[History 225 A] [Renee Bouchard] [Midterm Study guide]
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[Archaic Italy & Origins of Rome]
The Roman Republic was built on the Peninsula of Italy
o Circumference of 260,00 Km2
o Home to 5 Major Rivers (Po, Tibirs, Virtunis, Arnos, Liris)
o Rivers were useful in terms of agricultural potential and trade.
o Has 7 hills (Aventine, Capitoline, Caelian, Esquiline, Quirinal, Viminal)
[Evidence of early civilizations]
First signs of Civilization in the area date back to 4000 BCE
o Small, simple huts, home to a simple society and economy.
o There was little to no evidence of trade at the time.
o Less than 100 people in each village.
Evidence of Agriculture and Food.
o Evidence gathered from pollen shows us that the main crop used for food was barley.
o Livestock consisted of Sheep, Goat, Cattle, and Pigs. Found from Bones
Signs of Tool use
o First materials used for tools consisted of Stone and Wood.
o Tools later on were made of Bronze (An alloy of Copper and Tin)
Italian Metallurgy shows signs of outside influence.
[Origins of organized Civilization]
Precursors of the Etruscan Civilization
o Began during the Iron Age in the 9th century BCE
o Trade occur in this time period.
o Used Long Distance Trading with outside forces.
o Greek and Phonician colonies were set up around 800 BCE
o Greek colonies settled in Italy.
o Set up to produce food for the mainland. If you want to learn more check out When does an offer become effective legally?
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o Traded with the Villanovens in the area.
o First colony was established by the Greeks in 750 BCE.
Villanovens soon developed into the Etruscan Culture. Don't forget about the age old question of What are examples of dysfunctional “destiny” beliefs?
o Signs noticed by advanced pottery.
o Developed similar architecture and culture to the Greek colonists. With local flourish.
First languages for the Etruscans are written in Etruscan and Latin Don't forget about the age old question of How are choanoflagellates related to animals?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is syndication?
Most texts were written in Etruscan
Very short and uninformative texts.
Etruscan Civilization further develops.
o Etruscan civilization settled into a federation of 12 cities.
Possessed a common language.
Dominated preexisting communities.
[Founding of the Roman Republic] Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of transnational crime?
[Origins of the Roman Republic]
Rome was a series of huts set in the palatine hills.
o Under the rule of Etruscan Kings
o Established the Roman Forum on a nearby marsh, used asa public center for the Romans. Government buildings were later established.
The origins of the Roman Republic was based in myth, written as the Anead o Story was of a Trojan prince, who escaped Troy to settle in Italy.
[Story of Romulus and Remus]
The last etruscan king was called Numitor
o Overthrown by his brother Amulius.
o Made Numitors daughter, Reah, a Vestal Virgin preventing her from having children.
o Mars, the roman god of war, bedded Reah, leading her to give birth to Romulus and Remus.
Amulius attempted to drown them by sending them down a river.
o The Tigris river silts, leading the 2 children to wash up on shore, soon to be discovered by a Shepard by the name of Fostus,
o Romulus and Remus went back to rome, dethroning Amulius, and restoring Numitor to the throne.
Romulus and Remus went on to found their own city.
o Fought over who was to be king
o Romulus then killed his brother to found Rome.
The city of Rome was founded in 753 BCE.
[Rape of Lucretia]
Mythical event that led to the dissolution of the Roman Kings
o Many kings believed to be mythical
o Some kings were etruscan.
The son of the last king, Lucius tarquinius Superbus, was named Sextus.
o Attempted to seduce Lucretia, who was the icon of woman in rome. After he failed this attempt of seduction, he raped her.
o Lucreita went to tell her husband Collantinus about this event, and commited suicide our of shame.
o Collantius and his friends went on to overthrow the Kings. There is a 10 year gap between this coup and the foundation of the republic, possible revolts in this time.
The republic was established in 500 BCE
[Formation of the Republic]
2 distinct classes
Patricians and Plebeians.
Patricians were the wealthy upper class, with connections to ancient families.
Plebeians were made up of the rights of roman society.
o Ranged from merchants, farmers, and slaves.
[Levels of the Magistrate]
o Must be 30 years of age to apply.
o Looks over the finances of Rome (checks taxes and control the government finances.)
o There were up to 20 Quastors
o Did not receive a salary.
o Had to be a Quastor in order to move up the ranks.
o Have to be 26 to apply. A nonobligatory role.
o 4 Aediles elected Annually
o Maintained and repaired infrastructure.
o Monitored the markets for fair trade.
o Staged public events.
o Had to be 39 years old.
o Only 1 praetor elected annually at first. (Soon increased up to 8)
o Has imperium (The right to rule the army and adminstrate the death penalty. o Oversees the court of law
o In charge of the Roman legal system.
o An obligatory role to rise in the ranks.
Have to be 42 years old to be elected.
2 are elected annually to check each other's power abuse.
Chief Executives of the states.
Generals of the Army.
An emergency role, appointed by the Senate
Full power over the consuls
Used in times of Need
Only 6 months tenure, (can be reappointed).
Appointed different people to suit the needs of the crisis.
Master Equitory (Master of Calvary)
Is appointed by the Dictator.
Managed the Army
Appointed for life
The Advisory body
Made up of 300 members
Keeps the consuls from abusing their power.
Taken from plebeians who served magistrate roles.
Were Bodyguards for the Magistracies.
Carried fasces, which consists of a bundle of rods, wrapped in purple ribbons, with an axe in the center. (The Rods represented corporal punishment, the Axe represented Imperium, and the purple ribbons represented royalty.
Elected from an old and experienced person.
Elected every 4 years
Oversees the Roman census.
Can remove a senator for not making enough money, or from violating social norms.
Works for 18 months.
Usually 2 Censors.
Oversees a sacrifice, the Sueovetouritia, a sacrifice consisting of a ram, a sow, and a bull, in the name of Mars, who purifies Rome every 4 years, which is known as Lustration.
[Struggle of the Orders]
Occured in the 5th century
o Dissention between the 2 classes
o Patriciens were the only ones who took up office.
o Certain officials had the right to beat Plebeians.
o The gentry could indebted and took the land of small farms.
o Only patricians could vote.
o Plebeians outnumbered the Patricians.
Plebeians had a way of making the Patricians hear their demands.
o Marched of Rome en Masse, and waited upon the Aventine Hill.
o Stayed outside Rome until their demands were held.
o Patricians appointed a Dictator to speak with the Plebians.
Plebeians got their own Magistrate.
o Plebeians received the own tribune, and were allowed to vote, propose legislations, and could veto laws.
o Members of the Tribune has Sacrosanctity, if someone were to touch a tribune, they would be outlawed, and put to death.
3 Major Assemblies
o All citizens had to be present.
o Divided to 192 centuries.
o Were categorized by income.
o Ranked by wealth.
o Elected Consuls, Praetors, and Censors.
o Voted on issues, and on war and peace.
o Also dealt with capital charges.
o Each century had 1 vote.
o The Polls were closed once a majority was achieved.
o System was arranged so the patricians were favoured.
o 35 tribes, based on the geographical location of the tribe.
o Elected Quaestors and Aediles
o Dealt with issues on verdicts and trials
o Designed to favour Patricians.
o Only Plebeians were allowed to be in this assembly.
o Divided into 35 tribes
o Elects people to be in the Tribune of the Plebs.
o Votes on different affairs.
o Could reject of accept proposed laws.
o Could vote on their own assemblies.
[Law and War]
[Creation of the Republic Law system]
There was no new law code since the etruscan Kings.
o Law code was known as the Regae Lex, a very religious law code.
o In 451 BCe, a commission of 10 men were appointed by the senate, wrote the new laws.
o Went around Rome and listened to everyone's ideas and feedback.
o At the end of their term, another commission in 450 to finish the work of the previous commision.
o Created the laws of the 12 tables, a set of bronze tablets, and were set into a public place.
o They were a fundamental set of laws that lasted for centuries.
o The laws dealt with almost everything, including marriage, divorce, inheritance, and domestic issues.
o Also dealt with aspects of farming disputes and property.
o Consuls could still appeal and create laws.
[Roman Conquest and Expansion]
Roman warfare occupied the civic culture of Rome.
o They established a pattern of warfare, campaigns were held annually. o Warfare was entrenched in the political and religious structure of the republic. The Levy
o On March, named after the god of war Mars, every free man of age went to be chosen as a soldier in the public center.
o A sacrifice was held to ask the gods for divine favour in combat. The rituals were performed by the Generals.
o Levy is called the Dilectus.
The men were made up into 2 armies, one for each consul.
o Campaigns waged war for a few months each time.
o Most enemies of Rome either retreated or surrendered.
o Soldiers were discharged after the campaign has ended.
o Romans waged war and formed alliances in the 3rd and 4th century.
Territories captured by the Romans were incorporated into the Republic. o The territories were allowed to hold semiautonomy.
o The citizens had to join the Roman army.
o Some communities retained independence.
Towns with the status of allies, (Socii), could keep their own traditions. o Women in these towns can marry romans.
o Citizens had the right to move to Rome.
o These laws changed overtime.
o Towns that resisted Roman forces led to their land being confiscated. o The citizens of these towns were displaced and enslaved, and the inhabitants were replaced by Roman citizens.
o Romans established colonies on the edge of their territory.
o They were placed at strategic points along the borders to act as a buffer zone. o Acted like city states, with an independent fighting force, who defended the borders.
o These settlers gained latin status, but not Roman citizenship.
o Over 53 colonies were established.
Samnites was an empire that was engaged in warfare against Rome for many years. o War began when Rome placed a colony on the bank of a river near their empire. o Rome briefly gave up that colony after the Samnites ambushed the Romans on the battle of Caudine Fork. Romans resumed the war soon after.
o Rome invaded the Samnites every year, until the Samnites surrendered. Romans expanded near Greek Territory
o Expanded near the spartan colony of Tarentum
o Asked for the aid of the king of the Molossians, Pyrrhus of Epirus.
o Won many battles against the Romans, but at the costs of most of his army. o Moved close to Rome, but retreated when he saw the army.
o Failed to negotiate peace treaties with the Romans.
o Later killed in Argos.
o Carthage was an empire based in North Africa
o Went to war with Rome in 264 BCE.
o Start of the Punic wars.
o Both states fought over the city of Syracuse.
o Lost the war when syracuse allied with Rome.
o War Continued for 15 more years.
[Tips to the Map]
[Understanding points of Interest]
o To easily identify certain points on the map for the midterm, select a point that is in a unique location to the rest of the points, such as carthage being the only point on that map closest to the south.
o Another idea is to identify a point that is located in or near a unique landmark. Such as a river, or a channel between two pieces of land.