyl group faces upwards

More common because more stable than ∝ - Glucose

5.2 The Structures of Polysaccharides

Simple sugars covalently link to form chains of varying lengths called complex carbohydrates

When 2 sugars come together → disaccharides

Glycosidic linkage: “a covalent bond formed by a condensation reaction between two sugar monomers; joins the residues of a polysaccharide”

The inverse reaction, hydrolysis, breaks these bonds/ linkages

Parallels in linkage:

  1. Glycosidic linkages connect monomers
  2. Peptide bonds connect proteins
  3. Phosphodiester bonds / linkages connect nucleic acids

But…

Peptide and phosphodiester linkages form between the same locations in their monomers → standard backbone, this is not the case for carbohydrates

Carbohydrates such as monosaccharides contain at least the hydroxyls so the location and geometry of glycosidic linkages vary

Disaccharide examples: Glucose and fructose

  • Sucrase is cleared in your saliva by the enzyme sucrose to release glucose and fructose
  • Glucose differ from fructose in structure, fructose is a pentagon, glucose is a hexagon

Animal models were tested to see the effect of drinking fructose on memory

  • Trained mice to find escape chamber in maze
  • Fed control chow and chow supplemented with fructose solution, or omega 3 fatty acids, or both
  • After 6 weeks, tested through maze again → fructose mice took longer to escape

Polysaccharides: joined by ∝ - 1, 4 or  - 1, 4 - glycosidic linkages, energy storage depots and structural scaffolds

Starch: principle storage form for sugar in most plants, consists entirely of ∝ - glucose joined by glycosidic linkages

Helical forms → unbranched (amylose), branched (amylopectin)

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