Quiz 3 Study Guide: Learning
Collection of different techniques, procedures, and outcomes that result in an acquisition of knowledge/skills and produce change in an organism’s behavior.
3 types of Learning
➢ Learning through repeated exposure to a stimulus/event
➢ Establishing an association between 2 stimuli/events that occur one after another
➢ Learning by watching what others do. Change/adjust our behaviors based on the consequences we see other people receive after performing that behavior
2 types of Non-Associative Learning
❖ Habituation: behavioral response to a stimulus decreases
➢ Reduction in neurotransmitter release
❖ Sensitization: behavioral response to a stimulus increases
➢ Increase in neurotransmitter release
2 types of Associative Learning
❖ Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: a neutral stimulus elicits a response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already produces that response; learning that one event produces another
❖ Operant (Instrumental) conditioning: an action’s consequences determine the likelihood of the action being repeated
More about Classical Conditioning
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❖ Multiple components
➢ Unconditioned response: unlearned, automatic behavior (e.g., salivation) ➢ Unconditioned stimulus: produced by UR before learning takes place (e.g., food) We also discuss several other topics like What is the treatment for mood disorders?
➢ Conditioned stimulus: serves as a “signal” that the UR is next (e.g., bell) ➢ Conditioned response: response that has been learned (e.g., increased salivation)
❖ Acquisition: formation of the association between CS and US
❖ Extinction: CR is extinguished when the CS no longer predicts the US ❖ Spontaneous Recovery: the extinguished CS again produces the CR (e.g. bell predicts food again), this recovery is temporary & can fade quickly w/o the CS-US pairing
❖ Prediction errors: difference between expected and actual outcome ➢ Positive: something better than expected happens, strengthens connection between CS and US
➢ Negative: expected event does not happen, absence weakens CS-US association
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More about Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
❖ Law of effect: any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again. Any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again
➢ Law of recency: most recent response is likely to govern reinforcement learning
➢ Law of exercise: repetition will strengthen the stimulus response ❖ Reinforcement: stimulus that occurs after a response & INCREASES the likelihood that the response will be repeated
➢ Positive: administration of a stimulus after a behavior, something added ➢ Negative: removal of an unpleasant stimulus, something removed ➢ Continuous: behavior reinforced each time it occurs
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➢ Primary reinforcers → stimuli that satisfy biological needs (food, water, etc.) ➢ Secondary reinforcers → stimuli that help increase the availability of primary reinforcers (e.g., money to buy food)
❖ Punishment: a stimulus that occurs after a response & DECREASES the probability that a behavior will occur
➢ Positive: administration of a stimulus
➢ Negative: removal of a usually pleasant stimulus
❖ Shaping: reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior in hopes of eventually producing the desired behavior
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❖ Ratio: based on the NUMBER of behaviors that have occurred
➢ Fixed-ratio: participant required to perform X # of responses to obtain reinforcer
■ They know how many behaviors it will take until they receive
➢ Variable-ratio: participant is required to perform some # of responses to obtain reinforcer, but that # changes from one trial to the next
■ They do not know how many behaviors it takes before they get
❖ Interval: based on the AMOUNT OF TIME that has elapsed since the last reinforced behavior
➢ Fixed-interval: a fixed amount of time since the last reinforcer delivery passes before the next response delivers a reinforcer
■ Can predict how much time will pass before next reinforcer delivery ➢ Variable-interval: the time between reinforcers is different in each trial ■ Cannot predict how much time will pass until next reinforcer delivery Don't forget about the age old question of Given that some target level of emissions (or pollution concentration) has been chosen, what is the best method of achieving that level?
❖ Modeling: the imitation of observed behavior
❖ Vicarious Learning: learning about an action’s consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
❖ Diffusion Chain → one person learns behavior by watching another, then they will go out and teach it to someone else
❖ Mirror neurons → neurons fire when you observe someone engage in a behavior as well as when you engage in the behavior yourself
Other ways ofthinking about Learning
❖ Latent learning → learning without reinforcement
❖ Cognitive maps → mentally representing space and creating cognitive maps
➢ E.g., the rat will choose the tunnel that will lead to food, even if it is a new tunnel
❖ Foraging behavior → species are biologically predisposed to learn some things more readily than others in a way consistent to their evolutionary history ❖ Suggest that learning is more than mere conditioning