Intro to Psychology Test #3 - Study Guide
Introduction to memory
• If you didn’t have any memories, you would lose your sense of who you are.
• We largely take our memories for granted, except when it malfunctions.
• When you’re younger, your memories are influenced by parents and adults.
• Memories, unlike videotapes or photocopies, are personally construed.
• This is the reason why two people have different versions of the same event.
• Your memories are more important than your experiences.
• Important Definitions:
• Memory: The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
• Flashbulb Memory: A clear memory of an emotionally significant event or moment (However, these can be false!).
• Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. It is a process by which you extract meaning from the memories that you store.
• Storage: The retention of encoded information over time.
• Episodic memory: A type of long-term memory that relies on conscious recollection of previous events based on emotion, time, and place.
• Retrieval: The process of getting information out of memory storage. We also discuss several other topics like Where is brazil located on the world map?
• Sensory Memory: The immediate initial recording of sensory information in the memory system.
• Short term memory: Activated memory that holds a few items, such as the 7 digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten.
If you want to learn more check out What is a gross margin?
• Information Processing:
• To know more about memory, we need a model of how it works.
• Our memory is analogous to a computer, because we can store vast amounts of information from which it can be later retrieved.
• The brain encodes sensory information into a neural language.
• The brain does multiple things at once in parallel.
• Incoming images and stimuli get displayed on our mental screen as conscious short-term memories. These decay unless used or rehearsed.
• Working Memory
• Working memory is the computer's random-access memory, which integrates information from our keyboard with our long term memory. If you want to learn more check out What is maximized by social efficiency?
• Baddeley and mental subsystems
• He notes that working memory has a visual and verbal component
• Mental subsystems allow us to process images and words simultaneously on the way to storage.
• However, we cannot multitask, like engage in two conversations at once.
• How we encode
• Some encoding occurs automatically, freeing your attention to simultaneously process information that requires effort. Thus, the memory for the route you walked to your last class is handled by automatic processing. We also discuss several other topics like How does pascal's triangle look like?
• Learning in this class requires effortful processing. • Effortful Processing
• We encode and retain vast amounts of information automatically, but we remember other types with effort and attention.
• When learning novel information such as names, we can boost our memory through rehearsal.
• Memory when learning
• We retain information better when our rehearsal is distributed over time--spacing effect.
• Serial position effect: we remember the last and first better than the middle ones.
• The encoding that yields the best memories are visual. • We have visual encoding, acoustic encoding, and semantic encoding.
• We all struggle to memorize information and dates
• Sensory Memory
◦ Information enters the memory system through the senses. • Echoic Memory Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between nucleophiles and electrophiles?
◦ A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli. If attention is elsewhere, words can be recalled within 3 and 4 seconds. • Moods and Memories
◦ What we learn in one state, be it joyful, sad, sober, or drunk, we can easily recall that same information when we are in that same state.
• This phenomenon is called state dependent memory.
◦ Our moods also influence how we interpret other people's behavior
• For example, in a bad mood, we read someone's look as a glare, and in a good mood, we read it as interest. • Retrieval
◦ To be remembered.
◦ Information that is "in there" must be retrieved.
◦ Retrieval cues
• Imagine a spider suspended in the middle of her web, held up by many strands extended outward from her in all directions to a different point by the windowsill.
▪ This analogy means that memories have webs of association and have routes that lead to them.
• The Hippocampus
◦ Explicit memories of facts and episodes are processed in the hippocampus and fed to other brain regions for storage. If you want to learn more check out What are the components of cytoskeleton?
◦ When we're younger, we don't have longterm memories, because the hippocampus isn't developed enough to store every single detail.
• Memory subsystems
◦ We process and store our explicit and implicit memories separately.
• Context Effects
◦ You may have experienced similar effects when you return where you once lived and you are flooded with retrieval cues and memories.
◦ Even taking the exam in the same room where you were taught also helps.
◦ Failures of encoding
◦ A good memory is helpful, and so is the ability to forget. ◦ There are three ways our memories fail us:
• Absent mindedness
• Transiencestorage decay (unused information fades) • Blockinginaccessibility of stored information.
◦ Along with forgetting, you can also fall prey to distortion, where our mind thinks something is true when it isn't. • 3 signs of distortion:
• Source Misattribution or Source Amnesia:
Attributing to the wrong source an event that
we have experienced or heard about.
▪ Biasbeliefcolored recollections.
• Children's Eyewitness Recall
◦ Children are especially credible when involved adults have not talked to them prior to the interview and when their disclosure is made in a first interview.
• The Loftus Case Study
◦ She was an expert on memory studies, and she wasn't well liked, because she was doing work that was seen as
◦ Her mother died when she was very little, and at a family reunion, she was told that she found her mother's body. She later said that she started to remember that, when it never really happened.
• This shows that you can be easily tricked by your brain.
• Psychologists define intelligence as the ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and learn from one's experience.
◦ The definition captures what many people mean by that term.
Types of Intelligence
• Gardener's 8 abilities that meet intelligence criteria ◦ Musical rhythmic