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MCMASTER / Biomed Engr/Joint / BIO 103 / How do you measure gene expression?

How do you measure gene expression?

How do you measure gene expression?

Description

School: McMaster University
Department: Biomed Engr/Joint
Course: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Professor: Rosa da silva
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: GeneExpression, regulation, methylation, and acetylation
Cost: 25
Name: Bio Theme 3 Module 3&4
Description: Notes cover theme 3 modules 3 and 4 including the review and applied lectures
Uploaded: 10/27/2019
21 Pages 57 Views 2 Unlocks
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NotesDon't forget about the age old question of What is an opportunistic pathogen?

Module 3We also discuss several other topics like Why do more impoverished people have a shorter life span?

Unit 1: Cellular Differentiation

  • All cell are derived from single fertilized egg
  • As zygote, all embryonic stem cells were identical
  • Early embryonic stem cells have unlimited ability to mature or differentiate into different cell types
  • Body contains ~200 different cell types
  • Most of the different cells contain same genetic information
  • From finish divisions into early developmental cascade, cells communicate with each other → engage in genetic interactions that regulate development and differentiation

  • Development of eukaryotic organism from single zygote depends on molecular communication between cells
  • Different embryonic cells = different fales
  • Depends on signals exchanged, which gene turned on / off at specific times
  • E.g. frog: in cluster of cells in frog embryo signals travel across membranes to control gene transcription and embryo development
  • Gene regulation → creates various cell types in multicellular organisms
  • Specific cells in multicellular organisms can be organized into groups of cell / tissue types → work together, carry out functions
  • Even with same genome; regulation leads to different proteomes
  • Distinct differences in cellular functions
  • Example: Red blood cells; muscle cells, neurons, epithelial cell have different functions but all developed from same embryonic stem cells
  • Specialized based on cues / signals received during embryonic development
  • Variation in specialized cell types depends on differentiation that occured from stem cells in developmental cascade
  • Transcription factors contain sequences that allows interaction with DNA double helix and control transcription of DNA → RNA
  • During development, transcription factors determine pathway specific cell type follows and fired mature / differentiated cell type
  • Specific gene expression pattern triggered and extracellular cues leads to diverse array of specialized cells
  • Transcription factors and other proteins = various changes in gene expression during divisions as cells mature
  • Controlling which genes are active along chromosome, leads to vast array of cell types in body
  • Certain proteins found only in specific cell types, or their relative amounts can vary cell - to - cell

Don't forget about the age old question of Define taoism.
If you want to learn more check out What are the two main ways that societies make corporate groups?
We also discuss several other topics like Enumerate the types of alkyl halides.
If you want to learn more check out What is an example of sesamoid bones?

Unit 2: Chromatin remodeling

  • Transcription regulation similar in pro / eukaryotes, both:
  • Have proteins that activate / repair transcription
  • Utilize RNA polymerase to bind to promoter upstream of gene to initiate transcription
  • More complex in eukaryotes → difference in organization
  • In prokaryotes related genes are clustered together into operons with single promoter
  • Eukaryotic genes, each have anion promoters and enhancers
  • In eukaryotes DNA is compacted into chromatin
  • Winding of DNA in nucleosome can affect if transcribed
  • Genes in heterochromatin usually not expressed, need to unwind DNA first
  • In eukaryotes, DNA wound around histone protein, forming nucleosome structure
  • 8 histone proteins which ~150 DNA base pairs are wrapped around
  • As chromatin, DNA not accessible
  • Which activator protein / transcription factor can bind to accessible enhancer site
  • A further recruitment of proteins
  • = further chromatin remodelling
  • Transcriptional regulation dependent on reveal of DNA sequence
  • DNA wound around histone → transcription requires changes in chromatin structure
  • So transcription factor can bind to DNA region, recruit RNA poly and facilitate transcription
  • DNA is wound around histone tightly due to positively charged tails on histone and negatively charged phosphate on DNA
  • Remodeling → activator protein can recruit histone acetyltransferase (HAT)
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