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UNLV / Geography / GEOG 103 / What is the meaning of pedology?

What is the meaning of pedology?

What is the meaning of pedology?

Description

School: University of Nevada - Las Vegas
Department: Geography
Course: Physical Geography of Earth’s Environment
Professor: Dr. gabriel judkins
Term: Fall 2019
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Geo 103
Description: These notes cover the notes from chapters 18 & 19
Uploaded: 12/06/2019
10 Pages 114 Views 4 Unlocks
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Geo 103, Final Study GuideDon't forget about the age old question of Who is louis pasteur?

If you want to learn more check out What three layers make up the heart wall?

Sample Question

  • The competitive exclusion principle states?

Answer: that each species seeks to reduce its competition with other speciesIf you want to learn more check out What are the different types of communication?

Chapter 18 (8 questions)

Pedology; origin, classification, distribution and description of soil

  • Pedon = Greek for soil or Earth

Edaphology: function, emphasizing the growth, fertility and productivity of soils as well as soils management

  • Edaphos Greek for soil or ground

Pedon: a hexagonal column profile of soil from the surface to bedrock

  • 1 - 10 m2 - surface area
  • Basic sampling unit of soil surveys

Polypedon: region composed of similar pedons that can be differentiated from surrounding areas

  • Essential soil individual
  • Identifiable series of soils
  • Basic mapping unit of local soil maps

Soil Horizon: a distinctive layer of soil exposed in a pedonWe also discuss several other topics like What are the organ tissues?

Horizons: typically layered horizontal to surface

  • Distinguished based on: color, texture, structure, consistence, porosity, mineral content, moisture, chemical process
  • Arrangement use to classify soils

Know about the horizonsWe also discuss several other topics like What is the cause of alcohol during pregnancy?

Horizon: organic composition 20% - 30%

  • Retains water and nutrients
  • Surface plant and animal litter forms humus

Humus: dark colored mixture of decomposed and synthesized organic materialDon't forget about the age old question of The platelets are cytoplasmic fragments of, what?

A horizon: (top soil) Transition zone

  • Dark in color with humus and clay providing chemical connections between nutrients and plants
  • Rich organic compounds present
  • Disrupted by places

E Horizon

  • Light in color
  • Composed of coarse sand, silt and resistant minerals
  • Fine particles removed by eluviation

Eluviation: transportation of dissolved or suspended material caused by water (rainfall)

Illuviation: the accumulation of suspended material and soluble compounds eached from an overlooking stratum

B Horizon: (subsoil)

  • Reddish or yellowish
  • Composed of accumulation of clays, aluminum and iron by illuviation
  • Typically formed in place

C Horizon: weathered bedrock or regolith

  • No plant roots or soil microorganisms
  • No clay
  • Composed of carbonates, gypsum or soluble salts, or iron and silica
  • Calcium carbonate cementing in and environments

Chapter 18

R Horizon: bedrock or unconsolidated materials that weather into regolith

M Horizon: anthropogenic soils

  • Horizontal artifacts of concrete asphalt, plastic, rubber, textile linears

Soil properties: complexity of soils and their several variations are best revealed by studying a number of different properties

  • Texture: mixture of particle size and their proportions
  • Chemistry: pones help combine soil solution (water) with atmosphere (N2, CO2, O2)
  • Acidity: H+ ions stimulate acid formation, acid rain still major contributor, accelerates chemical weathering and nutrient depletion, treated with lime (CaCO3)
  • Alkalinity: high base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) linked to salinity

Soil colloids: tiny particles of clay and humus (attracting cations necessary for plant growth

  • Cations (+ charge)
  • Anions (- charge)

Soil orders - be familiar with the first 5

  1. Oxisols: highly affected mature soils

Lacking distinct horizons

  • Iron (reddish) and aluminum oxides
  1. Arid sols: shallow horizons
  • Lack of organic matter
  • Easily leached due to lack of colloidal structure
  • High potet
  1. Mollisols:
  • Grassland soils
  • Diagnostic horizon (organic layer)
  • High CEC, high fertility
  • “Fertile triangle” Russia - Ukraine region
  1. Alfisols: spatially the most widespread
  • Greenish brown to reddish
  • Considered fertile with sufficient moisture
  1. Ultisols: highly weathered forest soils
  • Tend to be reddish
  • Lower CEC, low soil fertility

Chapter 19 Study Notes

Biogeography: the study of the distribution of organisms

  • Farther from mainland, lower biodiversity
  • Larger area holds more species
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