COM 107 Study Guide
Final Exam: WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 11th @ 5:15-7:15PM in NH1, ROOM 101 Highlighted = Key concepts absolutely 100% need to know
- your old exams
- Payola scandal!
- 5 Protected Freedoms of Speech
- Right to peacefully assemble
- Right to petition the gov’t
- class/textbook notes We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of transnational crime?
- prior years’ exams
- material since last exam;
- Chapter 2 (Convergence & Internet)
- Chapter 6 (TV)
- Professor Strong’s Lecture
- the documentary on Representation
- the readings from Blackboard
- The two assigned podcasts (RadioLab and REPLY ALL) We also discuss several other topics like How youtube works?
_________________________________________________________ Chapter 6: Television and Cable
Discuss the quiz show scandals of the 1950s and the effect they had on TV as a whole. - Rigged game shows where the producers already decided who they wanted to win; they would make the conditions rigged (like putting each contestant in separate glass rooms, but blew heat on one) or telling the contestant to purposely answer wrong
What is syndication? Why is it desirable?
- Syndication: leasing the exclusive right to air TV shows (two types: off-network (re-runs, like Friends) and first-run)
- Syndication is desirable since it leads to profits every year even after a show has been fully released; for example, Friends still brings in millions every year
Compare the evolution of television to the evolution of radio.
- television was invented by Philo Farnsworth in 1927, coming after film cinema
- public debut at NYC World’s Fair
- Sarnoff vs. Farnsworth on who invented the TV; patent wars
MASS MEDIUM STAGE
- fear of clogged airwaves (like radio) led to TV licensing freeze (1948-1952); led to cities that had TV and cities/towns that didn’t
- When freeze ends, there can be more stations even in small towns → TV becomes a mass medium Don't forget about the age old question of How is hereditary information passed through generations?
We also discuss several other topics like What is ethnocentrism in culture?
If you want to learn more check out What is the oldest common ancestors of taxa?
- 1954 RCA’s color TV system is standard
- Cable TV (1972: Home Box Office (HBO), etc.)
- Pre-internet advances
- VCR recording on demand
- Laserdisc (huge disc)
- Compact Disc (CD)
- Blueray Disc (better quality than DVDs)
How is Texaco Star Theater such a great example of early “golden age” television? I mentioned at least 5 things in class that marked its importance and how it was evidence for the trends in TV and radio at the time.
- first successful example of American TV broadcasting
- National audience (sparked national conversation)
- inspired by vaudeville (traditional theatre)
How do we watch/consume TV differently today than we did 25 years ago – how has the way we view changed the way TV content is created?
- Today TV consumption can be portable/mobile; before, TV was watched in the living room
- Content is created with different screen sizes in mind
What is the significance of I Love Lucy? Why did we discuss that show at length in class and in the textbook?
- 1st TV show to use live Hollywood audience
- Due to its success, networks began moving entertainment divisions to LA - It was shot on film (like cinema; TV shows were typically live); that’s why it’s still around today If you want to learn more check out What are the four leading causes of chronic disease?
- Time shifting vs. Appointment viewing
- Time shifting: downloading a show to watch later
- a show that airs at 8 pm but maybe you’re busy then, so you would set
your VCR to record the show to watch later, or today, you can
download shows to watch anywhere anytime
- Appointment viewing: setting aside time for when the show airs each week & making sure not to schedule anything during that show’s time
- a show that airs at 8 pm Mondays; you set aside that time and make an “appointment” to watch that show, then.
- Second Screen experience
- simultaneously checking a
second screen while watching
TV to engage in the same
- looking up a cast →
- Watch & Win: going to a
link provided by TV
show during a commercial break to answer trivia on what just
- Primetime: a range of time each night when the best and most valuable shows air; usually 8-11 pm
- Sketch comedy (series of short scenes; Amy Schumer)
- Situation comedy (workplace, domestic/home, etc.)
- Dramedy (drama that has comedic elements)
- Chapter shows; follow a formula, not necessary to watch in order
- Serial programs; each episode builds off the last one, binge-watching encouraged
- Network news
- Cable news
Define parasocial relationships and be able to give an example.
- Parasocial relationships are one-sided “bonds” with a media figure/star - Reese Witherspoon; following all her social media and feeling like you know them, but they know nothing about you
- Harry Potter:
Explain the intersection of parasocial relationships, social media and advertising, according to Luceck.
- Social media encourages and amplifies parasocial relationships
- Parasocial relationships are good for advertising; stars can endorse products and the more fans they have, the most $ they get for that endorsement - The audience gets more knowledge about star’s life through social media, the star gets $ from the products they advertise and endorse
Chapter 2: The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence
Why is net neutrality such an important issue? What is at stake without net neutrality? - Net neutrality: we all have access to the same thing regardless of who our internet service provider (ISP) is or how much we pay
- Without net neutrality, internet service providers (AT&T, Verizon, Comcast, etc.) could give us slow internet access unless we agree to pay even more
Be able to discuss Microsoft, Google, Apple, Amazon, and Facebook and how they have dominated the Internet
- 5 tech companies that have dominated the industry
- Read more: textbook pp. 52-54
What is the digital divide? In class I discussed three perspectives or approaches to understanding this complex concept; be able to define each of these (global, social, personal).
- Digital Divide: term for the haves and have-nots of digital technology that allows us to be in the conversations; there are people in the world have the technology and means to have the technology and who don’t
- 3 Perspectives
- Global: gov’ts that turn off access to internet (Iran right now) or
geographical structure doesn’t let you have access (living in the
Himalayas); Macro perspective
- Social: limited access because of financial or demographic reasons
- Personal: the people who are scared of technology; they opt out
What does the book mean by the concept “walled garden”?
- a private cloud encouraged by the big 5 except for Facebook (Microsoft, Google, Apple, Amazon) to their customers to store all their files in for easy access across all devices; it builds brand loyalty and generates $ through file storage fees
Be able to describe – in detail – the development of the internet and the web. This means being able to state clearly the various stages to becoming a mass medium and knowing the “moments” that take the internet from one stage to the next. (see table in general lecture section)
- Social networking sites; Instagram, Facebook, Linkedin; allow users to create profiles and connect with people
- World Wide Web; today, where we can all access all online information - Open-source; software for which the original source code is made freely available and may be modified by any user (example: Wikipedia)
- ARPAnet; network that connected computers to share processing time (not the same as the world wide web of today)
- How do you figure out when it’s your turn to use the processing time?
- EMAIL (electronic mail)
- HTML; the authoring language used to create documents on the World Wide Web - Microprocessor; huge room-sized computers → microprocessors (1971) → personal computer (PC)
- Internet service provider (ISP); AT&T, Verizon, Comcast, etc.
- Semantic Web; data in web pages is structured so that it can be read directly by computers (ex: asking Siri for information
What is context collapse? Provide an example.
What is the “imagined audience” and how does that relate to context collapse?
Distinguish between and provide an example from social media between “given” and “given off”
Stuart Hall: Representation and the Media
How does Hall define representation?
- Representation: The process by which meaning is produced and exchanged between members of a culture through images, music, TV shows, etc. which represent groups of people and things.
Beyond the above definition, what two things did you learn from the Hall documentary?
General lecture notes
What is the “moment” that each of the mass media we discussed?
ARPAnet: it had a growing community of researchers, computer programmers,
amatuer hackers, etc. all tapped in to the “net,” sharing
Release of web
browsers and Personal Computers (PCs)
brought the web to the MASS MEDIA STAGE
After the TV Licensing freeze ended in 1952, more TV stations
could start licenses and even small towns could now access TV… after this, ~1300
communities received TV →
MASS MEDIA STAGE
commercialization of radio; he created
NBCred and NBCblue
Narrative-story and discourse
What is the “privacy paradox”? Why is it important when we talk about social media? - Privacy Paradox; consumers really care about privacy and keeping our private info safe, BUT we willingly give access and give it away when we agreed to terms & conditions and cookies
What is the distinction I made between Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and Web 3.0? - Web 1.0
- one way communication
- brochure like webpages
- static, read-only web (not interactive)
- difficult to make changes
- Web 2.0
- two-way communication
- interactive (ex: hyperlinks)
- social networking & sharing
- Web 3.0
- semantic web (see Ch. 2 key terms)
- data-driven web to make a meaningful/organized web
- “Siri, what time is ___ movie playing?”
- Siri knows your location and it infers that you mean for today’s
Define Symbolic annihilation; provide an example that gives your definition context - Symbolic Annihilation; when people aren’t represented in media, or
misrepresented, leads to thinking of stereotypes of social groups; what we see in the media is what we think of the different social groups
- Example: Latino characters in films (makeup 4.5% of characters, even though they makeup 15% of US population and growing; and even when they do appear, many rely on stereotypes)
Why does on-screen representation matter?
- People believe what they see
- If they see a stereotype over and over, that is what they form their perspective of the population as a whole
Based on our lecture, what else matters about representation in the entertainment media? Explain why diversity matters behind the screen as well.
- Behind the screen, with the decision-makers and scriptwriters, diversity is needed so that entertainment doesn’t lean on stereotypes
Define Stuart Hall’s Active audience theory; be sure to name each of the “types of reading” by using an example
- Active Audience Theory: messages are encoded (there is meaning given with material) and decoded (the audience is actively taking meaning from a material; audiences are NOT passive)
- Dominant Reading (accept); surface level, what-do-you-see
- Negotiated Reading; critical analysis
- Oppositional Reading (reject); this is a problem
Professor Strong’s Guest Lecture
- Deep fake: AI based tech to show a person saying or doing something they’ve never said/done (becoming easier and easier to make)
- In our digital world, can we trust photojournalism?
- We all give things meaning → we are all visual storytellers
- Images are POWERFUL and MEMORABLE when they make us feel emotion (what we feel, we remember)