Test 2 Study Guide
Articles of Confederation (1781) - Document signed among the 13 colonies to establish the USA as a confederation of sovereign states and serve as the first constitution. It provided direction for the Revolution, the ability to conduct diplomacy with Europe, and deal with territorial issues and Native American relations.
Federalist Papers - 85 articles Written by Hamilton, Jay, & Madison to support ratification of the U.S Constitution
Northwest Ordinance - Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Shay's Rebellion - Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Don't forget about the age old question of What do you call the income of corporations?
Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise) - 1787
*Called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress *Combined pieces of the New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan, and other proposals *Included the Three-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of apportioning representation and called for direct taxation on the states
Bill of Rights - The first ten amendments to the Constitution
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) - passed by Federalists, signed by President Adams; increased waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years, empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens, & made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
implied powers - Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
Jay's Treaty - 1796 treaty that required British forces to withdraw from U.S. soil, required American repayment of debts to British firms, and limited U.S. trade with the British West Indies
Whiskey Rebellion - In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down theIf you want to learn more check out What is the correlation between one's iq and his/her biological parents?
rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Quasi-War - Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.
XYZ Affair - 1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the France-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
Anti-Federalists - people who opposed the Constitution
Marbury v. Madison - This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review We also discuss several other topics like How does chunking help store memory?
Hartford Convention (1814) - A meeting of Federalist delegates from New England inspired by Federalist opposition to the War of 1812; contributed to the death of the Federalist Party during the "Era of Good Feelings"
Oliver Evans - (1755-1819) developed the first application of steam power in an industrial setting. He also developed a method of automating flour mills
Election of 1800 - Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College, so the House of Representatives had to decide the outcome. The House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President. We also discuss several other topics like How do convergent and divergent thinking differ?
Charles Grandison Finney - An evangelist who was one of the greatest preachers of all time (spoke in New York City). He also made the "anxious bench" for sinners to pray and was against slavery and alcohol.
Townsend Acts 1767 - brought harsh taxes on goods like glass, paper, tea; writs of assistance were issued that allowed a search of colonial homes without a warrant; boycotts of British goods began, & it was repealed in 1770
Olive Branch Petition (1775) - Adopted by the Continental Congress in an attempt to avoid a full-blown war with Great Britain. If you want to learn more check out What are some of the most common comorbities?
Affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict.
*Historical Significance:* We also discuss several other topics like Where is arachnoid mater located?
Rejected and the colonies were formally declared in rebellion.
Second Continental Congress (1775) - a convention of delegates from the 13 Colonies, managed the colonial war effort, sent The Olive Branch Petition,moved incrementally towards independence, adopted the Declaration of Independence, acted as the de facto national government.
Louisiana Purchase - territory in the western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Abolition Movements - brought an end to slavery in the US, full social and political equality for African Americans wanted by some abolitionists
John Marshall - American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review.
Stamp Act - 1765; a law that taxed printed goods, including playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Battle of New Orleans - A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
Bank War (1832) - Battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal in 1832. Jackson vetoed the Bank Bill, arguing that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers.
Monroe Doctrine (1823) - US foreign policy regarding Latin American countries stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.
Nullification - A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional Thomas Jefferson - 3rd President of the United States, wrote the declaration of independence
James Monroe - 5th president, begins expansionism including Florida and Missouri, as well as reigning over the Era of Good Feelings
John Adams - America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of the press "ought not to be restrained."
KY & VA Resolutions (1798) - Affirmed the compact theory of government; The compact theory holds that the country is formed by the creation of the states
Democratic-Republicans - Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807) - A naval engagement between the British warship HMS Leopard and American frigate USS Chesapeake during which the crew of the Leopard pursued, attacked and boarded the American frigate looking for deserters from the British Navy. *Historical Significance:*
Led to the Embargo Act of 1807.
Treaty of Ghent (1814) - Ended the War of 1812. Did not address grievances that led to the war (stalemate for both sides).
Robert Fulton - American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Panic of 1819 - This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, bank failures, and unemployment. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
Circuit Riders - Methodist ministers who traveled from town to town to preach; were instrumental in recruiting converts
Romanticism - a 19th-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Tea Act of 1773 - Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them the power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
First Continental Congress (1774) - Met to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts; adopted the *Declaration and Resolves* in which they:
Declared the Intolerable Acts null and void.
Recommended that colonists arm themselves and that militias be formed. Recommended a boycott of British imports.
Boston Tea Party - demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
John Quincy Adams - (1767-1848) Son of President John Adams and the secretary of state to James Monroe, he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the sixth president of the United States and later became a representative in Congress.
Rachel Jackson - Wife of Andrew Jackson who was accused of living with Jackson before they married and was still "married" when she married Jackson. >her divorce was not final.
Whiskey Rebellion (1794) - Popular uprising of whiskey distillers in southwestern Pennsylvania in opposition to an excise tax on whiskey. In a show of strength and resolve by the new central government, Washington put down the rebellion with militia drawn from several states.
Royal Proclamation of 1763 - A proclamation to where the colonists couldn't move and expand to the west of the Appalachian mountains. That was preserved for the Native Americans.
Henry Knox - Secretary of War under Washington, he was a trusted general of the American Revolution; he was entrusted to protect the nation from enemies.
Thomas Paine - American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Sam Adams - A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.
Patrick Henry - "give me liberty or give me death"
a leader of the American Revolution and a famous orator who spoke out against British rule of the American colonies (1736-1799)
Federalists - A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures.
Midnight Appointments - After 1800, the only branch left in the Federalists' hands was the Judiciary. On John Adam's last night as president, he made last-minute appointments for Federalists to judgeships. He did so in an attempt to maintain Federalist control of the judiciary branch.
The War Hawks - Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to take over British land in North America and expand.
Samuel Slater - "Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791.
Stamp Act Congress (1765) - Twenty-seven delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
Washington's Farewell Address - warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Cane Ridge Revival - A religious revival and a part of the Second Great Awakening took place in Cane Ridge, KY, in the summer of 1801. A group of Evangelical ministers presided over the nations first "camp meeting". An extraordinary revival that lasted several days and impressed everyone involved. It was the beginning of the church trying to "harvest" new members.
Declaratory Act - Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; it stated that Parliament had authority over the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."
Declaration of Independence 1776 -
War of 1812 Causes - causes: -pre-existing past revolution, British influence on Native Americans, violation of trading rights, British impressment, and the U.S desired Canada
Gaspee Affair - Rhode Island colonists boarded the HMS Gaspee, a British ship, looted it, then burned and sank it in 1772.
Religion and Abolition - religion did provide a good reason (human rights argument) for the abolition
Dec. of Independence - July 4, 1776, written by Thomas Jefferson
Chapter 7- this chapter is about Sam Adams and how he was prominent in the politics of colonial America. He stated that separation from England was the best way to resolve conflicts from the mid01760’s between parliament and the U.S. He had a long-standing hatred for British leaders and those who did their bidding. Adams was at the forefront of American opposition in the Stamp Act Crisis in 1765, the Boston Massacre in 1770, and the Tea Act in 1773. Adams was in inspired leader who relentlessly led his colleagues in the resistance movement which led to revolution. Adams was a remorseless leader who refused to give up to the British.
Chapter 8- an armed revolution led by a veteran Daniel Shays, was one of the several domestic events that undermined faith in the confederation and led to the constitution. Except for the civil war, shays rebellion is the nations most significant domestic disorder, and had a profound impact.
Chapter 9- Cotton produced by slave labor was indeed the most profitable export of the United States, and was a vital part of the economy in the south. After the election of Abraham Lincon, 11 southern states attempted to leave the union. The north declared war on the south and won. All this depended on the inventor Eli Whitney. He invented the cotton gin which led to the expansion of slavery in the south. He also promoted the use of interchangeable parts in manufacturing, which contributed greatly to the north’s ability to create weapons for war.
Chapter 10- after the purchase of the Louisiana territory in 1803 congress authorized 3 expeditions to gain information about the land’s geography, flora, and fauna. Of these 3 the on led by captains Merriwether Lewis and William Clark were the most successful. Leaving in 1804 and returning two years later lewis and Clark provided their countrymen with a wealth of information about the land they observed.