INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 8 & 9: Intelligence, cognition and language.
Intelligence: intelligence is a very general mental capability that among other things involves the ability to reason, think abstractly, plan,comprehend complex ideas, solve problems, learn quickly and learn from experience.
❖ Sir Francis Galton was the first to study nature vs nurture, reaction time, genius and greatness.
❖ Alfred Binet was the first to create an intelligence test.
❖ The original Simon Binet test was divised by Binet & Simon to identify mentally retarded French School Children so they could be given special attention.
Examples of first BinetSimon test:
● Three years: show nose, eyes and mouth, repeats two digits, describes objects in pictures etc. ● Nine years: defines objects in terms broader than their use.
● Twelve years: uses three given words in one sentence.
❖ If a child of 11 years of age scored like an average 8 year old, the child was considered three years retarded.
Lewis Terman and the standard Binet test1916.
● Believed IQ was inherited.
● Mass testing of WW1 recruits.
● The genetic study of genius. Large scale study of gifted children. We also discuss several other topics like Why are species accumulation curves important?
Uses of intelligence test
● IQ tests were used during the WW1 to determine who would be on the frontlines and who would get desk jobs.
We also discuss several other topics like Sleep deprivation defined as what?
● IQ tests were used to screen new immigrants as they entered the US.
Problems of the early IQ tests.
● Biased against people who do not have English as their first language.
● Biased against children whose language and mathematical skills are immature.
The wechsler Tests
Divided the concept of intelligence into two main areas;
● Three tests
➔ The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
➔ Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC)
Limitations of Standard IQ tests.
● They are biased towards those that are experienced test takers.
Gardner’s 8 types of Intelligence
● Bodily kinetics
The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence.
● Analytical: academic problem solving skills
● Creative: imaginative & innovative
● Practical: street smarts & common sense.
➔ Practical Intelligence:(stenberg) the ability to adapt to a changing world is key factor in job success,
➔ Emotional Intelligence:(Dr. John Mayer) ability to read other’s emotions accurately etc.
Two extreme views of Intelligence
● Nature: our Intelligence is a product of our genetic endowment.
● Nurture: our intelligence is a product of the environment.
The Divisive research of Arthur Jensen. We also discuss several other topics like How many chambers are there in the heart?
Psychologist Arthur Jensen estimated that heredity accounts for about 80% of the Individual differences in IQ.
★ Look more into Arthur Jensen and his research!!.
★ Bell curve prompts readers to prejudge by race.
Genotype for Trait.
Genes set the limits but the environment determines whether or not the limit will be reached.
Nature vs. Nurture & Early Philosophers.
● John Locke: believed that we have no innate ideas, that our minds are blank slate and that nurture is everything and nature is nothing.
● Jean Jacques Rousseau: believed that the innate goodness of a man is prewired and that genetic nature is everything.
❖ Studies the wild boy of Aveyron (look more into this studies).
Development: all the processes of change through which a person’s potential behavior evolve.
Qualitative and Quantitative changes of behavior
● Qualitative: changes that are related to experience and learning. Eg. changes i social behavior as you mature. If you want to learn more check out What are the different types of communication?
● Quantitative: changes are predisposed by heredity and allowed by the
environment. They are related to physical growth eg. learning to ride a bicycle.
Piaget, Freud and Kohlberg stage Theories.
● Intellectual emotion and moral development pass through distinct stages
● The speed through the stages can vary dramatically from individual to individual. ● The order that a child goes through these stages is the same from individual to individual.
❖ Look into Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.