PSYCHOLOGY 101 with Bruce Svare
Study Guide for Exam 2(Chapters 4,6,7)
● Scientific experimental method
● The Benefits of Lifelong Learning
Nurture Curious minds, builds new skills besides what you have, open minds and increases wisdom, improves knowledge & self-confidence.
● Reward: the fundamental key to learning
Intrinsic(inside) vs Extrinsic(outside) rewards
Intrinsic: Feeling of a job well done, pride, sense of achievement.
Extrinsic: Recognition, gifts, promotion,praise,status,salary increase.
● Behaviorism: a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
-Hull -Watson -Skinner( behaviorist psychologists)
● It is impossible to study behavior scientifically by subjective(influenced by emotions and personal feelings) reports, so that’s why psychology must concentrate on objective (not influenced by personal feelings)analysis of observable behavior.
● Performance: What an organism does. The behavior they exhibit. As reflected in what his/her behavior actually shows/expresses.
● Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior that is due to experience with the environment. The potential ability to engage in a behavior.
We also discuss several other topics like Flashbulb memory means what?
TYPES OF REINFORCERS: Positive Reinforcers
● We describe reinforcers in terms of the effects(consequences) that they have on behavior.
● Any stimulus whose presentation leads to the strengthening of responses.
● Stimulus: a thing or event that evokes a specific functional reaction in an organ or tissue.
● UCS- UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS, UCR- UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE, CS- CONDITIONED STIMULUS, CR- CONDITIONED RESPONSE ● Reinforcement: increasing a behavior
● A reinforcer is something that increases the likelihood that a specific behavior or response will occur.
● Negative Reinforcement: A stimulus whose withdrawal increases the likelihood of a response that led to the terminator of the aversive stimulus(unpleasant event). ● Punishment: A stimulus whose presentation leads to the reduction of the response that came before it. *Decreasing a behavior.
● Contiguity: The closeness in time between two events.
● Behavior time: A long delay between response and reinforcement is ineffective. ● Condition reinforcement: occurs when a stimulus reinforces, or strengthens, set behaviors through its association with a primary reinforcer(occurs naturally). If you want to learn more check out Where is colombia located on the world map?
● Reinforcers may satisfy basic biological needs: warmth, sex, hunger, thirst, removal of pain.
● Ivan Pavlov-Classical Conditioning
● B.F Skinner- Operant Conditioning
● Ivan Palov(giant in psychology): Medical school training, research in psychology and physiology, work of digestive system of dogs earned him the Nobel Prize. ● Key factors in influencing Conditioning: frequency of pairings and temporal factors
● Classical Conditioning: process by which an organism learns an association between a previously neutral stimulus and one that reflexively elicits responses ● Conditioning responses can be unlearned very rapidly. If the CS is presented many times without the UCS the response will eventually extinguish. ● Presentation of CS alone eventually produces extinction.
● Time alone can be a conditioned stimulus. - Present food every 4 hours ● Spontaneous recovery: Returning an organism to a place where it has been conditioned will result in the reappearance of the conditioned response in the absence of explicit stimuli.
● Remember: unconditioned is naturally done. Don't forget about the age old question of What is a channel issue?
● Two important phenomena in classical conditioning: Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination
● A Stimulus discrimination has an organism that learns to respond to one stimulus and not another. We also discuss several other topics like What is maximized by social efficiency?
● Experimental Neurosis- Pavlov found that he could create experimental neurosis in drugs through a simple discrimination procedure.
● John Watson’s famous experiment- unethical to work with children. Watson subjectively assessed fear in the 9 years old child.
● Classical conditioning real life example- The toilet flushing phenomenon! ● Konstantin Stanislavsky recognized that the recall of memories of early emotional experiences can provoke tears.
● Stage tears can be produced by a stimulus associated with sadness, such as the recall of an experience.
● E.L Thorndike conducts the first studies of animal learning in the 1890s. ● Trial and Error: Ineffectual responses go away. Responses that gain release and lead to reward are strengthened and are more likely to occur the next time. ● Laws of learning by Thorndike: LAW OF EXERCISE— Stimulus response connections are strengthened by practice. LAW OF EFFECT— Stimulus response connections are strengthened by reward. ● B.F Skinner’s essential ingredients for learning— Establish a level of motivation, specify a terminal response, use a highly structured environment, and use successive approximations(shaping). Don't forget about the age old question of Does order matter in combination?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between nucleophiles and electrophiles?
● The Skinner box experiment- the action of pressing the lever is an operant response/behavior and the food release inside the chamber is the reward. ● Two basic types of schedules that reflect how we learn—-Interval schedule and Ratio schedule
● Interval schedule- based upon the passage of time: Fixed and Variable intervals ● Ratio Schedule- based upon the number of responses that an organism exhibits: Fixed ratio and variable ratio.
● The partial Reinforcement- Animals with a history of continuous reinforce extinguish more rapidly than animals with a history of partial reinforcement. Only reinforced at certain intervals or ratio of time.
● All you need is reinforcement - We are definitely controlled by consequences(rewards and punishment).
● If you really are good with reinforcement then you don’t need to use punishment. ● Operant Conditioning- Voluntary responses, Emitted responses, responses shaped by reinforcement, O operates on E, involvement of cortex and higher brain areas.
● Classical Conditioning- Involuntary responses, elicited responses, reinforcement not needed(contiguity only), E operates on O, and involvement of lower brain areas.
● Meal Miller’s research on Shaping of the Heart Rate concluded that it is possible to operantly condition an involuntary response. It provided the groundwork for biofeedback and the field of behavioral medicine.
● Biofeedback- technique you can use to learn to control some of your body’s functions.
● Success with biofeedback- ADD,Epilepsy, Migraine, Anxiety, psychopathic disorder, alcoholism, Sleep Disorder, etc.
● Essentials of biofeedback- self regulatory technique involved in controlling involuntary responses: Blood pressure,Relaxation of forehead muscles involved in tension headaches, Reduction of extreme blushing. It helps to become aware of ordinarily walk or internal responses by providing clear signals.
● Common relaxation techniques used in biofeedback- Punch, Listening to music, Squeezing something, etc.
● Learned Helplessness- animals with a history of exposure to inescapable shock failed to learn an avoidance response. Instead they learned to be helpless. ● People who are exposed to learned helplessness have lower expectations in life. ● The advent of positive psychology- positive psychology is the study of happiness and what makes you happy.
● R.L Fantz psychologist- The recognition of human faces
● Eleanor Gibson- did the visual cliff experiment on an infant to measure innate ability to perceive depth and a built in fear mechanism.
● Rods and Cones- two kinds of vertebrate retina receptors.
● Rods- most abundant peripheral of the eye, respond to faint light, 120 million per retina, essential for black and white processing.
● Cones- most abundant in and around the fovea of the eye, 6 million per retina, essential for color vision and more useful in bright light.
● Groundbreaking studies examining visual processing- Hubel and Wiesel’s research.
● Noble prize winners distinguished various types of cells: SIMPLE CELLS, COMPLEX CELLS, END STOPPED/HYPERCOMPLEX CELLS ● Left temporal lobe and neural activity in response to a face- neural responses occur to faces but not to other objects.
● Two theories of color vision: Trichromatic theory and opponent process theory ● Trichromatic theory- we perceive color through the relative rates of response by three types of cones each kind maximally sensitive to a different set of wavelengths.
● LONG WAVELENGTH - responds best to yellow
● MEDIUM WAVELENGTH- responds best to green
● SHORT WAVELENGTH - responds best to blue
● Opponent-process theory- suggests that we perceive color in terms of paired opposites
● James Vicary’s famous research on subliminal perception- James Vicary: subliminal stimuli can influence your behavior but only if All other sensory inputs must be greatly influenced, and you are motivated to make use of even weak hunches.
● Olfaction,Pheromones,and our sense of smell- forgotten sense ● Lock n key theory- some odor molecules unlock specific receptors.Olfactory information is transmitted to the amygdala thalamus,orbit to frontal cortex, and the hypothalamus.
● Pheromones: chemical substances within species which, when they are secreted and become gaseous and are detected by other species member. - Sexual receptivity - danger-territory boundaries
● Olfaction is extremely important for social behavior in lower animals. Olfactory bulb removal and ZNOSO4 treatments make animals anosmic. This approves: Aggression, Maternal behavior, and Mating.
● Berliner’s famous experiment: VNO responding
● A pheromone must be behavioral changes.
● Attraction in humans may contain pheromonal component.
I couldn’t include chapter 10 as I didn’t get the time but hopefully this will give a reviewed outlook.