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LAMAR UNIVERSITY / Psychology / PSYCH 3370 / What are the important roles in children's development?

What are the important roles in children's development?

What are the important roles in children's development?


School: Lamar University
Department: Psychology
Course: Child & Adolescent Psychology
Professor: Sherri shoefstall
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Child and Adolescent Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for Exam 1. It covers chapters 1, 6 and 7
Uploaded: 09/20/2019
22 Pages 48 Views 4 Unlocks

Child and Adolescent Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Why is Caring Important?

What are the important roles in children's development?

Development: the pattern of change from conception through the life span. It involves both growth and decline.


 Becoming a better parent or educator

 Gain insight into how your childhood shapes the person you are today Improving the Lives of Children

Important roles in children's development:

 Health and well-being

 Parenting (some of the biggest issues arise here i.e. lack of)  Education (some of the biggest issues arise here i.e. lack of)  Sociocultural contexts

 Social policy

Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity

Dimensions of sociocultural context – culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic  status, and gender – help to mold how an individual develops through life

Dimensions of sociocultural context refers to what?

Culture - the behavior patterns, beliefs, and all products that are passed from generation to generation. Cross-culture studies – comparison of two or more  cultures

Ethnicity - a characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race,  religion, and language. Diversity exists within each ethnic group

Socioeconomic status - a person's position within society based on  occupational, educational, and economics characteristics. It implies certain  inequalities.

Gender - the characteristic of people as males and females

Biological, Cognitive and Socioemotional processes

Socioeconomic status refers to what?

 Biological processes produce changes in an individual body.  Cognitive processes refer to change in an individual's thought,  intelligence and language We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of life span perspective?

 Socioemotional processes introduce changes in and individuality  relations with people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality  Connections across the three is considered in two rapidly emerging  fields

o Developmental cognitive neuroscience

o Developmental social neuroscience

 In many instances they are bidirectional.

Periods of Development

 Prenatal period

o Conception - birth

 Infancy

o Birth - 18/24 months

 Early Childhood (Preschool years) Don't forget about the age old question of What factors influence the size of elasticity?

o End of infancy - 5/6 years old

 Middle/Late Childhood (Elementary School years)

o 6 - 11

 Adolescence (Entering adulthood)

o 10/12 - 18/22

Age and Cohort Effects

Cohort effects – due to a person's time of birth, era and generation but not to actual age

Millennials – the generation born after 1980 that is the first to come of age  and enter emerging adulthood in the new millennium

*Their ethnic diversity and their connection to technology

Issues in Development Don't forget about the age old question of What is the eukaryotic chromosome mapping?

 Nature v Nurture 

o The issue regarding whether development is influenced by  nature or nurture

 Continuity v Discontinuity 

o Does development involve gradual, cumulative change, or  distinct stages?

 Early v Late Experiences 

o To what degree are early and late experiences key determinants  to development?

Importance of Research

Scientific research is objective, systematic, testable and it reduces the  likelihood of information being biased. Scientific research is based off the  scientific method, which includes four steps to find accurate information:

1. Conceptualize the problem

2. Collect data

3. Draw Conclusions We also discuss several other topics like What is the used to communicate?

4. Revise research conclusions and theory

Theories of Child Development: Psychoanalytic Theories Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four primary types of tissue in the body?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why is it important to have a personal philosophy about life?

Psychoanalytic Theories – The theory that development is mainly  unconscious and influenced by emotions.  

 Behavior is a surface characteristic

 To understand behavior, one must analyze the symbolic meanings of  behavior

 Emphasis on early experience with parents

Freud’s Theory

Personality has three structures: id, ego, superego

 Id

o The personality of instincts

o This is the unconscious

 Ego

o The personality that deals with reality aka the “executive  branch” personality because of its use to make decisions

 Superego  

o The personality of morality, of what's right or wrong

o This is the conscious

There are five Freudian stages of development:

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

Our primary motivation for behavior is social and to affiliate with others.  Emphasis on the importance of both late and early experiences.

Erikson has eight stages of development:

Theories of Child Development: Cognitive Theories Cognitive theories emphasize conscious thoughts

Piaget’s theory: children actively construct their understanding of the world  and go through four stages of cognitive development.

Cognitive Theories

Vygotsky’s theory: a sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how  culture and social interaction guide cognitive development

Information-processing theory: emphasizes that individuals manipulate info,  monitor it, and strategize about it

 Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thinking  Microgenetic method seeks to discover not just what the child knows  but the cognitive processes involved in knowledge acquisition

Primary contributions of cognitive theories:

 Present a positive view of development, emphasizing conscious  thinking

 Emphasizes the individual’s active construction of understanding  Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories underscore the importance of  examining developmental changes in children’s thinking

 Info-processing theory offers detailed descriptions of cognitive  processes

Theories of Child Development: Behavioral and Social Cognitive  Theories

Pavlov's Classical Conditioning:

 Neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response from  another stimulus

Skinner’s Operant Conditioning:

 Consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of the  behaviors occurrence

 Behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur  Behavior followed by a punishing stimulus is less likely to recur

Banduras Model – Recovering Variation

Theories of Child Development: Ethological and Ecological Theories:

Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to  evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods.

Ecological theory emphasizes environmental factors. Bronfenbrenner’s  ecological theory is an environmental theory that focuses on five  environmental systems

An Eclectical Theoretical Orientation

Theories are guidelines and following just one is problematic.  

Eclectic theoretical operation doesn’t follow one theoretical approach but  pulls what’s considered the best from each theory.

Research Methods for Collecting Data: Observation

Observations must be systematic

Where should they be made?

 Lab: a controlled setting where “real world” factors are removed  Naturalistic Observation: real-world settings

Research Designs

Descriptive research: has the purpose of observing and recording behavior

Correlational research: goal is to describe the strength of the relationship  between two or more events

 Correlation coefficient: number based on statistical analysis that’s used to describe the degree of association between two variables

Experiment: a regulated procedure in which one or more factors believed to  influence behavior are manipulated while everything else is manipulated

 Independent/Dependent variable

 Experimental group’s experience is manipulated

 Control group is treated the same without manipulated factor  Random assignment: participants are assigned by choice

Piaget’s Theory of Infant Development

Piaget’s theory is a general, unifying story of how biology and experience  sculpt cognitive development

 Just as our bodies have structures that allows us to adapt to the world,  we build mental structures that do the same

Adaptation involves adjusting to new environments

 Mental structures help us adapt

 Children build their own cognitive worlds

Sensorimotor Stage

From birth – 2 years

Infants construct and understanding of the world by coordinating sensory  experiences

6 substages:

Simple reflexes

 First habits and primary circular reactions

 Secondary circular reactions

 Coordination of secondary circular reactions

 Tertiary circular reactions, novelty and curiosity

 Internalization of schemes

Object Permanence: understanding that objects continue to exist, even when they can’t be seen, heard, or touched

This is one of the basic concepts about the physical world developed by  babies

Evaluating Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage

Explanations of the causes of change are debated

A-not-B-error: Infants continues to look to a familiar hiding place (A) not a  new hiding place (B)

 Doesn’t show up consistently

Researchers found that infants see objects as bounded, unitary, solid, and  separate from their background much earlier than Piaget envisioned.

Core knowledge approach: a nativists’ view that infants are born with  domain-specific innate knowledge systems

 Some have explored whether morality is build-in

 Critics argue nativist neglect infants’ social immersion

Most developmentalists agree Piaget underestimated infants’ early abilities  and that both nature and nurture are involved

How Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize: Conditioning Infants learn through two types of conditioning:

 Classical conditioning: as a result of pairing, a new elicits a response  previously given to another stimulus

 Skinner’s operant conditioning: the consequences of a behavior  produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence

Infants can retain information from the experience of being conditioned  Kicking to move a mobile, even when the foot is not tied to the mobile How Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize: Attention

Attention, the focusing of mental resources on, select info improves cognitive processing

 In the first year, it is dominated by an orientation/investigative process  From 3 – 9 months, infants can deploy attention more flexibly and  quickly

 Sustained attention allows infants as young as 3 months learn about  and remember characteristics of a stimulus as it becomes familiar

Habituation and Dishabituation

Habituation and dishabituation are closely linked with attention

 Habituation: decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated  presentation (have a rattle and get used to it)

 Dishabituation: the increase in responsiveness after a change in  stimulation (play with a ball to change stimulus, then increased  interest back in the rattle after playing with the ball)

Joint Attention

Joint attention occurs when individuals focus on the same object/event and  can track each other's behavior

 One individual directs another’s attention, and reciprocal interaction is  present

 Joint attention skills in infancy are also associated with the  development of self-regulation later in childhood


Retaining info over time

 Implicit memory: without conscious recollection; involves skills and  procedures that are automatically performed

 Explicit: conscious memory of facts and experiences

By the end of the second year, long-term memory is more substantial and  reliable

Measurements of Infant Development

Differences in infant cognitive development have been studied primarily  through developmental scales or infant intelligence tests

Arnold Gesell developed a measure to distinguish abnormal babies for  adoption agencies

 Developmental Quotient (DQ): overall developmental score, using four  categories of behavior: motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social

Bayley Scales of Infant Development: widely used to assess infant behavior  and predict later development.

Current verson, Bayley-III, has five scales:

 Three administered to the infant: cognitive, language, motor  Two questionnaires given to the caregiver: socioemotional, adaptive  More appropriate in clinical settings

Measures of Infant Development

Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence is increasingly used

Focuses on the infant's ability to process info

 Encoding attributes of objects

 Detecting objects similarities and differences

 Forming and retrieving mental representations

Predicting Intelligence

With older children, IQ tests focuses more on verbal ability

With infants, IQ tests focus on perceptual-motor development and social  behavior

 Gesell and Bayley scales have proven to be poor predictions of later IQ  scores

 Fagan test is correlated with measures of intelligence in older children  Measures of habituation and dishabituation are linked to intelligence in  childhood and adolescence

Language Development In Infancy: Defining Language Language: A form of communication based on a system of symbols

 Consists of the words used by a community and the rules for varying  and combining them

Infinite generativity: The ability to produce and comprehend an endless  number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of worlds and rules

How Language Develops

Before learning words, infants make fine distinctions among the sounds of  the language. Before speaking, they produce vocalizations

 Different types of cries signal different things

 Cooing, beginning at about 1-2 months, usually expresses pleasure  Babbling, in the middle of the first years, involves strings of consonant vowel combos

Gestures like showing and pointing begin at about 8-12 months Infants understand about 50 words at 13 months

 Receptive vocab exceeds spoken words

First words include names of people, animals, objects, and body parts and  greeting terms.

 Vocabulary spurt begins at about 18 months

Children can sometimes overextend or underextend the meanings of the  words they use.

Between 18-24 months, most communication consists of two-word  utterances

Telegraphic speech: use of content words without grammatical markers such  as articles, auxiliary verbs, and other connectivity

Language: Biological Influences

Nervous system and vocal apparatus evolved over hundreds of thousands of  millions of years. Humans acquired language about 100,000 years ago.

Children’s language acquisition is remarkably similar all over the world,  suggesting a biological basis.  

Broca’s Area: an area in the left frontal lobe involved in producing words

Wernicke's Area: an area in the left hemisphere involved in language  comprehension

Aphasia: damage to Broca’s area or Wernicke’s area causing a loss or  impairment of language processing

Language Acquisition Device (LAD): Chomsky’s term for a biological  endowment that enables the child to detect the features and rules of  languages including phonology, syntax, and semantics

 Theoretical construct, rather than a physical part of the brain  Critics argue such a construct can’t explain the whole story of  language acquisition

Language: Environmental Influences

Behavior: language is a complex learned skill

 Doesn’t explain how people create novel sentences; and syntax is  learned even without reinforcement

Children’s environmental experiences, influence their language skills  Social context is important

Child-directed speech: language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with  simple words are sentences

 Has the important function of capturing the infants attention and  maintaining communication

Adults often use strategies other than child-directed speech to enhance the  child's acquisition of language

 Recasting: the adult restates the child's immature utterance in the  form of a fully grammatical sentence

 Expanding: adding info to the child's incomplete utterance

 Labeling: naming objects that the child seems interested in

Infants, toddlers and young children benefit when adults read books to and  with them

Language: An Interactionist View

Biology and sociocultural experiences contribute to language development. Both biological capacity and relevant experience are necessary. Emotional Development in Infancy

Emotion: feeling, or affect, when a person is in a state of an interaction that  is important to them

 Plays a role in communication with others and behavioral organization  Often classified as positive or negative

 Affects behavior

Emotion has biological, cognitive, and environmental influences Early Emotion

Primary emotion: present in humans and other animals

 Appear in first 6 months of life

 Ex: surprise, anger, joy, sadness, fear and disgust

Self-conscious emotion: requires self-awareness

 Appear after 18 months

 Ex: embarrassment, jealousy, empathy, pride, shame, and guilt

Researches debate how early various emotions occur, such as jealousy, and  in what sequence

Emotional Expression and Social Relationships

Crying is the most important mechanism newborns have as communication

 Basic cry: a rhythmic pattern, often associated with hunger  Angry cry: a variation of the basic cry, with more air forced through the vocal cords

 Pain cry: a long initial loud cry followed by breath holding Smiling is a key social signal

 Reflexive smile: occurs in the first month and isn’t a response to  external stimuli

 Social smile: a response to external stimuli such as faces, occurring as  early as 4-6 weeks

Fear is one of a baby’s earlies emotions, typically first appearing around 6 months

 Absurd, neglected infants show it much earlier

 Stranger anxiety: fear and weariness of strangers

o Intense from 9-12 months

o Not shown by all

o Intensity is affected by the social context and the characteristic  of the stranger

 Separation protest: distress at being separated from the caregiver o Occurs at 7-8 months and peaks at about 15 months Emotional Regulation and Coping

During the first year, the infant gradually develops an ability to inhibit or  minimize the intensity and duration of emotional reactions

 Self-soothing, such as thumb sucking

 Redirected attention and self-distraction later in infancy  By 2 years, toddlers can use language to define their feelings Contexts can influence emotion regulation

Caregiver responses matter, but there is debate over whether and how  parents should respond


Temperament: an individuals’ behavioral style and characteristic way of  emotionally responding

Chess and Thomas’ Classification

 Early child: a positive mood, quickly establishes routine and easily  adapts

 Difficult child: reacts negatively and cries frequently resists change,  and shows irregular behaviors

 Slow-to-warm-up child: low mood intensity, low activity level, and  somewhat negative

Temperament: Biological Foundations and Experience Physiological characteristics have been linked with different temperaments

Heredity has a moderate influence on differences in temperament within a  group of people

Temperament dimensions develop and change with neurological growth Temperament: Developmental Links

Children who had an easy temperament at 3-5 are likely to be well adjusted  as young adults

Individuals with an inhibited temperament in childhood are, as adults:

 Less likely to be assertive

 Less likely to experience social support

 More likely to delay entering a stable job track

 At a higher risk for developing anxiety disorder

Temperament: Development Contexts

Physiological and heredity factors are likely involved in continuity

Links between temperament in childhood and personality in adulthood also  might vary, depending on the context in individuals experience

Reactions to an infants’ temperament can depend, in part, on culture

 Behavioral inhibition is more highly valued in China

 Canadian mothers of inhibited 2-year olds are less accepting of their  infants’ inhibited temperament

Temperament and Goodness of Fit

Goodness of fit: the match between child’s temperament and environmental  demands

 Some temperaments pose more challenges than others  Extra support and training for mothers of distress prone infants  improves the quality of mother – infant interaction

o Training leads mothers to alter their demands on the child,  improving the fit between the child and the environment

Social Orientation/Understanding and Attachment and Infancy

According to Ross Thompson, infants show a strong interest in the social  world and are motivated to orient to it and understand it.  

 From early in their development, infants have a social orientation

 Face-to-face play characterizes early interaction

Infants come to expect people to react positively when the infants initiate  behavior

Locomotion (crawl, walk, run) is important to independence, especially in the second year of life

 Allows the infant to independently initiate social interchanges on a  more frequent basis

Intention, goal-directed behavior, and cooperation are important to cognitive  development

 Cooperating with others is also a key aspect of effectively engaging  with others in the social world

Social referencing is the ability to “read” the emotional cues of others to help determine how to act in a specific situation

 Helps infants interpret ambiguous situations more accurately  Infants become better at social referencing by 2 years old

Researchers are discovering that infants are more socially sophisticated and  insightful at younger ages than was previously envisioned

Attachment and Its Development

Attachment is close emotional bond


 Infants become attached to the person or object that provides oral  satisfaction

 Disproved by Harlow’s research, which showed that physical comfort is  preferred for security


 Physical comfort and sensitive care are key to establishing a basic  sense of trust that is the foundation for attachment

Bowlby’s ethological perspective:

 Attachment is an innate predisposition for attachment

o Phase 1 (birth-2 months): infants are instinctively drawn to  humans

o Phase 2 (2mths-7mths): attachment becomes focused on one  person

o Phase 3 (7mths-24mths): with increased locomotor skills, infants  actively seek regular contact with caregiver

o Phase 4 (24+mths): children become aware of others’ feelings,  goals, and plans and take them into account

Interpreting Differences in Attachment

Secure attachment in the first year of life provides an important foundation  for psychological development later in life

 Insecurely attached infants with early childhood behavioral inhibition  predicted adolescent social anxiety symptoms

 Many studies reveal the power of infant attachment to predict  subsequent development

Developmental cascade model involves connection across domains over time that influence developmental pathways and outcomes

Developmental Social Neuroscience and Attachment

Developmental social neuroscience examines the connections among  socioemotional processes, development and the brain

Research has focused on:

 Brain regions in mother-infant attachment

 Hormones and neurotransmitters in attachment

It is likely that several brain regions, neurotransmitters and hormones are  involved in the development of infant – mother attachment

Socioemotional Development in Infancy: The Family

Family can be thought of as a complex constellation of subsystems with  reciprocal influences on each other

 Interrelated, interaction parts are defined in terms of generation,  gender and age

In the transition to parenthood, parents must adapt:

 New restrictions on partners, time, finances

 Marital satisfaction decreases after birth for many

 Gender division of labor often occurs

 Parental cooperation has positive effects for parents and children

Reciprocal socialization: socialization that is bidirectional; children socialize  parents just as parents socialize children

 Scaffolding: adjusting the level of guidance to fit the child’s  performance

Parents manage and guide infants’ behavior, including childproofing the  environment and using corrective methods

 Positive parental behavior supports children’s efforts especially as their skills increase

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