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MSU / Bioscience / BIO 113 / How are choanoflagellates related to animals?

How are choanoflagellates related to animals?

How are choanoflagellates related to animals?

Description

School: Montclair State University
Department: Bioscience
Course: Principles of Biology II
Professor: Lisa hazard
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Biology, Biology: Ecology and Evolution, and Biology Concept and Controversy
Cost: 50
Name: bio study guide 3
Description: These notes will cover all the chapters on the upcoming exam!
Uploaded: 12/05/2019
8 Pages 198 Views 3 Unlocks
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Introduction to Animals 


How are choanoflagellates related to animals?



Animal characteristics 

(1) Multicellular; no cell walls

(2) Heterotrophic (most ingest food)

(3) Motility (capable of movement)

(4) Neurons and muscle cells (all but sponges)

Animal Body Plans 

(1) number of embryonic tissue types (1, 2, or 3)

(2) type of body symmetry

-asymmetry

-radial symmetry

-bilateral symmetry

(3) presence or absence of a fluid-filled cavity (coelom)

-coelom:body cavity 

-Acoelomates don't have body cavities/coelom

-Acoelomates:Bilaterally symmetrical worms 


How is reciprocal altruism different from kin selection?



-Coelomates have a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm -Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity partially lined with mesoderm (4) events of early embryonic development

-The Protostome and Deuterostome Patterns of Development -Gastrulation :formation of gut and embryonic germ layers -Formation of coelom:body cavity lined with mesoderm

Nerve net: diffuse neurons in hydra 

Central nervous system: clustered neurons in earthworm 

Choanoflagellates(Collar Flagellates) 

-Unicellular protists; sister group to animals

-Sessile protists; some are colonial

Porifera(Sponges) 


What are the biogeochemical cycles and why are they important?



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Don't forget about the age old question of What is the role of the intelligence community?

-Multicellular, but cells not organized into tissues

- sessile animals

Cnidaria (Jellyfish, Corals, Anemones, Hydroids, Sea Fans)

•radially symmetric diploblasts

•cnidocyte used for prey capture.

•sessile polyp form vs. mobile medusa form

Ctenophora (Comb Jellies) 

•radially symmetric diploblasts

•transparent, ciliated, gelatinous predators

Coelomates 

● The Bilateria : coelomate animals with bilateral symmetry – Protostomes (includes arthropods, molluscs, segmented worms) Protostomes: Lophotrochozoans and Ecdysozoans

– Deuterostomes (includes echinoderms and vertebrates) Deuterostomes: Echinoderms and Chordates

Diversification themes 

(1) Oxygen levels and metabolic rate

(2) Predation

(3) New niches

(4) Gene duplication

Diversification outcomes 

(1) Sensory organs 

Sight, taste, hearing, smell, touch

(2) Ecological roles If you want to learn more check out How did the movie and tv industry work before netflix?

Carnivores,Omnivores, Herbivores, Detritivores

(3) Feeding strategies 

Suspension feeders, deposit feeders, fluid feeders, mass feeders (4) Limbs 

Lobe-like, jointed, tube, tentacles, parapodia

(5) Reproduction 

Asexual, Sexual (external or internal fertilization)

Life Cycles 

•Diploid phase dominates

•Development

•Direct vs. indirect (metamorphosis)

ELECTRICAL AND CHEMICAL SIGNALS IN ANIMALS 

The central nervous system( information processing)

-brain

-made up of four distinct structures

1.Pons (relays sensory info to cerebellum)

2.Medulla (autonomic center for regulating heart, lungs, and digestive system)

3. Cerebrum( conscious thought, memory) If you want to learn more check out How is hereditary information passed through generations?

4.Cerebellum( coordinates complex motor patterns)

-spinal cord

-sensory info travels in afferent division

-motor transformation travels in efferent division which includes 1. Somatic nervous system  OR

2.Autonomic nervous system( sympathetic division or parasympathetic division) -Parasympathetic nerves do “rest and digest”

-Sympathetic nerves do “fight or flight”

Peripheral nervous system

-sensory neurons

-info flows from dendrites to axon 

dendrite(collects chemical signals)---> axon( passes chemical signals to dendrites) -neurons form networks for info flow

-motor neurons

Membrane potentials 

•A difference in electrical charge across a cell membrane

•Created by differences in ion concentrations

•Measured as voltage

The synapse 

•The interface between two neurons

•Electrical signals cannot cross the gap.

•Signals are carried across the synapse by neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters 

•Released by presynaptic neuron

•Diffuse across synaptic gap If you want to learn more check out Why is culture important to an individual?

•Effects on postsynaptic cells:

–activate ion channels (trigger new action potential)

–signal transduction (changes in gene expression, enzyme activity, membrane potential)

Hormones 

chemical signals that circulate in the body and affect distant target cells

What do hormones do?

1. Stress responses 

•Short-term stress response (“fight or flight”)

–epinephrine increases alertness and energy use

•Long-term stress response

– glucocorticoids ensure that the brain’s fuel requirements are met

2. Growth and development 

•Growth

–pituitary and thyroid hormones regulate growth rate and metabolic rate

•Reproduction

–primary sex differentiation

–sexual maturation

–reproductive behaviors (often seasonal)

3. Homeostasis 

•Maintenance of internal body conditions

•Examples:

–blood glucose

–calcium

–salt and water balance

–energy storage

Behavior 

•Behavior: action in response to a stimulus.

•Behavioral ecology: the study of how organisms respond to particular stimuli from their environments. •Proximate (mechanistic) vs. ultimate (evolutionary) explanations Don't forget about the age old question of What is the oldest common ancestors of taxa?

Types of Behavior

•Innate: performed “naturally” from birth

•Learned: modified through experience

•Stereotyped: performed the same way every time

•Flexible: behavior varies

Fixed Action Patterns 

Ex. spiders building webs

1. Almost no variation in how they are performed

2. Species specific

3.Triggered by a simple signal (sign stimulus)

4.Once a sequence begins, it continues until completion

Learning

•Changes in behavior in response to specific life experiences.

•Simple learning

–classical conditioning

–imprinting

•Complex learning

Simple Types of Learning 

•Classical conditioning:

–same response given in response to more than one stimulus due to learned association with second stimulus –Pavlov’s dogs

•Imprinting:

–irreversible association of a stimulus and a behavior

– short critical period

Cognition 

•The recognition and manipulation of facts about the world

• The ability to form concepts and insights.

The Evolution of Self-Sacrificing Behavior 

•Altruism: behavior with a fitness cost to the donor and a fitness benefit to the recipient •The paradox: selection should favor selfish alleles over altruistic alleles

Explanations of Altruism

•Reciprocal altruism: an exchange of fitness benefits that are separated in time.

•Kin selection:natural selection that acts through benefits to relatives (offspring or close relatives)

•Hamilton’s rule: altruistic alleles will be favored by natural selection if: –the benefits of altruistic behavior are high 

–the benefits are dispersed to close relatives 

–the costs are low 

ECOLOGY 

•Ecology: the interaction of organisms with their environment

•Four main levels:

–organisms 

–populations 

–communities 

–ecosystems 

The Nature of the Environment 

•Abiotic (physical) components

–temperature

–precipitation

–wind

–sunlight

–chemical environment (terrestrial or aquatic)

• Biotic (living) components

–other members of the organism’s own species

–individuals of other species.

-Without axis/tilt of the globe there would be no seasons! 

•Oceans have a moderating effect on temperature due to water's extremely high specific heat (capacity for storing heat energy).

Biome: region characterized by a distinct combination of temperature, precipitation, and vegetation type.

•Demography-is the study of factors which determine

the size and structure of populations through time.

–Birth rates 

–Death rates 

–Immigration

–Emigration 

•Life history: how organisms allocate resources to growth, reproduction, and activities related to survival.

Population Growth

•birth rate (b)

•death rate (d)

•population growth rate(r) =b- d

change in the number of individuals in the population per unit time

ECOSYSTEMS 

•The organisms that live in an area and their physical and chemical (abiotic)environment. •Ecosystem ecology:

–movement of energy through ecosystems

–cycling of elements through ecosystems

–effects of human activity on the environment

•Biogeochemical cycle: the path that an element (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.)takes as it moves from abiotic systems through living organisms and back again.

BIODIVERSITY 

•Genetic diversity:number and frequency of alleles within a species

•Species diversity: number and relative abundance of species

•Ecosystem diversity: variety of biotic communities and abiotic factors in a region

Why important??

•Direct benefits: goods and services for humans 

–bioprospecting

–crop diversity

–bioremediation

•Indirect benefits: ecosystem services 

–erosion control

–maintenance of species diversity and ecosystem biomass

Threats??

•Current extinction rate is 100 to 1000 times greater than the background rate.

•Main underlying cause: human population growth 

–increased short-term overexploitation of resources

–decreased long-term sustainable use of resources

“The Tragedy of the Commons”- the problem of shared resources(interests of individuals  vs common good)

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