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UNT / Criminal Justice / CJUS 2100 / What was the earliest form of policing in the south?

What was the earliest form of policing in the south?

What was the earliest form of policing in the south?

Description

School: University of North Texas
Department: Criminal Justice
Course: Crime and Justice in the U.S.
Professor: Jordan winkler
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Intro to criminal justice
Cost: 50
Name: CJUST 2100
Description: This study guide will help you prepare for the upcoming exam #2, this study guide covers the previous chapters 5-9 that will be on the exam.
Uploaded: 10/28/2019
22 Pages 106 Views 3 Unlocks
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Question 1 


What was the earliest form of policing in the south?



The vast majority of American law enforcement agencies are multi-jurisdictional 

foreign 

local 

federal 

Question 2 

Which of the following characteristics of today's police was taken up by  municipal police officers after the American Civil War?

They began to wear uniforms. 

They began to rely on police radios to aid police function. They began to form posses. 

They began to carry out motorized patrol. Don't forget about the age old question of How is eversion performed?

Question 3 

Which of the following statements is NOT true of the first black police  officers?


What is the emphasis area of community policing?



Don't forget about the age old question of Who does trade benefit?

They were slaves.

They were hired primarily because other people did not want the job. 

They were "free men of color." 

They were hired around 1805 to serve as members of the New Orleans city  watch system.

Question 4 

In the South, the earliest form of policing was the

sheriff and posse. 

slave patrols. If you want to learn more check out What is ecological hierarchy?

constable-watch system. 

hue and cry. 

Question 5 

Which of the following cities had the first modern police force? Rome 

London 

New York 


What are the police misconducts identified by ellwyn stoddard?



Paris

Question 6 

Which of the following is NOT an emphasis area of community policing? delivering social services 

fighting crime 

keeping peace 

eradicating the causes of crime in a community 

Question 7 

Approximately how many municipal police departments operated in the  United States in 2013? If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between ecology and environmentalism?

more than 12,000 

more than 125,000 

125 

1,250 

Question 8 

Early American citizens ________ the formation of the first police  departments.

privately funded

resisted 

encouraged 

controlled If you want to learn more check out Why are genetic diseases not removed from the population via natural selection?

Question 9 

What is currently the top priority of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)? being an intelligence and counterterrorism agency 

protecting the president and other government leaders 

being a federal police agency 

enforcing the country's immigration laws 

Question 10 

________ is a model of state law enforcement services in which the agency  and its officers have the same law enforcement powers as local police  anywhere within the state.

Slave patrolling 

The constable-watch system 

The highway patrol model 

The state police modelIf you want to learn more check out What is the main point of federalist 51?

Question 11 

According to political scientist William Muir's styles of policing, who among  the following police officers hold values that make it difficult for them to use  force to solve problems?

reciprocators 

enforcers 

professionals 

avoiders 

Question 12 

Which of the following circumstances accounted for the largest number of  law enforcement officers assaulted in the United States in 2015?

traffic pursuits and stops 

disturbance calls 

investigation of suspicious persons and circumstances 

handling, transporting, and custody of prisoners 

Question 13 

Patrols that are "systematically unsystematic" and observant in an attempt  to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or  ________ patrol.

preventive 

directed 

foot 

aggressive 

Question 14 

In ________ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime analyses that identify problem  areas.

preventive 

directed 

aggressive 

foot 

Question 15 

Your textbook gives three reasons why many victims of cybercrime fail to  report these crimes to authorities. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?

the shame of not providing adequate security to protect trusted assets the attention to their vulnerability that a crime report would attract

the fear of being implicated in the crime 

the fear of loss of the public's confidence in the organization Question 16 

Identify a true statement about community policing.

The police view the community as a passive presence connected to them by  an isolated incident or series of incidents.

Implementation plans for community policing remain the same among all  agencies.

Critical decisions are required to be made at the neighborhood level. Citizens are entrusted with conducting arrests on behalf of the police. 

Question 17 

One of the interesting findings of foot patrol research was that foot patrol  officers were better able to deal with

long-term vice cases that involved several suspects. 

minor annoyances-rowdy youths, panhandlers, and abandoned cars-that  irritate citizens. 

several investigative functions, including finding DNA evidence. drug dealers and gang problems, especially in urban areas.

Question 18 

Which of the following is NOT a criticism of civil asset forfeiture laws? The standard of proof in civil asset forfeiture cases is too high. 

Innocent owners can lose their property when someone else uses it without  their permission or knowledge to commit a drug crime.

Civil asset forfeiture laws place the burden of proof on the property owner to  show that the property seized was not used in a drug-related crime.

The costs involved in a civil asset forfeiture proceeding can be prohibitively  high.

Question 19 

Of the approximately 1.5 million people arrested in 2015 for drug abuse  violations, approximately ________ were black. Yet, blacks are about ________  of all lifetime illegal drug users.

67 percent; 30 percent 

10 percent; 50 percent 

27 percent; 12 percent 

51 percent; 26 percent 

Question 20

Which of the following drug enforcement strategies accounts for the greatest number of drug arrests and seizures in the United States?

major investigations 

crop eradication 

mid-level investigations 

street-level enforcement 

Question 21 

When did the systematic psychological testing of police officers begin? 1960's 

1970's 

1950's 

1980's 

Question 22 

Failure to fairly represent all genders and races within police departments  has led to several negative consequences. Which of the following is NOT one  of the negative consequences listed in your textbook?

expensive lawsuits 

sensational publicity 

court-ordered quotas to achieve the desired diversity

consent decrees 

Question 23 

As of 2013, approximately what percentage of the sworn officers in the  nation's police departments were white?

73 percent 

85 percent 

95 percent 

50 percent 

Question 24 

Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to  control participants in a conflict?

excessive force 

job stress 

deadly force 

harassment 

Question 25 

The ________ the complainant, the more likely a patrol officer is to use formal  procedures to report and investigate a crime.

poorer 

younger 

older 

more affluent 

Question 26 

Police have responded to domestic violence in three distinct ways. Which of  the following is NOT one of these three ways?

arresting both the perpetrator and the victim 

mediating the dispute 

arresting the perpetrator of the assault 

separating domestic partners in minor disputes 

Question 27 

Racial profiling often occurs during ________, where police justify stopping a  car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might  otherwise be ignored.

full enforcement 

selective enforcement

pretext stops 

random patrols 

Question 28 

Identify a true statement about a yearlong study conducted by The  Washington Post about the U.S. police's use of deadly force in 2015.

White men accounted for 40 percent of the unarmed men shot by police. 

Out of the people killed by police for less threatening behavior,  approximately 20 percent of them were black or Hispanic.

About 90 percent of those killed by the police were armed, usually with guns. 

More than 50 percent of the killings involved white police officers killing  unarmed black men.

Question 29 

Which of the following factors influences the exercise of discretion on the  part of police patrol officers?

the relationship between the victim and the witness 

the demeanor of the police officer 

socioeconomic status of the police officer 

the legitimacy of the victim

Question 30 

Which of the following is NOT a type of police misconduct identified by Ellwyn Stoddard?

bribery 

extortion 

panhandling 

chiseling 

Question 31 

A court of ________ jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.

appellate 

original 

special 

general 

Question 32 

Trial courts of ________ jurisdiction are referred to generally as inferior "trial  courts" or simply as "lower courts."

limited 

special 

personal 

general 

Question 33 

Which of the following was the first type of "problem-solving" court? mental health court 

domestic-violence court 

child-support court 

drug court 

Question 34 

Which of the following refers to the attempt to "correct" the personality and  behavior of convicted offenders through educational, vocational, or  therapeutic treatment and to return them to society as law-abiding citizens?

general deterrence 

punishment 

incapacitation

rehabilitation 

Question 35 

According to your textbook, who is the most powerful actor in the  administration of justice?

the prosecutor 

the defense attorney 

the judge 

the defendant 

Question 36 

What percentage of the cases filed for review did the U.S. Supreme Court  choose NOT to review in the year 2014?

99 percent 

25 percent 

60 percent 

10 percent 

Question 37

What standard of proof is necessary to find a defendant guilty as charged? beyond a reasonable doubt 

probable cause 

preponderance of the evidence 

clear and convincing evidence 

Question 38 

In the context of the selection of judges, identify a true statement about  merit selection.

It is sometimes referred to as the "Mississippi Plan." 

It does not entirely eliminate political influence from the selection process. It does not include citizens in its nominating commission. It involves the president appointing judges. 

Question 39 

When defendants plead nolo contendere, they

admit guilt but are not willing to accept punishment. 

do not admit guilt but are willing to accept punishment. 

do not admit guilt and are not willing to accept punishment.

admit guilt and are willing to accept punishment. 

Question 40 

Which of the following has been referred to as "the conceptual heart of  judicial administration in the new millennium"?

the popular election of judges 

caseflow management 

plea bargaining 

the merit selection of judges 

Question 41 

Which of the following was the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Payne v.  Tennessee in 1991?

State death penalty statutes are constitutional even when statistics indicate  that they have been applied in racially biased ways.

It is cruel and unusual punishment to execute the intellectually challenged. 

Judges and juries may consider victim-impact statements in their sentencing  decisions. 

New evidence of innocence is no reason for a federal court to order a new  state trial in the absence of constitutional grounds.

Question 42 

Generally, a presentence investigation report (PSI) is prepared by a ________. judge 

probation officer 

defendant 

prosecutor 

Question 43 

In the context of the philosophical rationales for the imposition of  punishments, identify a true statement about deterrence.

Cesare Beccaria and other classical theorists believed that retribution rather  than deterrence is the only legitimate purpose for punishment.

An advantage of general deterrence as a rationale for punishment is that  social science is able to measure its effects.

Specific deterrence is the prevention of individuals from committing crime  again by punishing them. 

Specific deterrence is the prevention of people in general from engaging in  crime by punishing specific individuals and making examples of them.

Question 44

A(n) ________ sentence has a fixed minimum and maximum term of  incarceration rather than a set period.

indeterminate 

presumptive 

determinate 

flat-time 

Question 45 

In the context of sentencing, judges are limited by the U.S. Constitution's  ________ prohibition of cruel and unusual punishments and statutory  provisions.

Eighth Amendment 

Sixth Amendment 

Fifth Amendment 

Tenth Amendment 

Question 46 

Before the Supreme Court's 1991 decision, ________ was considered  irrelevant and potentially inflammatory and was not allowed.

DNA evidence

allocution 

the victim-impact statement 

hearsay evidence 

Question 47 

More than half of the 1,442 executions that have taken place in the United  States since 1977 have occurred in just three states (as of December 9,  2016). Which of the following is NOT one of those three states?

Virginia 

Georgia 

Texas 

Oklahoma 

Question 48 

Which of the following is a right granted to crime victims in at least some  jurisdictions?

the right to be treated with fairness, dignity, and respect All of the answers are correct. 

the right to confer with the prosecutor

the right to notice of the offender's release 

Question 49 

Which of the following descriptions about a Supreme Court death penalty  case is FALSE?

In Roper v. Simmons, the Court effectively limited capital punishment to  offenders who are 18 years of age or older at the time of their offenses.

In McCleskey v. Kemp, the Court held that state death penalty statutes are  unconstitutional when statistics indicate that they have been applied in  racially biased ways. 

In Atkins v. Virginia, the Court held that it is cruel and unusual punishment to execute the intellectually challenged.

In Ford v. Wainwright, the Court barred states from executing inmates who  have developed mental illness while on death row.

Question 50 

In Lockett v. Ohio, 1978, the Supreme Court ruled that:

victim-impact statements are irrelevant and potentially inflammatory and  should not be allowed.

rape of an adult female when the victim is not killed, kidnapping when the  victim is not killed, and armed robbery do not warrant death.

juries and not judges alone must determine whether death is the appropriate penalty in a capital case.

judges and juries must consider any mitigating circumstance offered by the  defense, whether it is listed in statute or not.

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