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FIU / zoology / ZOO 3603 / Where is urine discharged?

Where is urine discharged?

Where is urine discharged?

Description

School: Florida International University
Department: zoology
Course: Embryology
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: fetus and embryology
Cost: 25
Name: Fetal Period
Description: These notes cover fetal period
Uploaded: 09/28/2019
2 Pages 64 Views 1 Unlocks
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Fetal period

  • Embryo = recognizable human, primordia of all major system have formed
  • Notable change: slowdown in growth of head vs. body

Nne - Twelve Weeks

  • 9th week: head  of crown - rump length (CRL): eyelids are fused
  • By end of 12 weeks: CRL has almost doubled
  • Head >> body
  • Primary ossification centers appear in the skeleton
  • Specially cranium and long bones
  • Upper limbs are their relative lengths
  • Lower limbs not as developed
  • External genitalia appear at end of week 9 (finish week 12)
  • Intestinal coils visible until week 11 when they have returned to the abdomen (body cavity increases in size)
  • 9 weeks: liver is major site of erythropoiesis (formation of red blood cells)
  • Week 12: spleen is site of erythropoiesis
  • Urine formation
  • Urine is discharged through the urethra into the amniotic fluid
  • Waste is transferred to maternal circulation by passage across placental membrane
  • Fetus reabsorb some amniotic fluid by swallowing

If you want to learn more check out What are the styles of choral poetry?
If you want to learn more check out What is communication between individuals based on facial movements and body language rather than on body language?

Thirteen → sixteen weeks

  • Growth is very rapid
  • Limb movements are coordinated by week 14
  • Ossification of the fetal skeleton
  • Bones visible in ultrasound
  • Week 16: ovaries are differentiated and contain primordial ovarian follicles with cogonia
  • Genitala can be recognized 12 - 14 weeks

If you want to learn more check out What is a fluid structure that is the boundary and protective layer of all cells?

17 - 20 weeks

  • Fetal movement is commonly felt by the mother
  • Skin is now covered with greasy, cheese - like material: vernix caseosa
  • Dead epidermal cells and fatty substance from fetal sebaceous gland
  • Protects delicate fetal skin from abrasions
  • Chapping and hardening that result from exposure to amniotic fluid
  • Fetus are covered with fine, downy hair: lanugo
  • Helps vernix to adhere to skin
  • Eyebrows and head hair are visible
  • Brown fat forms during this period
  • Heat production (oxidizes fatty acids)
  • Adipose tissue: connective tissue with mostly fat cells
  • Week 26: white fat

We also discuss several other topics like What are the three types of plate boundaries and how can one identify them?

21 - 25 weeks

  • Substantial weight gain
  • Skin = pink / red because blood in the capillaries
  • Rapid eye movement
  • Secretory epithelial cells in interalveolar walls of lung: type II pneumocytes
  • Secrete surfactant
  • Surface - active lipid that prevent alveoli from collapsing

Don't forget about the age old question of What is a proximate cause?

26 - 29 weeks

  • Fetuses usually survive if they are both
  • Lungs and pulmonary vasculature have developed  to provide gas exchange
  • Blood vessels in lungs, due to type II alveolar cells
  • Central nervous system can direct rhythmic breathing movements
  • Spleen = erythropoiesis

Don't forget about the age old question of What is a gridlock?

30 - 34 weeks

  • Pupillary reflex
  • Pupil responds to light, movement of eye
  • While fat = 8% body weight
  • Gain weight (mainly)
  • Maturation of CNS

35 - 38 weeks

  • Born 38 weeks from fertilization, 40 weeks from last unknown period

Factors influencing fetal growth

  • Fetus require nutrients
  • Gas and nutrients pass freely to the fetus from the mother through placental membrane
  • Glucose = primary source of energy (fetal pancreas secretes insulin)
  • Amino acids are required (mother)
  • Fetus is no longer as exposed as week 1 - 8, but somethings still have high influence
  • Smoking
  • Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)
  • Baby too small
  • Alcohol
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
  • CNS severely affected (not matured)
  • IUGR
  • Virus can produce serious problems in eyes and ears
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Blindness
  • Rubella
  • Smallpox
  • Herpes

Produces for assessing fetal status

Diagnostic amniocentesis

  • Performed between 15 and 18 weeks gestation
  • Amniotic fluid is sampled by inserting a 22 - gauge needle through the mother’s anterior abdominal and uterine walls into the amniotic cavity
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