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UC / Biology I Lab / Bio 3021 / Solvent passes through semipermeable membrane from less to high concen

Solvent passes through semipermeable membrane from less to high concen

Solvent passes through semipermeable membrane from less to high concen

Description

School: University of Cincinnati
Department: Biology I Lab
Course: Human/Comparative Physiology
Professor: Elke buschbeck
Term: Fall 2019
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study Notes for Exam 1
Description: These are the filled out LOs based on what we have discussed for exam 1.
Uploaded: 09/19/2019
20 Pages 2 Views 12 Unlocks
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Approaches to Physiology:


Solvent passes through semipermeable membrane from less to high concentrated area, equilizing the concentration of both sides, is what?



1) Be able to give examples for different levels of biological organization, and  understand how physiology could be applied to these levels of analysis. a) Biological organization that can be used to study function at different  levels  

o Organism  

 frog

o Organ system level

 Muscle movement

o Organ and tissue level

 Skeletal muscle

o Cellular level  

 Skeletal muscle cell  

o Macromolecular level

 Sliding filament model of muscle contractions, actin and  

myosin filaments  

o Molecular level  

 Actin and myosin molecules  

2) Be able to explain regulation, conformity and homeostasis.

a) Homeostasis: internal constancy and the physiological regulatory  systems that make adjustments to maintain it


What is hyperosmotic?



b) Conformers: animals that allow some aspects of their internal  physiology to vary along with environmental conditions  

o Little energy is used to maintain homeostasis

o Cells subjected to change of internal environment  

o Ex. Cold-blooded animals

c) Regulators: animals that maintain internal constancy in the face of  external variability  

o Cells maintained under constant conditions

o Lots of energy used to maintain constancy/homeostasis

o Ex. Mammals, birds, whales

d)


What are the most important roles of kidneys?



3) Be able to list 5 major time frames relevant to physiology.

a) Changes in physiology that are responses to changes in the external  environment  

o 1-acute changes 

 short-term changes in the physiology of indiv animals;  

changes that indiv exhibit right after the environments  

have changed; reversible  

o 2-chronic changes (acclimation and acclimatization) Don't forget about the age old question of What is the center of millions of orbiting objects?

 long-term changes in the physiology of indiv animals;  

changes that indiv display after they have been in new  

environments for days, weeks, or months; reversible  

o 3-evolutionary changes:  

 changes that occur by alteration of gene frequencies over  the course of many generations in populations exposed to

new environments  

b) Changes in internal  

o 4- developmental changes 

 Changes in physiology of indiv animals that occur in a  

programmed way as the animals mature from conception  

into adulthood and then to senescence

o 5- periodic biological clocks 

 Changes in the physiology of individual animals that occur in repeating patterns (ex. Each day) under control of the  Don't forget about the age old question of What is fiber-temper ceramics?

animals’ internal biological clocks

c) 4) Be prepared to provide a physiological example for each of these time  frames.

a) Acute changes  

o sudden things do influence results like O2 consumption

b) Chronic  

o going from very cold environments to hot environments will  change metabolic consumption

c) Evolutionary  

o aquatic to terrestrial

o One way is to use phylogenies to infer evolutionary history

 Ex. Arctic fish have less myoglobin until fish with  

nonfunctional myoglobin genes

o manipulate diff populations over many generations

 Each animal has a range of environments which it could  

tolerate and can be assessed

d) Developmental  

o visualized and such

o Phenotypic plasticity We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of behavior in psychology?

 Ex of developmental change: different conditions during  

development can result in differences in the adult

e) Biological clock  

o clock changes in diff times of the day (night vs day)

o Time of day may infleunce results  

5) Be able to recognize poor experimental design that arises from insufficient  consideration of these time frames.  

a) Studying a mechanism at one level of one species, developmental  state, or environment leads to limitations

o Solutions:

 Approaching diff levels separately

 Comparisons between species

 Different extreme environment  

 Changes over time

Solutes and Water:

1) Understand physical forces that lead to the movement of solutes and water a) Simple diffusion: diffusion of solute towards equilibrium (from high to low)

b) Osmosis: solvent passes through semipermeable membrane from less to high concentrated area, equilizing the concentration of both sides  c) Fick Diffusion Equation  

o J= D(C1-C2)/X

 J= net rate of diffusion

 C1, C2= fluid concentration

 D= diffusion coefficient  

 X= distance separating two concentration

o Diffusion coefficient, D, is proportional

 Determined by how easily the solute of interest moves  

through the medium

 Other factors that influence D are temp and fluid  

movement

d) Osmotic pressure of solutes is independent of the charge  

o Only particles contribute to osmotic pressure  

e) Concentration and electrical effects can be reinforcing or opposing  o Reinforcing- concentration increased on one side as it is more  positive  If you want to learn more check out What is Pietra serena?

 Accelerates diffusion

o Opposing- concentration increases as becomes more –ve  

 Decelerates diffusion

2) Be able to explain osmolarity (including iso- , hyper- and hyposmotic). a) Osmolarity: concentration of solution; total number of solutes per liter

b) Hyperosmotic: solution with the greater concentration of solute  o In this solution, cell shrinks

c) Hypoosmotic: when solution of object has less concentration of ions  than the surrounding (freshwater fish in saltwater)  

o In this solution, cell expands

d) Isosmotic: solutions of equal solute concentrations  

o In this solution, nothing happens  

e) Don't forget about the age old question of Who is Elizabeth Blackwell?

3) Be able to describe the typical ion distribution in and around a cell, and how  this distribution comes about.

a) Extracellular fluid: more positive, larger concentration of Na+  b) Intracellular fluid: more negative, larger concentration of Cl c) Both, concentration and electrical effect carries Na+ into the cell, Cl on the other hand is near equilibrium  

o Concentration and electrical effects are opposite to each other  o Cells began from ocean and so more Na+ outside  

d) Membrane mostly negative  

e) Potassium wants to flow out and Na in thru channels We also discuss several other topics like what is electric potential?

f) ***active transports maintains concentration of Na to make more on  outside  

o Active transport costs energy (primary)

o Na/K pump

 3 Na out

 2 K in

4) Be able to describe the role of cell membranes and their components in  osmotic processes.

a) ion channels allow ions through  

b) Structure of membrane- phospholipid bilayer-semipermeable  o Without channels and protein, not permeable to much

c) The permeability of membranes depends on the state of ion channels  d) Phospholipid molecules assembled into bilayer with hydrophobic inside and hydrophilic outside

e) Na more on outside and Cl more on inside  

o Cell: inside (-) and outside (+)

5) Be able to describe, and provide examples for primary and secondary active  transport

a) Primary active transport – uses ATP

o Movement of ions changes the conformation

b) Secondary active transport: uses other means to drive process and  ATP indirectly  

o Na/K+ pump uses ATP to lower Na concentration inside the  epithelial cell

o Na+ follows electrochemical gradient, conducting “work”,  illustrated by the pin-wheel  

o The co-transporters use the “work” to force the uptake of  glucose against its gradient  

o Can also be counter-transporter

c)

d)

o This happens when gills actively take up salts  

6) Understand how osmolarity, transport and ion channels influence the  movement of solutes and water.

a) The permeability of membranes depends on the state of ion channels

o

b) There is no direct active transport of water  

o Increase the concentration of solutes on one side  

o Ensure that water can cross the membrane via aquaporin 

c) Facilitated diffusion 

o DEF: transporter molecules allow substances to cross the  

membrane which otherwise could not (these are not channels)  o Ex. Polar organic solutes

d) Active and Passive transport  

Water and Salt Physiology in different environments

1) Be able to apply water and salt physiology to a variety of different  environments, and describe common regulatory strategies for all major  environments. 

a) Brackish water- middle between freshwater and saltwater  

b) Osmolarity regulatory organs:  

i) Kidneys- regulate composition of blood plasma by removing  water, salts, and solutes

ii) Gills- fish and other aquatic animals  

iii) Salt glands- birds and reptiles

c) i) Osmotic pressure of urine / osmotic pressure of blood plasma  (1) U/P < 1 = hypoosmotic = more solutes inside blood =  more water in urine = more water urine release

(2) U/P>1 = hyperosmotic = less solutes in blood = more  water in blood = more solutes in urine = salts excreted  (a) Freshwater organisms = hyperosmotic regulators

d) e)

i)

(1) Freshwater crayfish

(2) Red boxes= active = require energy

(3) Make hypoosmotic urine- low solute and high water while  gills take up salt  

f)

i) Freshwater (Group C/D)

(1) Animals are hyperosmotic regulators- they are more salty  than their surroundings and have an issue of gaining too  much water

(a) Therefore- pee hypoosmotic  

ii) Marine invertebrates (Group A) 

(1) Animals are hypoosmotic- more diluted than surroundings  and therefore have high blood osmolarity  

(a) Loose water due to osmosis  

(b) Drink sea water; gills and gut reduce salt and  

therefore water flows in and urine removes salt too  

(c) Therefore- pee concentrated urine but is still  

isosmotic  

iii) Marine sharks (Group B) 

(1) They are hyperosmotic due to the number of molecules  but still hypotonic compared to water  

(2) Therefore, water is gained by osmosis  

(3) Urine is hypoosmotic  

(4) Salts secreted  

(5) Gill secretes salts?  

iv) Terrestrial 

(1) Air contains water only in gas form; unless air is saturated with water, it becomes dehydrating  

(2) Some animals have longer nasal canals to cool exhaled air (3) Others use water from metabolism to do it  

v) (1) Curve for water loss because humidity increases and less  water is lost by the animal.  

(2) Less evaporation because of the amount of humidity

Kidneys basics mechanism and amphibians

1) Describe the most important roles of kidneys.

a) Tubular structures that communicate with the outside world  b) Produce and eliminate aqueous solutions derived of blood and other  body fluids

c) Regulation of the composition and volume of the blood and other  extracellular body fluids by means of controlled excretion of solutes  and water

2) Be able to define and describe the major components of a kidney. a) Nephron: unit of kidney regulating water and solutes  

i) Glomerulus: capillary tuft that receives blood and is surrounded by the bowman’s capsule where filtration of blood occurs

(1) Glomerular filtration rate: rate at which primary urine  

is formed  

(a) Vary rate of filtration by changing pressure  

(b) Vary proportion of nephrons active  

ii) Bowman's capsule: surrounds the glomerulus and filters  through what comes into the nephron from blood; creates  

pressure  

(1) Molecular size is primary factor determining passing of  

ultrafiltration  

(a) Shape and charge matter too

(2) Osmotic pressure (colloid): draws solutes into blood and  

away from filtration because there is more and larger  

molecules in the blood than the nephron

iii) Proximal convoluted tube: first site of water reabsorption into blood as well as glucose and some salts  

iv) Loop of henle: consists of descending and ascending limb;  transfers fluid from proximal to distal

(1) Descending- highly permeable to water but not ions  

(a) Water reabsorbed, osmolarity increases

(2) Ascending- impermeable to water but permeable to ions  

(a) Salts reabsorbed, osmolarity decreases  

v) Collecting duct: affected by hormones; takes fluid to ureter as  urine  

b) Primary urine: ultrafiltrate  

c) Definitive urine: fluid that is eliminated  

3) Be able to examine forces that lead to fluid and solute movement within the  different components of a nephron.

a) 3 kinds of pressures within glomerulus and bowman’s capsule: i) Blood pressure in glomerular capillary

ii) Capsular fluid hydrostatic pressure (against capillary wall from  bowman)

iii) **Colloid osmotic pressure (due to more molecules in blood than nephron)  

b) Primary urine active solute secretion

i) Active solute secretion is most important in insects and some  marine fish

ii) In other vertebrates specific solute secretion exists in addition to ultrafiltration  

iii) Active transport of a single solute into a kidney tubule can lead  to passive influx of water and other solutes  

iv)

v) In step 2, active transport is used to bring in solutes and drive  the pumps to go against concentration gradient  

vi) Water follows in step 3

c) 2 types of water in kidneys  

i) Water is required to accompany excreted solutes

ii) Additional water that may be excreted, but not necessary 4) Be able to analyze fluid and solute movements in amphibian nephrons, and  be able to describe how this mechanism can lead to a U/P equal or less than  one.

a)

i) Amphibians can only do first two

ii) Mammals do all three  

b) Amphibians: U/P ratio either isosmotic (U/P=1) or hyposmotic (U/P<1)  c) 5) Understand how antidiuretic hormone alters the permeability and function of  certain components of the kidney.

a) ADH can regulate water re-absorption

i) Secreted by the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) under  control of osmoreceptors and blood stretch receptors  

ii) regulates water permeability

iii) reduces the number of nephrons involved

iv) controls the water permeability of the bladder  

v) regulates urine storage by regulating its volume

b) Low levels of ADH = fewer aquaporins = less water reabsorption  along the distal tubule  

i) Diuresis; U/P<1

ii) Hypoosmotic pressure  

c) High levels of ADH = more aquaporins=more water reabsorption  along the distal tubule  

i) Antidiuresis; U/P=1

ii) **higher ADH = more water gets out of nephron and reabsorbed  into the body

iii) Hyperosmotic  

Kidneys mammals and diversity

1) Be able to analyze morphological differences in mammalian kidneys and  interpret how these differences relate to humid or arid environments. d) Medulla: innermost region of kidney; consists of bulk of nephron i) Thicker medulla is important

ii) Different gradients of osmotic pressure  

iii) Thicker=longer loop of henle= concentrated urine=more water  reabsorbed  

e) Cortex: outer region of kidney, between capsule and medulla that has  space of vessels to the nephron

f) Renal artery: supply kidney with blood

g) Renal vein: drains kidney of blood

h) Ureter: connects from kidney, to excretion; removes waste i) Nephron: unit of kidney regulating water and solutes  i) Glomerulus: capillary tuft that receives blood and is surrounded by the bowman’s capsule where filtration of blood occurs (1) Glomerular filtration rate: rate at which primary urine  is formed  

(a) Vary rate of filtration by changing pressure  

(b) Vary proportion of nephrons active  

ii) Bowman's capsule: surrounds the glomerulus and filters  through what comes into the nephron from blood; creates  pressure  

(1) Molecular size is primary factor determining passing of  ultrafiltration  

(a) Shape and charge matter too

(2) Osmotic pressure (colloid): draws solutes into blood and  away from filtration because there is more and larger  

molecules in the blood than the nephron

iii) Proximal convoluted tube: first site of water reabsorption into blood as well as glucose and some salts  

iv) Loop of henle: consists of descending and ascending limb;  transfers fluid from proximal to distal

(1) Descending- highly permeable to water but not ions  (a) Water reabsorbed, osmolarity increases

(2) Ascending- impermeable to water but permeable to ions  (a) Salts reabsorbed, osmolarity decreases  

a) Collecting duct: affected by hormones; takes fluid to ureter as urine

b) c) Mammalian kidney varies in its ability to excrete hyperosmotic urine  i) Difference in medulla size and loop of henle  

ii) Difference in renal pelvis changes with habitat

iii) There is a relationship between medulla thickness and urine  concentration  

(1) Both go up  

d) U/P wider range  

e) Hallmark of mammalian kidney: longer nephron/loop of henle which  goes deep into the medulla

f) Longer the loop of henle = more concentrated that urine can be in that animal

i) More gradient difference  

g) Thicker medulla = longer loop of henle = concentrated urine = helps  arid animals  

i) For arid animals, the most important is that the max urine  concentration is very high

h) Osmotic pressure increases w depth in medulla!!!

i) Organic solutes allow cells of medulla to adjust to high osmotic  environment

2) Be able to explain how the single effect and countercurrent multiplier allows  mammals to produce urine that exceeds a U/P of 1.

a) Countercurrent- flowing in opp directions in loop of henle  b) Multiplication- change of osmolarity by pushing out salts/water  passively

c) d) Proximal- isosmotic

i)

e) Descending- impermeable to salts

f) Ascending and distal- impermeable to water

i)

g) Collecting duct- impermeable to water only in diuresis  

h) single effect: ascending limb actively pumps out NaCl, but has a low  permeability to water, so descending limb looses water and takes up  NaCl  

i) single effect is driven by active transport of sodium chloride out  of the tubular fluid in the thick ascending limb into the  

interstitial fluid, which becomes hyperosmotic

ii) water moves passively down its concentration gradient out of  the tubular fluid in the descending limb into the interstitial  

space, until it reaches equilibrium

3) Describe the role of blood supply throughout the mammalian kidney. a) role of blood supply in medulla

i) Absorbs  

ii) Has matching osmotic pressure w the environment  

iii) Looped shape conserves concentration gradients

iv) Wall of capillaries freely permeable to water and small solutes,  concentration gradients follow that of diff kidney regions

countercurrent diffusion exchanger (water loos then gain)

v) Major role is to remove excess water: presence of blood protein  results in bias towards total water gain .

4) Be able to review kidneys in other selected animal systems. a) Fresh water  

i) Nephrons are similar to amphibians  

b) Saltwater

i) Nephrons lack distal convoluted tubule- no need for an organ  specialized to produce dilute urine

c) Marine teleost fish

i) Primary urine may be formed in part by secretion into the  

proximal tubes:  

ii) Ions are actively transported into proximal tubules, water and  other solutes follow  

d) Crustacea  

i) Urine formation

(1) Antennal gland unfolded with urine properties plotted  

below corresponding anatomical locations  

(2) Antennal gland loosely represents a single nephron

5) Describe the major forms of nitrogen excretions.

a) Nitrogen is byproduct of protein metabolism; other major atoms are  voided by formation of H2O and CO2  

b) Most common forms of nitrogen acid  

i) Ammonia  

(1) Cheap but toxic, easy to eliminate for animals that are not

limited by water, ammonia is generally voided at the rate  

it occurs. Excreting ammonia represents ancestral state

ii) Urea  

(1) Far less toxic, but more costly than ammonia- each molec  

costs 4-5 ATP, highly soluble, this excretion costs less  

water (2.5%) typical for mammals  

iii) Uric acid  

(1) Very low toxicity, but very costly; low solubility: can be  

excreted as salts in the form of fairly dry pellets, or stored

in tissue without causing damage. Most common strategy  

among vertebrates (birds, reptiles)

Feeding

1) Understand that source of all energy and be able to contrast major food  sources, in regards to where they come from and how they are digested. a) Human body is dominated by proteins and lipid  

i) Huge diversity of protein

b) Source of energy

i) Almost all energy comes from the sun

ii) Photosynthesis of green plants is the basis of food chains  

iii) BUT, symbioses with chemoautotrophs is an exception (uptake  of hydrogen sulfite, oxidized to sulfate)

c) Lipids have 2x amount of energy than carbs and proteins  

2) Be able to describe processes that are required for food to be taken up by  your body (including mechanical and chemical breakdown and absorption) a) Feeding process

i) Eating on material that could provides the nutrients needs  (1) Mechanical breakdown  

ii) Breakdown of ingested substrate  

(1) Digestive breakdown

(2) Fermentative breakdown

iii) Absorption thru transporters

iv) Delivering to the cells

(1) Reduction

b) Feeding mechanism

i) Diversity of feeding mechanisms

ii) Feeding apparatus depends largely on the type of food that is  ingested  

(1) Bird beaks  

iii) Preference depends also on ability; often there are specialized  organs  

iv) Specialized rasping organ, radula  

(1) Mouth cavity of a snail showing the radular apparatus

c) Importance of large surface area  

i) Total surface area of intestines is about 200 sq meters  

ii) Helps for digestion  

iii) Has ridges that have knobs that have cells with microbial and  brush border  

iv) Ton of surface area

3) Be able to provide examples of where and when mechanical and chemical  breakdown takes place, including the roles of major enzymes. a)

4) Be able to discuss the 4 major segments of the gut, and describe the most  important processes that take place in each of them.

a) Headgut: part of digestive tract in the head and neck; take up food an prepare it (mechanical digestion, some enzymes)  

b) Foregut: segment between head gut and intestine (esophagus,  stomach, crop) movement of food into stomach, mechanical and  chemical digestion (HCL, protein-digesting enzymes)  

c) Midgut: in humans small intestine; principle site of digestion and  absorption of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids (plus vitamins and  minerals).  

i) Pancreas: digestive enzymes (including lipases; also sugar  regulation - insulin, glucagon)  

ii) Liver, biliary system: bile to aid digestion of lipids  

d) Hindgut: in humans large intestine; complete absorption of water and  minerals; stores wastes between defecations.

5) Be able to contrast foregut and hindgut fermentation and list example  animals for each.

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