Quiz 3 Study Guide: Learning
Collection of different techniques, procedures, and outcomes that result in an acquisition of knowledge/skills and produce change in an organism’s behavior.
3 types of Learning
➢ Learning through repeated exposure to a stimulus/event
➢ Establishing an association between 2 stimuli/events that occur one after another
➢ Learning by watching what others do. Change/adjust our behaviors based on the consequences we see other people receive after performing that behavior
2 types of Non-Associative Learning
❖ Habituation: behavioral response to a stimulus decreases
➢ Reduction in neurotransmitter release If you want to learn more check out What is a behavioral modification?
❖ Sensitization: behavioral response to a stimulus increases
➢ Increase in neurotransmitter release
2 types of Associative Learning
❖ Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: a neutral stimulus elicits a response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already produces that response; learning that one event produces another If you want to learn more check out What is the treatment for mood disorders?
❖ Operant (Instrumental) conditioning: an action’s consequences determine the likelihood of the action being repeated
More about Classical Conditioning
❖ Multiple components
➢ Unconditioned response: unlearned, automatic behavior (e.g., salivation) ➢ Unconditioned stimulus: produced by UR before learning takes place (e.g., food)
➢ Conditioned stimulus: serves as a “signal” that the UR is next (e.g., bell) ➢ Conditioned response: response that has been learned (e.g., increased salivation)
❖ Acquisition: formation of the association between CS and US
❖ Extinction: CR is extinguished when the CS no longer predicts the US ❖ Spontaneous Recovery: the extinguished CS again produces the CR (e.g. bell predicts food again), this recovery is temporary & can fade quickly w/o the CS-US pairingIf you want to learn more check out How do we manage anxiety?
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❖ Prediction errors: difference between expected and actual outcome ➢ Positive: something better than expected happens, strengthens connection between CS and US
➢ Negative: expected event does not happen, absence weakens CS-US association
More about Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
❖ Law of effect: any behavior that leads to a “satisfying state of affairs” is likely to occur again. Any behavior that leads to an “annoying state of affairs” is less likely to occur again
➢ Law of recency: most recent response is likely to govern reinforcement learning
➢ Law of exercise: repetition will strengthen the stimulus response ❖ Reinforcement: stimulus that occurs after a response & INCREASES the likelihood that the response will be repeated We also discuss several other topics like What class of cnidarians do not undergo metagenesis?
➢ Positive: administration of a stimulus after a behavior, something added ➢ Negative: removal of an unpleasant stimulus, something removed ➢ Continuous: behavior reinforced each time it occurs
➢ Partial: intermittent reinforcement of behavior
➢ Primary reinforcers → stimuli that satisfy biological needs (food, water, etc.) ➢ Secondary reinforcers → stimuli that help increase the availability of primary reinforcers (e.g., money to buy food)
❖ Punishment: a stimulus that occurs after a response & DECREASES the probability that a behavior will occur We also discuss several other topics like What are the total abatement cost functions of the two firms?
➢ Positive: administration of a stimulus
➢ Negative: removal of a usually pleasant stimulus
❖ Shaping: reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior in hopes of eventually producing the desired behavior
❖ Ratio: based on the NUMBER of behaviors that have occurred
➢ Fixed-ratio: participant required to perform X # of responses to obtain reinforcer
■ They know how many behaviors it will take until they receive
➢ Variable-ratio: participant is required to perform some # of responses to obtain reinforcer, but that # changes from one trial to the next
■ They do not know how many behaviors it takes before they get
❖ Interval: based on the AMOUNT OF TIME that has elapsed since the last reinforced behavior
➢ Fixed-interval: a fixed amount of time since the last reinforcer delivery passes before the next response delivers a reinforcer
■ Can predict how much time will pass before next reinforcer delivery ➢ Variable-interval: the time between reinforcers is different in each trial ■ Cannot predict how much time will pass until next reinforcer delivery
❖ Modeling: the imitation of observed behavior
❖ Vicarious Learning: learning about an action’s consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
❖ Diffusion Chain → one person learns behavior by watching another, then they will go out and teach it to someone else
❖ Mirror neurons → neurons fire when you observe someone engage in a behavior as well as when you engage in the behavior yourself
Other ways ofthinking about Learning
❖ Latent learning → learning without reinforcement
❖ Cognitive maps → mentally representing space and creating cognitive maps
➢ E.g., the rat will choose the tunnel that will lead to food, even if it is a new tunnel
❖ Foraging behavior → species are biologically predisposed to learn some things more readily than others in a way consistent to their evolutionary history ❖ Suggest that learning is more than mere conditioning