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CSU / Psychology / PSY 100 / What is selective attention and how does it relate to the cocktail par

What is selective attention and how does it relate to the cocktail par

What is selective attention and how does it relate to the cocktail par

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology (GT-SS3)
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology 100 Study Guide For Chapters 1-15
Description: Complete study guide for Exam 2 covering chapters 1-15.
Uploaded: 10/07/2019
4 Pages 40 Views 2 Unlocks
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Psychology Study Guide: Chapters 7­15


What is selective attention how does it relate to the cocktail party effect?



By Sophia Heath

Consciousness

Consciousness­the awareness of ourselves and our environment

 Internal­awareness of self such as hunger and emotion

 External­awareness of outside factors such as sensory input and others  Salience­to be aware of something

Characteristics of Consciousness:

 Limited capacity for attention

 Attention is selective

 Focus is a spotlight where majority of focus goes

­The Cocktail Party Effect­rejecting things someone isn’t listening to when focusing on  something specific, like conversations at a cocktail party


How many hours are in one's circadian rhythm?



Change Blindness­don’t recognize a change in the environment

Dual track mind­dual processing­we process consciously and unconsciously 2 processing types:

 Parallel processing­processing multiple things at once

 Sequential processing­focusing on one thing at a time

 Cognition­mental processes

 Spontaneous states­daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming

 Physiologically induced states­hallucinations, orgasm, food or oxygen starvation  Psychologically induced states­sensory deprivation, hypnosis, meditation

Sleep And Dreams

Circadian rhythms­naturally peak and dip through the course of 24 hours  Sleepiness­3 am/pm


How does environment affect sleep?



We also discuss several other topics like How does mucous membrane protect the body from infection?
Don't forget about the age old question of How did political parties begin in the us?

 Alertness­9 am/pm

 Sensory sensitivity­3am/6pm

 Pain sensitivity­lowest at 4pm, highest at 4 am

 Body temperature­lowest at 4 am, highest at 4 pm

­Controlled by our master biological clock in our Suprachiasmatic Nucleus(SCN) in  hypothalamus

Environmental cues affect sleep like:

 Light

 Melatonin production from the pineal gland

 Daylight savings time

 Jet lag or social jet lag

Purpose of sleep

1. Protects us at night

2. Helps us recuperate

3. Helps us restore/rebuild memory

4. Feeds creative thinking

5. Promotes growth Don't forget about the age old question of Why do bacteria die during the death phase?

 Sleep Deprivation: causes loss of concentration, inability to gauge risks, negative mood,  more cortisol, depression, weight gain

Sleep Stages:

1. Beta­alert, focused

Alpha­getting tired

Delta­going into sleep

2. NREM Stage 1­ transitional stage, alpha to theta

3. NREM Stage 2­theta wave, contains sleep spindles

4. NREM Stage 3­4­Deep sleep, delta waves

5.REM Stage­the dream stage

Theory of Dreams­

­Freud­wish fufillment

­John Allan Hobson­neurochemical changes in brain, reverse inlearning

Lucid Dreaming­A hybrid state of consciousness

Drugs

Psychoactive drugs­chemicals that change brain function

Addiction­craving of reuse despite negative effects

Types of Drugs:

Alcohol­increases dopamine and GABA, lowers glutamate

 Effects: cerebral, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and the medulla

Stimulants­increase brain functioning

Caffeine­addictive, has pros and cons

Depressants­reduce brain functioning

Hallucinogens­experience sensory input when there is none/little We also discuss several other topics like What is a franchise agreement in business?

Antipsychotics­stop certain mental disorders

Psychedelics­ “mind­manifesting” subclass of hallucinogens

Development Issues, Prenatal Development, And Newborns Fetal development­

 Considered a fetus at 9 weeks

 6 months­ responsive to sound and can survive outside the womb

Epigenetics­changes in how we express our DNA rather than altering it, chemical flags Teratogens­variables that affect the growth of a fetus such as alcohol

Reflexes

1. Grasping

2. Rooting

3. Suckling

4. Startle

5. Plantar

Infancy And Childhood

1. nature/nurture­how genetic inheritance and experiences affect development 2. Continuity stages­development can be steady and continuous or sudden and abrupt 3. stability/change­which traits persist and which change as we age

Lawrence kohlberg: moral development­ preconventional, conventional, and postconventional Erik erikson­psychosocial development­basic trust, autonomy, competence, identity, intimacy,  generativity, integrity

Jean piaget­cognitive development­sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal  operational

Critical period­the point where you must learn something in order to be able to do it, like speech Assimilate­interpret things with our current understandings vs. accomodate­adjusting schemas to incorporate information Don't forget about the age old question of What does social reproduction theory explain?

Schemas­current understanding

Sensorimotor­learning from senses and actions

Preoperational­representing things with words, too young for mental operations concrete operational­can grasp operations like conservation and change

formal operational­abstract thinking, hypothetical reasoning

Autism­poor communication among brain regions. Difficulty with emotions and empathy, social  development

Types of attachment

1. Securely attached­stable

2. Insecure attachment­

 Anxious attachment­crave acceptance but alert to rejection, clingy

 Avoidant attachment­creates constant concern over rejection, decreased commitment 4 types of parenting

1. Authoritarian­coercive and controlling

2. Permissive­loving but few rules

3. Negligent­little love and few rules

4. Authoritative­lots of love, willing to bend rules Don't forget about the age old question of Which movement began in italy and spread to the rest of europe?

Sex, Gender, and Sexuality

Gender­mental and personal identification vs sex­physical identification

Hormones­regulate development of sex characteristics

Nature vs nurture­biological factors vs. environmental factors

Sexual response cycle

1. Excitement­swelling and secreting

2. Plateau­steady, imminent

3. Orgasm­altered consciousness, muscle contractions

4. Resolution­fast in women, slow in men

Paraphilia­unhealthy fetishism

Love language

1. Words of affirmation

2. Acts of service

3. Giving gifts

4. Quality time

5. Physical touch

Kinsey­scale of sexuality

Relational aggression­nonphysical aggression such as rumors

Hormone theory­we can’t function without them, and after a certain point more makes no change Spemarche­first ejaculation

Menarche­first ovulation

Masters and Johnson­studied sex in the lab to understand arousal

Aging

3 types of moral reasoning:

Preconventional­self interests, obey laws to avoid punishment

Conventional­uphold rules for social approval

Postconventional­actions reflect belief in rights

Stages of psychosocial development:

 Trust vs. mistrust­1 yr.

 Autonomy vs. shame­1­3

 Initiative vs. guilt­3­6

 Competence vs. inferiority­6­11

 Identity vs. role confusion­11­20

 Intimacy vs. isolation­20­40

 Generativity vs. stagnation­40­60

 Integrity vs. despair­60+

Terminal decline­sharp increase in negative feelings and cognitive decline Social learning theory­we acquire gender identity in childhood

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