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OLEMISS / Psychology / PSY / What is life span perspective?

What is life span perspective?

What is life span perspective?


Chapter 1 

What is life span perspective?

● Development: the pattern of movement or change that starts at conception and continues through the lifespan

● Characteristics of Life Span Perspective:

○ Definition: the perspective that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, and multidisciplinary

○ Life Expectancy: average of 79 years

○ Multidimensional: development consists of biological, cognitive, and socioemotional dimensions.

○ Plastic: capacity for change

○ Contextual: Setting (family, school, peers, church, cities etc)

● Normative Age-Graded: Biological and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group

What are the characteristics of life span perspective?

● Normative History Age-Graded: Biological and environmental influences that are associated with history (Great Depression and how people who lived through it act towards money now)

● Nonnormative: unusual occurrences that have a major impact on life and development (mom dies at a young age)

● Concerns: PG 7

○ -health and well being

○ -Parenting and education

○ -Sociocultural contexts and diversity

○ -Social policy

● Stages of development:

○ -Prenatal (conception ~ birth)

○ -Infancy (birth- 24 months)

What is normative age-graded?

○ -Early childhood (25 months ~ 5 years) We also discuss several other topics like What factors influence the size of elasticity?

○ -Middle//Late childhood (6~11 years)

○ -Adolescence (10 to 12 ~ 18 to 21)

■ Depends on the start of puberty and age of financial development

○ -Young adulthood (20-39 years)

○ -Middle adulthood (40~65 years)

○ -Late adulthood (65-death)

■ 65-84 = young old

■ 85-death = old old

● Biological age: based on health and shape

● Chronological Age: # of years you actually are If you want to learn more check out What are the diagnostic phenotypic ratios?

● Psychological Age: age compared to skills of peers

● Social Age: Social role you adopt and how you perceive yourself ● Why are older people happier?

■ They are more content with what they have in their lives

● Developmental Debates:

■ Nature-Nurture: which influence development, environment or genetics Don't forget about the age old question of Language is received or perceived also through what?

■ stability-Change: the degree to which early traits and

characteristics persist or change over time

■ Continuity v discontinuity: whether development involves either gradual change or distinct changes

● Historical Theories of development:

○ Psychoanalytic (Freud and Erikson)

■ Freud:

■ -5 stages of psychosexual development

● Oral

● Anal

● Phallic

● Latency

● Genital stage

■ -unconscious mind

■ -early childhood experiences contribute to who you become

■ Erikson:

■ -Psychosocial theory

■ -8 stages of lifespan

○ Cognitive (Piaget and Vygotsky) If you want to learn more check out What is macroscopic anatomy?

■ Piaget:

■ The theory that children can construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development

● Sensory-motor

● Preoperational

● Concrete operational

● Formal operational

■ Vygotsky:

■ A sociocultural cognitive theory that emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development

● Information processing theory: a theory emphasizing that

individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and

strategize about it. The processes of memory and thinking

are central

○ Behavioral (Skinner)

○ Operant conditioning

■ Environment provides consequence

■ Reinforcement / punishment

■ Schedules of reinforcement

○ Social Cognitive (Bandura) We also discuss several other topics like Why is it important to have a personal philosophy about life?

■ The theory that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding development

○ Ethological (lorenz and Bowlby)

■ An approach that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by critical or sensitive periods Don't forget about the age old question of What is incrementalism theory?

■ Lorenz: imprinting

■ Bowlby: Attachment

○ Ecological (Bronfenbrenner)

■ Environment

● Systems of environment

● PG 24 chart (rings)

● *Exosystem, microsystem, macrosystem

● Research:

○ -Descriptive:

■ What does behavior look like

● Survey

● Standardized test

● Case Study

● Observation

● Physiological measurements

○ -Correlational:

■ Is there a relationship between A and B

● -Up and UP , down and down = positive

● - up and down = negative

● -zero= no relationship

○ -Experimental:

■ Does event A cause Event B

● independent// dependent variables

● control// experimental groups

● Designs:

■ Longitudinal: same group of people over time

■ Cross-sectional: different groups of people at the same time

○ *Cohort Effects: effects that may happen due to factor that impacts the group your studying

● Ethics: APA

○ Informed Consent

○ Confidentiality

○ Deception

○ Debriefing

Chapter 2 

● Evolutionary Psychology: Emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction and “survival of the fittest” in shaping behavior

● Chromosomes: threadlike structures made up of deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA ● DNA: A complex molecule with a double helix shape that contains genetic info ● Genes: Units of hereditary information composed of DNA

● Mitosis: Cellular reproduction in which the cell’s nucleus duplicates itself with two new cells being formed, each containing the same DNA as the parent cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes

● Meiosis: A specialized form of cell division that occurs to form eggs and sperm (gametes)

● Zygote: the product of a fused egg and sperm that creates a single cell ● Genotype: A person’s genetic heritage; the actual genetic material

● Phenotype: the way an individual’s genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics

● Abnormalities: Chromosomal

○ Down Syndrome: A chromosomally transmitted form of intellectual

disability caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21

○ Fragile X: Genetic disorder that results from an abnormality in the X chromosome which becomes constricted and often breaks

○ Turner Syndrome: Chromosomal disorder affecting females; An X is either missing or part of it is deleted

● Abnormalities: Gene

○ PKU: Metabolic disorder that, left untreated, causes intellectual disability ○ Sickle-Cell: Blood disorder that limits the body's oxygen supply

○ Tay-Sachs: Deceleration of mental and physical development caused by an accumulation of lipids in the nervous system

○ Spina bifida: Neural tube disorder that causes brain and spine abnormalities

● Behavior genetics: The field that seeks to discover the influence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development ○ Twin Study: A study in which the behavioral similarity of identical twins compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins

○ Adoption Study: A study in which investigators seek to discover whether, in behavior and psychological characteristics, adopted children are more like their adoptive parents or their biological parents

● Sandra Scarr and heredity-environment correlations:

○ Passive genotype-environment correlations: child is a passive participant in environment

○ Evocative “ “ : Environment responds to characteristic, reinforcing it

○ Active “ “ : Inherits an ability and actively surrounds their environment to support this ability

● Stages of Pregnancy:

○ Germinal Stage: First 2 weeks of pregnancy

○ Embryonic Stage: 6 weeks (week 3-8)

■ Life support system develops

○ Fetal Stage: week 9- birth

● Neural Tube Defects:

○ Anencephaly: Neural Tube is closed off incorrectly (death)

○ Spinda Bifida: Opening in the tube ; paralysis, intellectual disabilities ● Prenatal Tests

○ Ultrasound

○ Chorionic villus sampling

○ Amniocentesis

○ Maternal Blood Screening

○ Fetal MRI

○ Fetal Sex Determination

● Teratogens: any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect ○ Drugs (all types) and alcohol

○ Environmental hazards

○ Maternal Diseases

○ Poor prenatal diet

○ Maternal age

○ Stress// emotional states

● APGAR scale: a widely used assessment of the newborns health at 1 and five minutes after birth

Chapter 3 

● Patterns

○ Cephalocaudal: Development starts with the head and then goes down ○ Proximodistal Pattern: Development starts at the center then moves out ● Shaken Baby Syndrome: a baby’s neck muscles are unsupportive during infancy and if the baby is rattled around, the brain will knock against the skull, damaging the baby. ● SIDS: 2-4 months of age, a baby can stop breathing in its sleep

○ Prevention:

■ Nothing in the crib

■ Put baby to sleep on its back

○ Risks:

■ Abnormal brain stem function

■ Heart arrhythmia

■ Mother smokes or second hand smoke *

■ Born with low birthweight

■ Baby sleeps in the same bed with parents *

■ No pacifier

■ Sleeps in a room with no fan

● Benefits of breastfeeding

○ To mother

■ Lower risk of breast and ovarian cancer

○ To baby:

■ Helps weight gain

■ Reduced risk of SIDS

■ Less gastrointestinal issues

● When should breastfeeding not occur:

○ Infected with AIDS

○ Active tuberculosis

○ Taking any type of drug

● Reflexes:

○ Grasping: when a baby holds onto something

○ Rooting: ability to find nipple or bottle

○ Sucking: automatically start sucking on what is put in their mouth

○ Moro: if a baby is startled they'll arch their backs, throw out their arms, then hug themselves

● Motor Skills

○ Gross: muscle

○ Fine: hands

■ Palmar grasp

■ Pincer grasp

● Piaget:

○ Schema: mental framework where one organizes info

○ Assimilation: adding new info

○ Accomodation: modifying what one already knows

○ Object permanence: when a baby knows that something still exists even when they can’t see it

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