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BU / Psychology / PS 101 / What is nativism?

What is nativism?

What is nativism?

Description

School: Boston University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Intro to Psychology, Psychology, and nervous system
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide 1
Description: These notes cover the historical figures, the nervous system, and study methods. They are highlighted with vocabulary and historical figures to find them easily. Most definitions are included as well as notes the professor added in classes.
Uploaded: 10/01/2019
26 Pages 133 Views 9 Unlocks
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||: vocabulary


What is nativism?



||: historical figures

Beginnings of Psychology

Nativism vs Empiricism

Nativism- you are born with traits and that’s how you are your whole life   Plato was a nativist

Empiricism- you are not the same as you are at birth, you change through  environment (tabula rasa)

 Aristotle was an empiricist

Decartes 

Interactive dualism- separation of the mind and the physical body, allowing  for communication between the two

I think, therefore I am

Franz Joseph Gall 

Phrenology- traits and characteristics map onto the size of brain regions Can be observed through differences in the bumps on the skull Pierre Flourens 


What is empiricism?



Localization of function within specific brain areas

Demonstrated by observing effects of brain lesions in non-human animals Paul Broca 

Observation of naturally occurring lesions and associated dysfunction Supports localization and specificity of function

Brocas Aphasia: partial loss of the ability to produce language

Contributions of Physiology to Psychology

Physiology: the study of biological process, especially in the human body Hermann von Helmholtz

Measured speed of nerve impulses via reaction time

Demonstrated that mental processes are not instantaneous

Wilhelm Wundt 

Credited with the emergence of psychology as a legitimate science


What is interactive dualism?



Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the members of a construction team?

Authored Principles of Physiological Psychology

Opened the first exclusive psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig Structuralism 

Analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind

The mind can be mapped

Consciousness: a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind Introspection: subjective observation of one’s own experience

"raw" sensory experiences and reaction times were reported to illustrate the  differences between sensation and perception

Edward Titchener 

Introduced structuralism to the US

Created a list of more than 44,000 elemental qualities of conscious  experience, most visual or auditory

Functionalism 

The study of the purpose mental processes serves in enabling people to  adapt to their environment

Inspired by Charles Darwin's book, on the origin of species by means of  natural selection

William James 

Taught first American courses in psychology

Authored textbook The Principles of Psychology

G Stanley Hall 

Studied under Wundt and James

Established first North American Psychology Laboratory

Co-founder and first president of the APA Don't forget about the age old question of What is the chemical symbol?

Mary Whiton Calkins 

Studied under William James at Harvard

Completed requirements but University refused to grant PhD to a woman Became first woman president of the APA

Gestalt Psychology

From the German for "Unified Whole"

Max Wertheimer 

Fritz Perls 

Mental experience was dependent not on a simple combination  of elements but on the organization and pattering of experience  and of ones perception

Developed as a unified psychological theory, but focuses  

primarily on perception

Gave rise to principles of perception still in use today We also discuss several other topics like What is a dipole moment?

Sigmund Freud 

Hysteria: temporary loss of cognitive of motor function, usually resulting from psychological trauma

Psychoanalysis

Humanism 

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers 

Humanistic psychology: an approach to understanding human nature that  emphasizes the positive potential of human beings

Behaviorism  

Behaviorism: the scientific study of objectively observable behavior

Internal mental states treated as a "black box" unobservable, immeasurable,  and thus not worth pursuing

Stimulus->"black box"->response

Ivan Pavlov 

Conditioning

Stimulus-response learning

Developed and studied by Ivan Tolochinov, Pavlov's student

Dog and food with bell Don't forget about the age old question of What is ethnicity?

John B Watson 

Influenced by Pavlov and believed the goal of scientific psychology should be  to predict and control behavior for the benefit of society

Beef with Margaret Floy Washburn regarding animal cognition

Little Albert

Stimulus generalization: conditioned response elicited by anything like  conditioned stimulus

Burrhus Frederick Skinner 

Built a conditioning chamber now known as a skinner box

Principle of Reinforcement: the consequences of a behavior determine whether it  will be more or less likely to occur again

Kenneth and Mamie Clark 

Pioneered social psychology's exploration of race and racism in America with  experimental evidence of racial prejudice in children

Kenneth became first black president of the APA (American psychological  association)

Cognitive Psychology

Scientific study of mental processes (memory, perception, thought, reason)

Applies computational theory of mind in attempt to explain what foes on  between environment and behavior If you want to learn more check out What are the consumer psychology techniques?

Neuroscience

Behavioral neuroscience: links psychological processes to activities in the nervous  system and other bodily processes

The Nervous System 

Neuron: a single cell of the nervous system Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of barter?

Nerve: a bundle consisting of the axons of many neurons

Nervous system: network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information  throughout the body

2 major divisions of the nervous system: central and peripheral nervous  system

Central: brain and spinal cord

Autonomic: controls of self-regulated action of internal organs and glands Sympathetic : fight or flight

Parasympathetic : calming

Always using both responses

Somatic: controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles

Spinal reflexes

Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle  contractions

Painful sensations travel directly to the spinal cord via sensory neurons,  which issue an immediate  

Hindbrain

Coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cored

Referred to as the "reptilian brain" as it is the "oldest" part of the brain,  evolutionarily

Medulla, reticular formation, cerebellum, pons (bridge)

Medulla 

Heartrate and respiration

Basic rhythmic body functions

Cerebellum 

Sensory motor coordination

Fine tuned movements

Balance 

Reticular formation

Consciousness and unconsciousness

Sleeping and waking cycle

Midbrain 

Important for orientation and movement. Consists of two main  structures

Tectum

Tegmentum

Involved in orientation and motivative behavior

Pleasure/reward

Forebrain 

Highest level of the brain

Controls complex cognitive, emotional, sensory and motor function Divided into two main sections

Cerebral cortex 

Subcortical structures

Pituitary Gland 

"master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which  releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in  the body

Involved in response to stress, digestion and reproductive processes

Somatosensory cortex 

The homunculus is a distorted figure used to illustrate how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to each body part

Motor cortex (frontal)

Frontal Lobe 

Located at the front of the brain, has specialized area for movement,  abstract thinking, planning memory and judgment

Home to the motor cortex

Distinguishes man from beast?

Brain plasticity

The brain is plastic:

Function that were assigned to certain areas of the brain can be  reassigned to other areas of the brain to accommodate changing input from the environment

The younger the patient is, the better the prognosis

Brain plasticity and Phantom limb sensation  

The brain feels the arm, not the physical arm, so the brain will  still "feel" the arm

Methods for studying the human brain

Observing effects of localized brain damage

Observing effects of magnetic interface with normal brain activity Recording brain activity electrically

Viewing brain activity with imaging methods sensitive to blood flow Phineas Gage

Massive frontal lobe trauma results in pronounced personality  

changes

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

The electrical coil placed over the subject’s skull induces a magnetic  field

Repetitive pulses of the magnetic field inhibit activity of the underlying  neurons

Single brief pulses activate neurons

EEG 

Uses electricity to produce a head map

Polygraph 

Used to measure involuntary activity in the brain and the body

Sphygmomanometer: record of changes in blood pressure

Respiration belt: record of changes in breathing rate

Electrodermal response: record of electrical conductance of skin changing  with perspiration

Electromyogram: record of muscle activity

Electrooculogram: record of eye movement

Structural imaging techniques

CT

MRI

Functional imaging techniques

fMRI

PET scan

Antimatter annihilation event

Positron and electron collide and cease to exist, but photons are  emitted

Photoreceptors around the ring in PET scans

Methods for studying behavior of non-human animals

Observing the effects of deliberately placed brain lesions

Effects of stimulating specific areas of the brain

Electrical recording from single neurons

Lesions or implantations in specific areas of the brain to observe what  part of the brain is doing what

Neurons

The human brain consists of roughly 100 billion neurons and roughly 100  trillion synapses

Neurons are cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another  to perform information processing tasks

Discovery

In 1906, Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal were jointly awarded the  Nobel Prize "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous  system"

Neuron Doctrine 

The nervous system is composed entirely of discrete, individual cells Neurons are the basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system Parts of the neuron

Cell body (soma)

Nucleus

Dendrites

Axon

Myelin sheath

Axon terminal

Glial cells 

Provide support and nutrients to neurons

Capable of communicating with one another and neurons

Myelinate cells (schuan cells)

The synapse 

The space between terminal axon and next neurons dendrite

Where vesicles carry neurotransmitters from the buttons of the terminal axon and receptors in the dendrites receive the neurotransmitters

Neuron types

Sensory neurons: receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord

Motor neurons: carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce  movement

Interneurons: connect sensory neurons, motor neurons and other  interneurons

Resting potential: difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a  neurons cell membrane

Work by biologists Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley led to the discovery of a  neuron's resting potential

-70 mV (not fixed)

cat-ions are paw-sitive

Action potential: electrical signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse Action potentials are all or nothing

Refractory period: time following an action potential during which a new  action potential cannot be initiated

Synaptic Transmission

Terminal buttons: knoblike structures that branch out from an axon at its  endpoint

Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit information across a synapse to a receiving neurons dendrite

Receptors: part of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and  initiate a new electric signal

Glutamate (Glu) 

Major excitatory neurotransmitter throughout the brain

Makes cells more likely to fire action potentials

Used by interneurons

Important in learning and memory formation

Excess glutamate is toxic to neurons thus is an important cause of cell death  in brain diseases  

GABA

Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain  

Makes cells less likely to fire action potentials

Drugs that enhance GABA have many clinical applications:

Anticonvulsants

Anxiolytics

Anesthesia

Alcohol and many depressants act at the GABA receptor

Acetylcholine (ACh) 

Enables muscle action; regulates attention, learning, memory, sleeping and  dreaming

Most common at the neuromuscular junction

Nerve agents commonly inhibit enzymes which degrade ACh, causing a toxic  buildup of Ach

Botulinum toxin

Weight of 1 aspirin can kill 100,000 people

Widely used in dilute form for cosmetic purposes (BoTox)

Agonists/Antagonists

Agonist: mimics or increases the effect of a natural neurotransmitter

Often it does this by binding to the receptor sire and triggering the same  signals that the transmitter would

Antagonist: blocks the function of a transmitter

Often by simply binding to a receptor site and preventing the transmitter  from binding

Research Methods 

Empiricism 

The belief that accurate knowledge of the world requires observation of it

Dogmatism: the tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true,  without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others

Empirical method:

A set of rules and techniques for observation

Allows observers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and erroneous  conclusions that simple observation can produce

Parsimony 

Ockham's Razor: begin to explain phenomena using the simplest theory. Only  complicate this story if evidence demands it. (horses vs zebras)

Study humans

Uniquely difficult due to our:

Complexity

Variability

Reactivity

Scientific method

Rigorous and systematic method of scientific study

Theory: a hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs

Hypothesis: a testable prediction or claim of what will occur under a stated  set of conditions

Operational definition 

Properties of behavior must be defined in measurable terms

Problems in defining validity

Construct validity: tendency for an operational definition and property to  have a clear conceptual relation

Predictive validity: tendency for an operational definition to be related to  other operational definitions

Reliability: tendency for a measure to produce the same results  whenever it is used to measure the same thing

Power tendency: tendency for a measure to detect the concrete  measures specified in the operational definition (different results for  different subjects)

Bias 

Dr Marios observations are limited by what he sees  

Demand characteristics: aspects of a setting that cause people to  behave as they think an observer wants to expect them to behave

Hawthorne effect: observation affects behavior  

Observer bias: researcher expectations influence evaluation

Avoiding bias

Naturalistic observation: unobtrusively observing people or animals in their  natural environment

Can avoid influence of demand characteristics on those studied Anonymous responses

Measure behaviors that are not susceptible

Blind observer/participant

Who is being measured?

Population: the complete collection of objects or events that might be  measured

Ex. Humans

Sample: the partial collection of objects or events that are measured Ex. Humans who are bu students

Law of large numbers

As sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect  the attributes of the population from which the sample is drawn

Averages

Frequency distribution

Normal distribution

Descriptive statistics

Descriptions of central tendency

Mean

Median

Mode

Descriptions of variability

Range

Variance

Standard deviation

Correlation 

Pattern of covariation that occurs between two variables, each of which have  been measured multiple times, but the investigator does not control the  variables measured

Positive correlation: two variables are related and change in the same  direction, r=1

Negative correlation: relationship between two variables changing in opposite directions, r=-1

End of exam 1

||: vocabulary

||: historical figures

Beginnings of Psychology

Nativism vs Empiricism

Nativism- you are born with traits and that’s how you are your whole life   Plato was a nativist

Empiricism- you are not the same as you are at birth, you change through  environment (tabula rasa)

 Aristotle was an empiricist

Decartes 

Interactive dualism- separation of the mind and the physical body, allowing  for communication between the two

I think, therefore I am

Franz Joseph Gall 

Phrenology- traits and characteristics map onto the size of brain regions Can be observed through differences in the bumps on the skull Pierre Flourens 

Localization of function within specific brain areas

Demonstrated by observing effects of brain lesions in non-human animals Paul Broca 

Observation of naturally occurring lesions and associated dysfunction Supports localization and specificity of function

Brocas Aphasia: partial loss of the ability to produce language

Contributions of Physiology to Psychology

Physiology: the study of biological process, especially in the human body Hermann von Helmholtz

Measured speed of nerve impulses via reaction time

Demonstrated that mental processes are not instantaneous

Wilhelm Wundt 

Credited with the emergence of psychology as a legitimate science

Authored Principles of Physiological Psychology

Opened the first exclusive psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig Structuralism 

Analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind

The mind can be mapped

Consciousness: a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind Introspection: subjective observation of one’s own experience

"raw" sensory experiences and reaction times were reported to illustrate the  differences between sensation and perception

Edward Titchener 

Introduced structuralism to the US

Created a list of more than 44,000 elemental qualities of conscious  experience, most visual or auditory

Functionalism 

The study of the purpose mental processes serves in enabling people to  adapt to their environment

Inspired by Charles Darwin's book, on the origin of species by means of  natural selection

William James 

Taught first American courses in psychology

Authored textbook The Principles of Psychology

G Stanley Hall 

Studied under Wundt and James

Established first North American Psychology Laboratory

Co-founder and first president of the APA

Mary Whiton Calkins 

Studied under William James at Harvard

Completed requirements but University refused to grant PhD to a woman Became first woman president of the APA

Gestalt Psychology

From the German for "Unified Whole"

Max Wertheimer 

Fritz Perls 

Mental experience was dependent not on a simple combination  of elements but on the organization and pattering of experience  and of ones perception

Developed as a unified psychological theory, but focuses  

primarily on perception

Gave rise to principles of perception still in use today

Sigmund Freud 

Hysteria: temporary loss of cognitive of motor function, usually resulting from psychological trauma

Psychoanalysis

Humanism 

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers 

Humanistic psychology: an approach to understanding human nature that  emphasizes the positive potential of human beings

Behaviorism  

Behaviorism: the scientific study of objectively observable behavior

Internal mental states treated as a "black box" unobservable, immeasurable,  and thus not worth pursuing

Stimulus->"black box"->response

Ivan Pavlov 

Conditioning

Stimulus-response learning

Developed and studied by Ivan Tolochinov, Pavlov's student

Dog and food with bell

John B Watson 

Influenced by Pavlov and believed the goal of scientific psychology should be  to predict and control behavior for the benefit of society

Beef with Margaret Floy Washburn regarding animal cognition

Little Albert

Stimulus generalization: conditioned response elicited by anything like  conditioned stimulus

Burrhus Frederick Skinner 

Built a conditioning chamber now known as a skinner box

Principle of Reinforcement: the consequences of a behavior determine whether it  will be more or less likely to occur again

Kenneth and Mamie Clark 

Pioneered social psychology's exploration of race and racism in America with  experimental evidence of racial prejudice in children

Kenneth became first black president of the APA (American psychological  association)

Cognitive Psychology

Scientific study of mental processes (memory, perception, thought, reason)

Applies computational theory of mind in attempt to explain what foes on  between environment and behavior

Neuroscience

Behavioral neuroscience: links psychological processes to activities in the nervous  system and other bodily processes

The Nervous System 

Neuron: a single cell of the nervous system

Nerve: a bundle consisting of the axons of many neurons

Nervous system: network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information  throughout the body

2 major divisions of the nervous system: central and peripheral nervous  system

Central: brain and spinal cord

Autonomic: controls of self-regulated action of internal organs and glands Sympathetic : fight or flight

Parasympathetic : calming

Always using both responses

Somatic: controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles

Spinal reflexes

Simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle  contractions

Painful sensations travel directly to the spinal cord via sensory neurons,  which issue an immediate  

Hindbrain

Coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cored

Referred to as the "reptilian brain" as it is the "oldest" part of the brain,  evolutionarily

Medulla, reticular formation, cerebellum, pons (bridge)

Medulla 

Heartrate and respiration

Basic rhythmic body functions

Cerebellum 

Sensory motor coordination

Fine tuned movements

Balance 

Reticular formation

Consciousness and unconsciousness

Sleeping and waking cycle

Midbrain 

Important for orientation and movement. Consists of two main  structures

Tectum

Tegmentum

Involved in orientation and motivative behavior

Pleasure/reward

Forebrain 

Highest level of the brain

Controls complex cognitive, emotional, sensory and motor function Divided into two main sections

Cerebral cortex 

Subcortical structures

Pituitary Gland 

"master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which  releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in  the body

Involved in response to stress, digestion and reproductive processes

Somatosensory cortex 

The homunculus is a distorted figure used to illustrate how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to each body part

Motor cortex (frontal)

Frontal Lobe 

Located at the front of the brain, has specialized area for movement,  abstract thinking, planning memory and judgment

Home to the motor cortex

Distinguishes man from beast?

Brain plasticity

The brain is plastic:

Function that were assigned to certain areas of the brain can be  reassigned to other areas of the brain to accommodate changing input from the environment

The younger the patient is, the better the prognosis

Brain plasticity and Phantom limb sensation  

The brain feels the arm, not the physical arm, so the brain will  still "feel" the arm

Methods for studying the human brain

Observing effects of localized brain damage

Observing effects of magnetic interface with normal brain activity Recording brain activity electrically

Viewing brain activity with imaging methods sensitive to blood flow Phineas Gage

Massive frontal lobe trauma results in pronounced personality  

changes

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

The electrical coil placed over the subject’s skull induces a magnetic  field

Repetitive pulses of the magnetic field inhibit activity of the underlying  neurons

Single brief pulses activate neurons

EEG 

Uses electricity to produce a head map

Polygraph 

Used to measure involuntary activity in the brain and the body

Sphygmomanometer: record of changes in blood pressure

Respiration belt: record of changes in breathing rate

Electrodermal response: record of electrical conductance of skin changing  with perspiration

Electromyogram: record of muscle activity

Electrooculogram: record of eye movement

Structural imaging techniques

CT

MRI

Functional imaging techniques

fMRI

PET scan

Antimatter annihilation event

Positron and electron collide and cease to exist, but photons are  emitted

Photoreceptors around the ring in PET scans

Methods for studying behavior of non-human animals

Observing the effects of deliberately placed brain lesions

Effects of stimulating specific areas of the brain

Electrical recording from single neurons

Lesions or implantations in specific areas of the brain to observe what  part of the brain is doing what

Neurons

The human brain consists of roughly 100 billion neurons and roughly 100  trillion synapses

Neurons are cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another  to perform information processing tasks

Discovery

In 1906, Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal were jointly awarded the  Nobel Prize "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous  system"

Neuron Doctrine 

The nervous system is composed entirely of discrete, individual cells Neurons are the basic structural and functional unit of the nervous system Parts of the neuron

Cell body (soma)

Nucleus

Dendrites

Axon

Myelin sheath

Axon terminal

Glial cells 

Provide support and nutrients to neurons

Capable of communicating with one another and neurons

Myelinate cells (schuan cells)

The synapse 

The space between terminal axon and next neurons dendrite

Where vesicles carry neurotransmitters from the buttons of the terminal axon and receptors in the dendrites receive the neurotransmitters

Neuron types

Sensory neurons: receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord

Motor neurons: carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce  movement

Interneurons: connect sensory neurons, motor neurons and other  interneurons

Resting potential: difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a  neurons cell membrane

Work by biologists Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley led to the discovery of a  neuron's resting potential

-70 mV (not fixed)

cat-ions are paw-sitive

Action potential: electrical signal that is conducted along an axon to a synapse Action potentials are all or nothing

Refractory period: time following an action potential during which a new  action potential cannot be initiated

Synaptic Transmission

Terminal buttons: knoblike structures that branch out from an axon at its  endpoint

Neurotransmitters: chemicals that transmit information across a synapse to a receiving neurons dendrite

Receptors: part of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and  initiate a new electric signal

Glutamate (Glu) 

Major excitatory neurotransmitter throughout the brain

Makes cells more likely to fire action potentials

Used by interneurons

Important in learning and memory formation

Excess glutamate is toxic to neurons thus is an important cause of cell death  in brain diseases  

GABA

Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain  

Makes cells less likely to fire action potentials

Drugs that enhance GABA have many clinical applications:

Anticonvulsants

Anxiolytics

Anesthesia

Alcohol and many depressants act at the GABA receptor

Acetylcholine (ACh) 

Enables muscle action; regulates attention, learning, memory, sleeping and  dreaming

Most common at the neuromuscular junction

Nerve agents commonly inhibit enzymes which degrade ACh, causing a toxic  buildup of Ach

Botulinum toxin

Weight of 1 aspirin can kill 100,000 people

Widely used in dilute form for cosmetic purposes (BoTox)

Agonists/Antagonists

Agonist: mimics or increases the effect of a natural neurotransmitter

Often it does this by binding to the receptor sire and triggering the same  signals that the transmitter would

Antagonist: blocks the function of a transmitter

Often by simply binding to a receptor site and preventing the transmitter  from binding

Research Methods 

Empiricism 

The belief that accurate knowledge of the world requires observation of it

Dogmatism: the tendency to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true,  without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others

Empirical method:

A set of rules and techniques for observation

Allows observers to avoid the illusions, mistakes, and erroneous  conclusions that simple observation can produce

Parsimony 

Ockham's Razor: begin to explain phenomena using the simplest theory. Only  complicate this story if evidence demands it. (horses vs zebras)

Study humans

Uniquely difficult due to our:

Complexity

Variability

Reactivity

Scientific method

Rigorous and systematic method of scientific study

Theory: a hypothetical account of how and why a phenomenon occurs

Hypothesis: a testable prediction or claim of what will occur under a stated  set of conditions

Operational definition 

Properties of behavior must be defined in measurable terms

Problems in defining validity

Construct validity: tendency for an operational definition and property to  have a clear conceptual relation

Predictive validity: tendency for an operational definition to be related to  other operational definitions

Reliability: tendency for a measure to produce the same results  whenever it is used to measure the same thing

Power tendency: tendency for a measure to detect the concrete  measures specified in the operational definition (different results for  different subjects)

Bias 

Dr Marios observations are limited by what he sees  

Demand characteristics: aspects of a setting that cause people to  behave as they think an observer wants to expect them to behave

Hawthorne effect: observation affects behavior  

Observer bias: researcher expectations influence evaluation

Avoiding bias

Naturalistic observation: unobtrusively observing people or animals in their  natural environment

Can avoid influence of demand characteristics on those studied Anonymous responses

Measure behaviors that are not susceptible

Blind observer/participant

Who is being measured?

Population: the complete collection of objects or events that might be  measured

Ex. Humans

Sample: the partial collection of objects or events that are measured Ex. Humans who are bu students

Law of large numbers

As sample size increases, the attributes of the sample more closely reflect  the attributes of the population from which the sample is drawn

Averages

Frequency distribution

Normal distribution

Descriptive statistics

Descriptions of central tendency

Mean

Median

Mode

Descriptions of variability

Range

Variance

Standard deviation

Correlation 

Pattern of covariation that occurs between two variables, each of which have  been measured multiple times, but the investigator does not control the  variables measured

Positive correlation: two variables are related and change in the same  direction, r=1

Negative correlation: relationship between two variables changing in opposite directions, r=-1

End of exam 1

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