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Flashcards / Science / Biology / what is the capacity of a substance to withstand rupture when placed u

what is the capacity of a substance to withstand rupture when placed u

what is the capacity of a substance to withstand rupture when placed u


School: Washtenaw Community College
Department: Biology
Course: Biology
Professor: Georgia white-epperson
Term: Fall 2019
Cost: 25
Description: Basic chemistry
Uploaded: 09/21/2019
45 Pages 39 Views 0 Unlocks



Occupies space and has mass

All atoms contains what?

 Protons, electrons, and neutrons


 Reside in the nucleus of an atom. Has no charge.


 Travels in the space around the nucleus. Has a negative charge


Resides in the nucleus and has a positive charge.


Made of atoms and cannot be broken or transformed chemically into other substances.

Mass Number

 Is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons of the element.

Atomic number

Is the number of protons the element contains.


 Different forms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.

How can you determine the number of neutrons?

By subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.

Radioactive isotopes

Are unstable isotopes that will lose protons, subtomic particles, or energy to make it more stable.

Chemical bonds

Form when there are vacancies in the outer most shel. Interactions between two or more elements that result in the formation of molecules.


 Are positive ions that form by losing electrons

How does atoms achieve greater stability?

By completely filling their outer shells and bond with other elements and share, accept or donate electrons to another atom.

What are the four types of bonds?

Ionic bondCovalent bondHydrogen bondVan der waals

Covalent bonds

Bond between two or more atoms

What are the two types of covalent bonds?

Polar and non polar

Non polar covalent bond

Form between two atoms of the same elements or between different elements that share the electrons equally.

Polar covalent bonds

The electrons shared by the same atoms spend more time closer to one nucleus than to the other nucleus. Because of the unequal distribution of the electrons, a slightly positive or negative charge developes

Hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals 

Two weak bonds that occur freqently. These bonds give rise to the unique properties of water and the unique structures of DNA and proteins.

Ionic bond and covalent bonds

Are strong bond that requires considerable energy to break.

Is water polar?



Water loving substances that forms hydrogen bonds allowing it to dissolve in water.


Water fearing compounds that are non polar that does not dissolve in water such as oil

Is water a solvent? If so, then why?

 Yes, because charged particles will form hydrogen bonds with a surround layer of water molecules

Surface tension

The capacity of a substance to withstand rupture when placed under tension or stress.

Why is water cohesive?

water molecules are attracted to each other because of hydrogen bonding keeping the molecules at the liquid air interface.

What are the ranges for the PH levels?

O(acidic) to 14 (alkalinity) 

Anything below what is considered acidic on the PH scale?


Anything above what is consider alkaline on the PH scale?

7.0 to 14.0



Biological Molecules 

Large molecules necessary for life that are built from smaller organic molecules.

What are the four major classes of biological macromolecules

CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic acids

Why is carbon important in macromolecules?

Because of carbons bonding properties

Is carbon negative, positive or neutral?



Small components that assemble together to form large macromolecules


Are subunits (monomers) linked together through a process called dehydration synthesis

What are carbohydrates and its functions?

Sugars and provides short term energy to the the body 

How are polymers broken down

Through a process called hydrolysis 

What three subtypes are carbohydrates classified into?

MonosaccharidesDisaccharides Polysaccharides


Are simple sugars such as glucose and fructose. Energy is released from glucose..