Sociology Exam Ch. 1-4
Chapter 1 - Understanding Sociology
1. Sociology is the scientific study of:
➢ Social behavior and human groups.
2. What is social science?
➢ The study of the social features of humans & the way they interact and change. 3. Common sense beliefs are not always reliable because?
➢ They lack a systematic analysis of facts.
4. What is the awareness of the relationships between an individual and the wider society called?
➢ Social Imagination.
5. Socialists develop ______ in order to explain social problems, actions & behaviors. ➢ Theories.
6. What are the effects if theories?
➢ To explain and predict.
7. According to Durkheim, who are least likely to commit suicide?
➢ People socially connected to others.
8. Common sense refers to a person’s what?
➢ Opinions formed through life experience and conversation.
9. Who coined the term sociology to the science of human behavior?
➢ Auguste Comte.
10. Anomie is what, according to Durkheim?
➢ Loss of direction felt by individuals when social control becomes ineffective. 11. A good theory is both…?
➢ Explanatory & Predictive.
12. In Marx & Engels communist manifesto, what did they argue?
➢ The proletariat workers should unite to overthrow the capitalists. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the most important period of time for brain development?
13. What German word does Weber use as “understanding or insight”? ➢ Verstehen. We also discuss several other topics like According to morgenthau, what are the two mechanisms that serve as bases for peace?
14. What did W.E.B Dubois believe?
➢ Blacks needed full political rights to progress socially & economically. 15. Charles Cooley studied society from a sociological perspective but focused on what? ➢ Families, gangs, friendships & other small groups.
Chapter 2- Sociological Research
1. When conducting research, sociologists review literature in order to? ➢ Analyze other relevant studies about the same problem they are researching to gain additional insights.
➢ Gain insights about other factors that might pertain to their study. Don't forget about the age old question of What characterizes the subsistence class?
2. ______ research provides rich information from sources such as field observations and in-depth interviews. Don't forget about the age old question of What are examples of situations where chemical changes occur?
3. True or false: Because sociologists are ethically obligated to protect the confidentiality of a person who is part of their research, the law clearly supports their right in court cases to withhold the name of anyone they interview.
4. The use of historical evidence or legal studies by feminist researchers shows their willingness to use what kind of approach?
5. When the data collected do not support the hypothesis...
➢ The researchers must accept the results and report them in their conclusions. 6. Which of the following statements best characterizes an experiment? ➢ An artificially created a situation that allows researchers to manipulate variables. 7. The _______ refers to the way sociologists go about researching a problem in the most objective, consistent way possible.
➢ Scientific method.
8. By ______, researchers refine the problem under study, clarify possible techniques to be used in collecting data, and eliminate or reduce avoidable mistakes.
➢ Reviewing the literature. If you want to learn more check out What does prognosis mean?
9. Causal logic is best defined as?
➢ The relationship between a condition and a consequence, with one leading to the other. If you want to learn more check out What are the key differences and similarities between bargaining and cooperation?
10. The degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study? ➢ Validity.
Chapter 3- Culture
1. Sociologists use the term culture to refer to what?
➢ The customs, knowledge, and behavior that every society has.
➢ The unique artifacts that are found in every society.
2. Having a common culture assumes that cultural patterns reflect?
➢ Basic values, beliefs, and customs of the culture.
3. ______ influence people's behavior, serve as criteria for evaluating the actions of others and comprise a culture's shared ideas of what is good.
4. Countercultures typically thrive among younger members of society because of what? ➢ Young people are less invested in the existing culture.
5. Which of the following defines the unique culture of a society?
➢ Knowledge, customs & values.
6. Norms are known as ______ when classified by their relative importance to society. ➢ Mores and folkways.
7. Culture is the totality of learned, socially transmitted customs, knowledge, material objects, and?
8. A list of cultural universals would include such practices as what?
➢ Cooking, funeral ceremonies, medicine, and athletic sports.
9. Example of a statement expresses ethnocentric perspectives.
➢ "My culture and way of life are better than all others."
10. Ethnocentrism refers to evaluating other cultures in terms of one's own culture, whereas ______ means viewing other cultures on their own terms.
➢ Cultural Relativism.
Chapter 4 - Socialization and the Life Course
1. If children read or hear negative messages about their race, their ______ development can be affected.
2. List the process of developing a self-identity according to Cooley's concept of the looking-glass self.
➢ We imagine how we present ourselves to others.
➢ We imagine how others evaluate us.
➢ We develop feelings about ourselves as a result of various impressions. 3. According to George Herbert Mead, the self is developed through what three stages? ➢ Preparatory, play, and game stage.
4. Who exerts the most influence on a child's socialization?
➢ The family.
5. As children grow older, the family's influence becomes ______ important to their social development.
6. People who play a crucial role in developing an individual's self are called ______ others. ➢ Significant.
7. What term did Goffman use to describe maintaining a proper image of the self during social interaction?
8. The term generalized other refers to what?
➢ The idea that an individual's actions are influenced by whole groups of people. 9. Sociologists consider the transition from student to graduate an example of? ➢ Rite of passage.
10. What is the name given to the debate over how human development is shaped? ➢ Nature vs. Nurture.