The vast majority of American law enforcement agencies are multi-jurisdictional
Which of the following characteristics of today's police was taken up by municipal police officers after the American Civil War?
They began to wear uniforms.
They began to rely on police radios to aid police function. They began to form posses.
They began to carry out motorized patrol. Don't forget about the age old question of How is eversion performed?
Which of the following statements is NOT true of the first black police officers?
Don't forget about the age old question of Who does trade benefit?
They were slaves.
They were hired primarily because other people did not want the job.
They were "free men of color."
They were hired around 1805 to serve as members of the New Orleans city watch system.
In the South, the earliest form of policing was the
sheriff and posse.
slave patrols. If you want to learn more check out What is ecological hierarchy?
hue and cry.
Which of the following cities had the first modern police force? Rome
Which of the following is NOT an emphasis area of community policing? delivering social services
eradicating the causes of crime in a community
Approximately how many municipal police departments operated in the United States in 2013? If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between ecology and environmentalism?
more than 12,000
more than 125,000
Early American citizens ________ the formation of the first police departments.
controlled If you want to learn more check out Why are genetic diseases not removed from the population via natural selection?
What is currently the top priority of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)? being an intelligence and counterterrorism agency
protecting the president and other government leaders
being a federal police agency
enforcing the country's immigration laws
________ is a model of state law enforcement services in which the agency and its officers have the same law enforcement powers as local police anywhere within the state.
The constable-watch system
The highway patrol model
The state police modelIf you want to learn more check out What is the main point of federalist 51?
According to political scientist William Muir's styles of policing, who among the following police officers hold values that make it difficult for them to use force to solve problems?
Which of the following circumstances accounted for the largest number of law enforcement officers assaulted in the United States in 2015?
traffic pursuits and stops
investigation of suspicious persons and circumstances
handling, transporting, and custody of prisoners
Patrols that are "systematically unsystematic" and observant in an attempt to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or ________ patrol.
In ________ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime analyses that identify problem areas.
Your textbook gives three reasons why many victims of cybercrime fail to report these crimes to authorities. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons?
the shame of not providing adequate security to protect trusted assets the attention to their vulnerability that a crime report would attract
the fear of being implicated in the crime
the fear of loss of the public's confidence in the organization Question 16
Identify a true statement about community policing.
The police view the community as a passive presence connected to them by an isolated incident or series of incidents.
Implementation plans for community policing remain the same among all agencies.
Critical decisions are required to be made at the neighborhood level. Citizens are entrusted with conducting arrests on behalf of the police.
One of the interesting findings of foot patrol research was that foot patrol officers were better able to deal with
long-term vice cases that involved several suspects.
minor annoyances-rowdy youths, panhandlers, and abandoned cars-that irritate citizens.
several investigative functions, including finding DNA evidence. drug dealers and gang problems, especially in urban areas.
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of civil asset forfeiture laws? The standard of proof in civil asset forfeiture cases is too high.
Innocent owners can lose their property when someone else uses it without their permission or knowledge to commit a drug crime.
Civil asset forfeiture laws place the burden of proof on the property owner to show that the property seized was not used in a drug-related crime.
The costs involved in a civil asset forfeiture proceeding can be prohibitively high.
Of the approximately 1.5 million people arrested in 2015 for drug abuse violations, approximately ________ were black. Yet, blacks are about ________ of all lifetime illegal drug users.
67 percent; 30 percent
10 percent; 50 percent
27 percent; 12 percent
51 percent; 26 percent
Which of the following drug enforcement strategies accounts for the greatest number of drug arrests and seizures in the United States?
When did the systematic psychological testing of police officers begin? 1960's
Failure to fairly represent all genders and races within police departments has led to several negative consequences. Which of the following is NOT one of the negative consequences listed in your textbook?
court-ordered quotas to achieve the desired diversity
As of 2013, approximately what percentage of the sworn officers in the nation's police departments were white?
Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to control participants in a conflict?
The ________ the complainant, the more likely a patrol officer is to use formal procedures to report and investigate a crime.
Police have responded to domestic violence in three distinct ways. Which of the following is NOT one of these three ways?
arresting both the perpetrator and the victim
mediating the dispute
arresting the perpetrator of the assault
separating domestic partners in minor disputes
Racial profiling often occurs during ________, where police justify stopping a car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might otherwise be ignored.
Identify a true statement about a yearlong study conducted by The Washington Post about the U.S. police's use of deadly force in 2015.
White men accounted for 40 percent of the unarmed men shot by police.
Out of the people killed by police for less threatening behavior, approximately 20 percent of them were black or Hispanic.
About 90 percent of those killed by the police were armed, usually with guns.
More than 50 percent of the killings involved white police officers killing unarmed black men.
Which of the following factors influences the exercise of discretion on the part of police patrol officers?
the relationship between the victim and the witness
the demeanor of the police officer
socioeconomic status of the police officer
the legitimacy of the victim
Which of the following is NOT a type of police misconduct identified by Ellwyn Stoddard?
A court of ________ jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.
Trial courts of ________ jurisdiction are referred to generally as inferior "trial courts" or simply as "lower courts."
Which of the following was the first type of "problem-solving" court? mental health court
Which of the following refers to the attempt to "correct" the personality and behavior of convicted offenders through educational, vocational, or therapeutic treatment and to return them to society as law-abiding citizens?
According to your textbook, who is the most powerful actor in the administration of justice?
the defense attorney
What percentage of the cases filed for review did the U.S. Supreme Court choose NOT to review in the year 2014?
What standard of proof is necessary to find a defendant guilty as charged? beyond a reasonable doubt
preponderance of the evidence
clear and convincing evidence
In the context of the selection of judges, identify a true statement about merit selection.
It is sometimes referred to as the "Mississippi Plan."
It does not entirely eliminate political influence from the selection process. It does not include citizens in its nominating commission. It involves the president appointing judges.
When defendants plead nolo contendere, they
admit guilt but are not willing to accept punishment.
do not admit guilt but are willing to accept punishment.
do not admit guilt and are not willing to accept punishment.
admit guilt and are willing to accept punishment.
Which of the following has been referred to as "the conceptual heart of judicial administration in the new millennium"?
the popular election of judges
the merit selection of judges
Which of the following was the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling in Payne v. Tennessee in 1991?
State death penalty statutes are constitutional even when statistics indicate that they have been applied in racially biased ways.
It is cruel and unusual punishment to execute the intellectually challenged.
Judges and juries may consider victim-impact statements in their sentencing decisions.
New evidence of innocence is no reason for a federal court to order a new state trial in the absence of constitutional grounds.
Generally, a presentence investigation report (PSI) is prepared by a ________. judge
In the context of the philosophical rationales for the imposition of punishments, identify a true statement about deterrence.
Cesare Beccaria and other classical theorists believed that retribution rather than deterrence is the only legitimate purpose for punishment.
An advantage of general deterrence as a rationale for punishment is that social science is able to measure its effects.
Specific deterrence is the prevention of individuals from committing crime again by punishing them.
Specific deterrence is the prevention of people in general from engaging in crime by punishing specific individuals and making examples of them.
A(n) ________ sentence has a fixed minimum and maximum term of incarceration rather than a set period.
In the context of sentencing, judges are limited by the U.S. Constitution's ________ prohibition of cruel and unusual punishments and statutory provisions.
Before the Supreme Court's 1991 decision, ________ was considered irrelevant and potentially inflammatory and was not allowed.
the victim-impact statement
More than half of the 1,442 executions that have taken place in the United States since 1977 have occurred in just three states (as of December 9, 2016). Which of the following is NOT one of those three states?
Which of the following is a right granted to crime victims in at least some jurisdictions?
the right to be treated with fairness, dignity, and respect All of the answers are correct.
the right to confer with the prosecutor
the right to notice of the offender's release
Which of the following descriptions about a Supreme Court death penalty case is FALSE?
In Roper v. Simmons, the Court effectively limited capital punishment to offenders who are 18 years of age or older at the time of their offenses.
In McCleskey v. Kemp, the Court held that state death penalty statutes are unconstitutional when statistics indicate that they have been applied in racially biased ways.
In Atkins v. Virginia, the Court held that it is cruel and unusual punishment to execute the intellectually challenged.
In Ford v. Wainwright, the Court barred states from executing inmates who have developed mental illness while on death row.
In Lockett v. Ohio, 1978, the Supreme Court ruled that:
victim-impact statements are irrelevant and potentially inflammatory and should not be allowed.
rape of an adult female when the victim is not killed, kidnapping when the victim is not killed, and armed robbery do not warrant death.
juries and not judges alone must determine whether death is the appropriate penalty in a capital case.
judges and juries must consider any mitigating circumstance offered by the defense, whether it is listed in statute or not.