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UA / Psychology / PY 372 / When do attitudes predict behavior?

When do attitudes predict behavior?

When do attitudes predict behavior?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: Will hart
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Social Science, Cognitive Psychology, and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: social psychology test 2 study guide
Description: this covers attitudes and behaviors, persuasion, obedience, and compliance
Uploaded: 10/06/2019
3 Pages 81 Views 2 Unlocks
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Attitudes/Behavior/Rationalization


When do attitudes predict behavior?



● Attitude: a judgement of liking or disliking an entity that is represented in our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward the entity

○ Affect (feelings)-most important

○ Behavior

○ Cognition (thoughts)

● Why we Form Attitudes:

○ Self-knowledge function- form identity

○ Ego-defense function- what we do=good

○ Utilitarian function- helps make decisions

○ Value expressive function- want to be a part of groups

● How we Form Attitudes:

○ Mere exposure to people, places, things, events Don't forget about the age old question of What is the oldest evidence of civilization?

○ Association (classical conditioning)

○ Advertising

● Theory of reasoned action

○ 2 main predictors of behavior


How we form attitudes



■ Subjective norms and wanting to make a subjectively good opinion ■ Sometimes people lie about their attitudes

■ We’re not always thinking about our attitudes

● When do attitudes predict behavior?

○ When attention focused on our attitudes during action

○ When attitude is backed by active experience and is personally relevant ● Cognitive Dissonance Theory: want to avoid inconsistency in attitudes/beliefs and behaviors; dissonance is uncomfortable

○ Can’t change our behavior so we tweak our attitude 

● Post-decisional dissonance: dissonance that occurs after making a decision ○ In cases where decisions cannot be reversed

● Self-affirmation: remind ourselves that we generally do behave inconsistently with our most important attitudes


What does theory of reasoned action mean?



● Self-perception theory (SPT): we decide our attitudes from observing our behavior; we don’t change our attitude but discover what it is

● System Justification Theory: want to avoid/resolve inconsistency between world that we wish to see with observations of word suggesting it’s often unjust ○ Tendency to view people low in socioeconomic status not being really bad off We also discuss several other topics like When does an offer become effective legally?
If you want to learn more check out How do we use the 45.2 million acres in nebraska?

Persuasion

● The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion

○ Predicts messages/arguments that will be convincing depending on motivation and ability to analyze message

■ Central route: effortful; careful attention paid to content of message ■ Peripheral route: automatic/unconscious; influenced by cues that are separate from the content

● Three W’s of Persuasion (Who says What to Whom?)

○ who=speaker characteristics

■ Attractiveness

● Halo effect: just being more physically attractive makes other

impressions more favorable Don't forget about the age old question of How good am i at getting to know other people?

■ Creditability

● Perceived expertise

● Trustworthiness

● Sleeper effect: persuasive message has little effect initially

but then later causes attitude to shift

■ Stronger effect on peripheral

○ What=message characteristics

■ Message quality (stronger effect on central)

■ Vividness (stronger effect on peripheral)

○ Whom=audience characteristics

■ Mood- good mood=peripheral; bad mood=central

■ Need for closure- high=central; low=peripheral

Social Influence

● Conformity: people tend to be influenced to have similar attitudes and behavior as the majority 

● Compliance: convinced to agree to a clear and specific request ○ Techniques:

■ Foot in the door: comply with small request, more likely to comply with large request

■ Door in the face (reject and retreat): make large request first, then small request

● Obedience: authority figures demand convinces us to take actions we normally would not Don't forget about the age old question of What is syndication?
If you want to learn more check out What are the biogeochemical cycles and why are they important?

● Informational conformity: conform because believe others have correct info, or that they know the appropriate/effective behavior for situation

○ Not knowledgeable about correct answer

● Normative Conformity: conform because believe social consequences for going against the group even though you believe you are right

○ Examples: prejudice, stereotypes

● The bystander effect: conforming to the behavior of dismissing an emergency ○ Informational conformity

○ Diffusion of responsibility

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