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FAU / Sci / BSC / what is Decomposers?

what is Decomposers?

what is Decomposers?

Description

School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: Sci
Course: Biodiversity
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Biology, bsc1011, Kingdom Fungi, and Exam 2
Cost: 25
Name: Kingdom Fungi and Plantae
Description: These notes will be what is covered in our next exam. I have included a small multiple choice with some short answer quiz at the end with the material that has been covered in class for exam 2.
Uploaded: 09/22/2019
10 Pages 5 Views 7 Unlocks
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Kingdom Fungi


what is Decomposers?



Decomposers: bacteria and fungi are most significant recyclers  Saprobes: nutrients from dead organic matter

Symbionts: nutrients from living matter

Fungi have a chitin-based cell wall

Fungi structure composure is made of:

 Thallus/Mycelium: body of the fungal organism

 Hyphae: filaments that make up the thallus/mycelium  Septate: cell walls partition cells

 Coenocytic: no cell wall partitions

 Haustoria: specialized hyphae that releases exoenzymes for  extracellular digestion  

Understanding the reproductive stages 

Syngamy: Fertilization

Plasmogamy: fusion of cytoplasm from two different cell types Karyogamy: before nuclei fuse

Dikaryon: n+n

Heterokaryon: also n+n (can be called this because the two nuclei are  from different individuals)

Meiosis: what you start with is different than what you end with


what is Saprobes?



Mitosis: what you start with is what you end with  

(replica/duplicate/identical)

Meiotic Types  

 Zygotic: this type of meiosis produces a zygote; a zygote (diploid  structure formed by syngamy or fusion of gamete/similar cells) to  produce a genetically unique haploid spores

o Example: Zygomycete fungus  

 Gametic: this type of meiosis produces gametes; diploid organism  produces a haploid gametes

o Example: most animals

 Sporic: this type of meiosis produces spores; a diploid organism  produces haploid spores

o Example: most plants

Sexual Reproduction 

Plasmoga my

Karyogam We also discuss several other topics like How Can We Tell Internal Structures?

y Meiosis Germincat ion

In between the main stages of sexual reproduction 

Myceli

um Don't forget about the age old question of what led to the advent of CAFOs?

Haploid

Plasmoga myFusion of  cytoplas

m

Haploid

Heterokary oticn+n 

Karyoga

my


what is Symbionts?



Fusion of  

nuclei

Before  

this stage  

is n+n

After  

this stage  

is 2n

Zygo te

2n

Meio

sis

Before  stage is  2n

After

stage is n

Spore s

n

Germinati on

Haploid

Asexual Reproduction 

This can be happening at the same time that sexual reproduction is  

Mycelium

Haploid

happening.

Spore

producing  structures Haploid  

Spores Haploid

Germination Haploid

Phylum Zygomycota

 Spores are dispersed by air

 Hyphae with few or no septa  Rhizopus: (genus) black bread mold

Reproduction: review page 14

M yceliu

m

Va riou s  

types o f  

m ating  

M ating type  (-) and (+ ) N e ighbo ring  m yce lia of  d ifferen t  

types fo rm  hypha l  

exten sion s  (gametangia)  encloses  

servaral  

hap lo id  

nuclei

P lasm ogam y

zygospa rang i um form s  

conta in ing  

m u ltip le  

hap lo id  

nu cle i from  

tw o parents

H eterokaryoti c

zygospo rangu i m de lveops a  

rough th ich -

w a lled coating  (re sists harsh  

con ition s)

once cond ition s  a re favo rab le  

ka ryogam y  

occu rs then  

m e io sis

K a ryogam y

Fusion of  

nuclei

B efo re this  

stage is  

n+ n We also discuss several other topics like what are the threats to folk culture?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is Kinetics?

A fter this  

stage is 2n

M eiosi

s If you want to learn more check out What is Cretaceous?

zygospo rang i um  

germ inates  into a  

sporang ium  on a sho rt  sta lk

sporang ium  d isperses  

genetica lly  d iverse halo ip  spores

spores  

germ inate  

and grow new  m yce lia

G e rm ination H ap lo id

Phylum Ascomycota

 Largest class If you want to learn more check out What is syllabic?

 Free-living & symbiotic

 Spores are dispersed by air

 Septate hyphae with perforations

 Ascus/spore sac forms ascocarp

 Asco: sac/cup

 Representatives of this phylum are:

o Peziza (genus)

o Saccharomyces (genus) also know as yeast- (have no hyphae) o Claviceps (genus) & Rye ergot (storage of rye could cause this  to grow)

o Penicillium (genus)– Penicillin: first antibiotic

o Morels & truffles

o Cheese, wine and bread- fermentation used for taste, alcohol  and carbon dioxide

Reproduction: Review page 15  

Phylum Basidiomycota

 Spores dispersed by air

 Septate hyphae

 Basidium- Basidiocarp

 Representatives from this phylum are:

o Mushrooms

o Toadstools

o Puffballs

o Bracket fungi

o World’s Largest organism “Fairy rings”

Reproduction: review page 16

Phylum Deuteromycota “Imperfect Fungi”

 This fungi sexual reproduction phase has not been observed (however  doesn’t mean it doesn’t have one)

 Asexual conidiospores produced

 Representative of this phylum are:

o Molds  

o Ringworm: which is not a worm

o Predatory fungus: captures nematode worms in modified hyphae forming loops or sticky ends

Significant fungal Symbioses:  

Mycorrhizae: extremely important mutualistic association between the  roots of “most plants” and fungi. Host plants provide food for fungus while  water and mineral uptake by plants are enhanced by fungal hyphae.

Lichens: mutualistic association between fungi and either algae or  cyanobacteria. Algae provides food while fungi provides structural position  for photosynthesis. Most of the time this algae are outside their regular  habitat (outside aquatic environments). Lichens are important “pioneer  species” in helping establish terrestrial ecosystems. (Cyanobacteria trapped in lichens so they provide food for lichens while they are provided good  positioning for photosynthesis)

 Types of lichens:

o Crustose: crusty like  

o Fruiticose:

o Foliose:  

Kingdom Plantae

 Cellulose-based cell wall

 Alternation of generation:

 Homospory: sporophyte produces only one kind of spore that  germinates into a gametophyte individual that produces both egg and sperm

 Heterospory: produces two kinds of spores:

o Megaspore: germinates into a gametophyte individual that  produces only eggs (diploid)

o Microspore: germinates into a gametophyte individual that  produces only sperm (diploid)

 Gametophyte & Sporophyte

o Isomorphic: morphologically, the gametophyte & sporophyte  are indistinguishable  

o Heteromorphic: morphologically the gametophyte &  sporophyte are distinct

 Gamete evolution: developed in may plant-like protist o Isogamy: gametes identical in size & motility

o Anisogamy: gametes differ in size but both motile (unequally) o Oogamy: large, immotile gamete = egg; small, motile gamete = sperm

New Problem facing land plants:

 Obtaining water

 Transporting water & nutrient

 Water loss

 Gas exchange

 Gravity

 Reproduction  

 Temperature flux

Features of Land plants:

 Chlorophyll A & B  

 Starch storage

 Gametes protected  

 Stomata

 Wax surfaces

 Root system

 Conduction tissues

 Support tissues

Review Questions:

1. Mitosis is when you start with is different then what you end with  a. True/False

2. Meiotic types are which of the following

a. Zygotic, gametic, hyphae

b. Hyphae, gametic, sporic

c. Sporangium, mitosis, meiosis

d. Zygotic, sporic, gametic

3. Mitotic cell division is a sexual reproduction that results in variations  in offspring’s

a. True/false

4. Which are the following the most significant recyclers on Earth? a. Heterotrophs and Zygomycota

b. Bacteria and fungi

c. Protists and peziza

d. Fungi and peziza

5. Haustoria is which of the following

a. body of the fungal organism

b. filaments that make up the thallus/mycelium

c. specialized hyphae that releases exoenzymes for extracellular  digestion

d. cell walls partition cells

6. Thallus and mycelium is which of the following?

a. body of the fungal organism

b. filaments that make up the thallus/mycelium

c. specialized hyphae that releases exoenzymes for extracellular  digestion

d. cell walls partition cells

7. Hyphae is which of the following?

a. body of the fungal organism

b. filaments that make up the thallus/mycelium

c. specialized hyphae that releases exoenzymes for extracellular  digestion

d. cell walls partition cells

8. Fertilization is which of the following?

a. Syngamy

b. Plasmogamy

c. Karyogamy

d. Dikaryon

e. Heterokaryon

9. Which of the following is n+n because of two nuclei from different  individuals  

a. Syngamy

b. Plasmogamy

c. Karyogamy

d. Dikaryon

e. Heterokaryon

10. Which of the following is before the nuclei fuse? a. Syngamy

b. Plasmogamy

c. Karyogamy

d. Dikaryon

e. Heterokaryon

11. Which of the following is fusion of cytoplasm from two different  cell types

a. Syngamy

b. Plasmogamy

c. Karyogamy

d. Dikaryon

e. Heterokaryon

12. Haploid happens during which of the following during  reproduction

a. Karyogamy

b. After plasmogamy

c. After meiosis

d. When there is a zygote

13. Is ringwork a worm?

a. Yes/no  

14. Black bread mold is which of the following phylum and genus a. Zygomycota and peziza

b. Zygomycota and claviceps

c. Basidiomycota and fairy rings

d. Basidiomycota and bracket fungi

e. Zygomycota and Rhizopus

15. Which of the following phylum is free-living & symbiotic? a. Zygomycota

b. Basidiomycota

c. Ascomycota

d. Fairy rings

16. Asco means

a. Vessel/cup

b. Vessel/bucket

c. Cup/sac

d. Vessel/sac

17. Which of the following are a representative of Ascomycota a. Fairy rings  

b. Rhizopus

c. Puffballs

d. Peziza  

18. How many kinds of cells would you find in the 8 ascospores? a. 8

b. 2

c. 4

d. 6

19. Which of the following phylum has the worlds’s largest  organism representative

a. Ascomycota

b. Zygomycota

c. Pheomycota

d. Basidiomycota

20. What is the worlds largest organism?

a. Puffballs

b. Lichens

c. Fungi

d. Fairy rings

21. Name the following types of lichens

22. What are lichen?

23. Why is mycorrhizae so important?

24. What is the cell wall of a plant made out of? a. Chitin  

b. Cellulose

c. Diatoms

d. Both a and b

25. Isogamy is which of the following?

a. gametophyte & sporophyte are distinct

b. gametes identical in size & motility

c. gametophyte & sporophyte are indistinguishable

d. developed in may plant-like protist

26. During heterospory is it haploid, n+n, or diploid? 27. Name three new problems land plants face

28. What is the stoma?

Answers:

1. False: that is meiosis

2. A

3. False: mitotic cell division is an asexual reproduction that results in  clone offspring’s  

4. B

5. C

6. A

7. B

8. A

9. E

10. C

11. B

12. C

13. No

14. E

15. C

16. C

17. C

18. A

19. D

20. D

21. Crustose, Fruiticose, Foliose

22. mutualistic association between fungi and either algae or  cyanobacteria. Algae provides food while fungi provides structural  position for photosynthesis. Most of the time this algae are outside  their regular habitat (outside aquatic environments). Lichens are

important “pioneer species” in helping establish terrestrial  ecosystems.

23. association between the roots of “most plants” and fungi. Host  plants provide food for fungus while water and mineral uptake by  plants are enhanced by fungal hyphae.

24. B

25. B

26. Diploid

27. Gas exchange, obtaining water, temperature flux, transporting  water & nutrients, water loss, gravity, reproduction

28.The pore on a plant that allows for gas exchange

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