CRIMINAL JUSTICE 2100 INTRO. TO CRIMINAL JUSTICE EXAM#1 STUDY GUIDE
1)As an institution of social control, criminal justice differs from the family, schools, organized religion, the media, and the law in that it....
- is generally society's "last line of defense."
2) Which of the following types of offenses is punishable by death in the United States? -A felony
3) The term "jurisdiction", as used in your text, means
-A politically defined geographical area
4) The primary purpose of a(n) ________ is to hear the formal information or indictment and to allow the defendant to enter a plea.
5) Currently, five general types of punishment are in use in the United States. Which of the following is NOT one of these punishments?
Don't forget about the age old question of How does conflict theory apply to homeless people?
6) Defendants can appeal their convictions on legal grounds. Which of the following is NOT one of the legal grounds described in your textbook?
-Illegal search and seizure
7) In the United States, the states that do not utilize preliminary hearings schedule an arraignment date at the ________.
8) The most important aspect of the crime control model of criminal justice is -The control of criminal behavior
9) In 2012, the federal government spent about ________ of the total expenditures on criminal and civil justice.
10) In the Florida cocaine possession case described in the text, which criminal justice function cost the most?If you want to learn more check out What is the molecular clock formula?
11) Like the family, schools, organized religion, the media, and the law, criminal justice is a(n) -An institution of social control
12) Which of the following is true of parole?
- It is given before prisoners have served their full sentences
13) A typical ________ definition of crime is behavior that violates the norms or mores of society.
14) If a person did not want to commit a crime but was forced or coerced to do so against his or her will, he or she committed the crime ________.
15) In most American jurisdictions, the upper age limit for juvenile delinquency is ________, and the lower limit is usually ________.
16) Which of the following is the most important problem with the M'Naghten rule?
- It fails to address the situation of a defendant who knew the difference between right and wrong but was unable to control his or her actions.
17) What is the Latin term for crimes that are "wrong in themselves"-crimes characterized by universality and timelessness? If you want to learn more check out How does rna help as a template for protein synthesis?
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-Mala in se
18) Near the end of 2015, ________ of Americans said there was more crime in the United States than in 2014.
19) Which of the following terms is defined as crimes that are not officially recorded by the police?
-The dark figure of crime
20) Which of the following types of single-bias hate crimes was reported most often to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 2014?
-Crimes motivated by racial biasDon't forget about the age old question of What is an example of bulk transport?
21) Which of the following sets of characteristics best describes the typical arrestee in 2014? -Young, male, white
22) Which of the following terms is defined as an act that is illegal for a juvenile but would not be a crime if committed by an adult?
-A status offense
23) Which of the following is a problem associated with finding an appropriate definition of crime?
- Many dangerous and harmful behaviors are not defined as crimes, while many less dangerous and less harmful behaviors are.
24) What was the index crime for which women were most frequently arrested in 2014? -Larceny-theft
25) Which of the following is a product of the Enlightenment period, or the Age of Reason, a period of history that began in the early 1500s and lasted until the late 1700s?
-A Classical Theory
26) Which of the following scientists suggested that some people were "less highly evolved or developed than others" and that some people "were nearer their apelike ancestors than others in traits, abilities, and dispositions"? Don't forget about the age old question of Who are considered the anti-federalists?
27) Which of the following theories is based on the belief that criminals are physiologically different from noncriminals?
28) Who argued that criminals are, by birth, a distinct type, and that this type can be recognized by physical characteristics or stigmata such as enormous jaws, high cheekbones, insensitivity to pain, etc.?
29) With whom are psychoanalytic theories of crime causation associated? -Sigmund Freud
30) There are at least three crime policy implications of Seymour Halleck's humanistic psychological theory. Which of the following is NOT one of the three policy implications listed in your textbook?
- Psychoactive drugs should be provided as part of the psychotherapy process.
31) Edwin H. Sutherland's ________ states that persons who become criminal do so because of contacts with criminal definitions and isolation from noncriminal definitions.
- Differential association theory
32) Radical criminologists argue that ________ is an economic system that requires people to compete against each other in the individualistic pursuit of material wealth.
33) Men's control over women's labor and sexuality is known as
34) Your textbook lists three general solutions to women's subordinate position in society for liberal feminists. Which of the following does NOT belong?
-Abolition of Patriarchy
35) Which of the following best captures classical criminologists' concept of "utility"? - "The greatest happiness shared by the greatest number"
36) Which of the following statements reflects a feature of conflict theory? - It is reformist in its policy implications.
37) Which of the following has been identified by a leading exponent of left realism, Jock Young, as a potent, though not exclusive, cause of crime?
- Relative deprivation
38) Which of the following refers to the way in which criminal law should be enforced? - Uniformity
39) Which of the following refers to the legitimate source of criminal law? -Politically
40) The criminal law of the United States, for the most part, is derived from the laws of..
41) The principle of using precedents to guide future decisions in court cases is called ________. -Stare decisis
42) Most of the procedural, or due process, rights given to criminal suspects or defendants in the United States are found in
-Bill of Rights
43) Which of the following provisions in the Bill of Rights is NOT yet applicable to the criminal justice process of the states?
- The right to a grand jury indictment
44) Which of the following standards of proof is more than a gut feeling and legally permits a law enforcement officer to stop and frisk a suspect?
45) Which of the following standards of proof is evidence that more likely than not outweighs the opposing evidence, or sufficient evidence to overcome doubt or speculation?
-Preponderance of Evidence
46) In 2009, which case qualified the earlier New York v. Belton court decision on conducting searches in the passenger compartments of cars only when it is reasonable to believe the arrestee could still have access to the vehicle at the time of the search?
-Arizona v. Gant
47) Your textbook names ten critical stages during which the right to counsel has been extended. Which of the following is NOT one of these critical stages?
- questioning by law enforcement officers of suspects not in police custody 48) In which of the following cases was the exclusionary rule extended to state courts? -Mapp v. Ohio
49) In which of the following Supreme Court cases was a good-faith exception to the exclusionary rule recognized?
- Massachusetts v. Sheppard
50) Which of the following refers to explorations or inspections by law enforcement officers of homes, premises, vehicles, or persons for the purpose of discovering evidence of crimes or persons who are accused of crimes?