● Attitude: a judgement of liking or disliking an entity that is represented in our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward the entity
○ Affect (feelings)-most important
○ Cognition (thoughts)
● Why we Form Attitudes:
○ Self-knowledge function- form identity
○ Ego-defense function- what we do=good
○ Utilitarian function- helps make decisions
○ Value expressive function- want to be a part of groups
● How we Form Attitudes:
○ Mere exposure to people, places, things, events Don't forget about the age old question of What is the oldest evidence of civilization?
○ Association (classical conditioning)
● Theory of reasoned action
○ 2 main predictors of behavior
■ Subjective norms and wanting to make a subjectively good opinion ■ Sometimes people lie about their attitudes
■ We’re not always thinking about our attitudes
● When do attitudes predict behavior?
○ When attention focused on our attitudes during action
○ When attitude is backed by active experience and is personally relevant ● Cognitive Dissonance Theory: want to avoid inconsistency in attitudes/beliefs and behaviors; dissonance is uncomfortable
○ Can’t change our behavior so we tweak our attitude
● Post-decisional dissonance: dissonance that occurs after making a decision ○ In cases where decisions cannot be reversed
● Self-affirmation: remind ourselves that we generally do behave inconsistently with our most important attitudes
● Self-perception theory (SPT): we decide our attitudes from observing our behavior; we don’t change our attitude but discover what it is
● System Justification Theory: want to avoid/resolve inconsistency between world that we wish to see with observations of word suggesting it’s often unjust ○ Tendency to view people low in socioeconomic status not being really bad off We also discuss several other topics like When does an offer become effective legally?
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● The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
○ Predicts messages/arguments that will be convincing depending on motivation and ability to analyze message
■ Central route: effortful; careful attention paid to content of message ■ Peripheral route: automatic/unconscious; influenced by cues that are separate from the content
● Three W’s of Persuasion (Who says What to Whom?)
○ who=speaker characteristics
● Halo effect: just being more physically attractive makes other
impressions more favorable Don't forget about the age old question of How good am i at getting to know other people?
● Perceived expertise
● Sleeper effect: persuasive message has little effect initially
but then later causes attitude to shift
■ Stronger effect on peripheral
○ What=message characteristics
■ Message quality (stronger effect on central)
■ Vividness (stronger effect on peripheral)
○ Whom=audience characteristics
■ Mood- good mood=peripheral; bad mood=central
■ Need for closure- high=central; low=peripheral
● Conformity: people tend to be influenced to have similar attitudes and behavior as the majority
● Compliance: convinced to agree to a clear and specific request ○ Techniques:
■ Foot in the door: comply with small request, more likely to comply with large request
■ Door in the face (reject and retreat): make large request first, then small request
● Obedience: authority figures demand convinces us to take actions we normally would not Don't forget about the age old question of What is syndication?
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● Informational conformity: conform because believe others have correct info, or that they know the appropriate/effective behavior for situation
○ Not knowledgeable about correct answer
● Normative Conformity: conform because believe social consequences for going against the group even though you believe you are right
○ Examples: prejudice, stereotypes
● The bystander effect: conforming to the behavior of dismissing an emergency ○ Informational conformity
○ Diffusion of responsibility