Dec. 2nd, 2019
Keys & Symbols
Blue words = sections of lecture
= key words
= on quizzes / exams
Ex: = Example
Comments by Professor (David Becker) in purple
● Use hard copy with Google Form
● **Advice** - Have the hard copy with you and download the digital copy as a Microsoft Word document and fill it out there. DO NOT just fill it out through Google Form because once it leaves the page, all answers will be deleted
● Section 4 of the exam: Be careful about scrolling side-ways that may result in going back on your page
● Professor will send an email reminder in case the form happened to not get submitted
Principles in Fair Use for Journalism
PRINCIPLE: Fair use applies to the incidental and fortuitous capture of copyright material in journalism
● Ex: song playing in the background when recording a video, taking pictures when there are brands/company in the background If you want to learn more check out How is hereditary information passed through generations?
● Key thing is that it needs to be incidental, it can’t be the subject of the picture If you want to learn more check out What is meant by cultural shock?
If you want to learn more check out What is an example of horizontal gene transfer?
Situation 2: Don't forget about the age old question of Why health is important?
PRINCIPLE: Fair use applies when journalists use copyrighted material as documentation, to validate, prove, support, or document a proposition.
● Ex: Private emails or text messages that are leaked to the press, photographic evidence backing up a claim, video that document activities, that a reporter is covering
PRINCIPLE: The use of cultural material for purposes of reporting, criticsm, commmentary, or discussion constitutes fair use
● Ex: artworks or photographs that are being critically reviewed of otherwise studied, short clips from films and TV shows, short excerpts from books or other written material
PRINCIPLE: Fair use applies to illustration in news reporting
● Ex: photos posted publicly on social media, such as photos of a public event, maps and other materials that illustrated points made in an article, Using a clip from a song or a movie to accompany an article about a singer, actor, filmmaker, diagrams and drawings, that illustrate the topic of an article
PRINCIPLE: Fair use applies to journalistic incorporation of historical material ● Ex: photos of a historical topic covered in an article, historical film clips used in a documentary film about those historical events Don't forget about the age old question of What is biopsychological theory?
PRINCIPLE: The use of copyrighted material to promote public discussion and analysis can qualify as fair use
● Ex: internal documents that are of public interest, newsworthy individuals public social media posts and profile pictures, hidden camera footage
PRINCIPLE: Fair use can apply to the quotation of earlier journalism
● Ex: news “round ups” and summaries of the news, use of local reporters work in a story
**To check the limitations for each principle, please read the article, Set of Principles of Fair Use For Journalism
● Videos produced by the channels were viewed over 14.2 billion times worldwide after one work
● Videos generally received the most engagement during their first day on the platform ● English-language videos comprised only 17% but accounted for 28% if all if the views ○ Vast videos produced were NOT in EnglishWe also discuss several other topics like How do you know if you have a neurotransmitter imbalance?
● Large majority of videos from popular Youtube channels came from a small group of producers
● Videos about video games among the most common, most-viewed of those posted by popular channels in first week of 2019
● Videos featuring children under the age of 13 were associated with more views and channels with more subscribers relative to general-audience videos
○ Young children are the primary viewers of YouTube
● Bigger takeaway: relationship between children and YouTube
● Within topical categories, certain title keywords were associated with greater number of views
● YouTube is a hub for all these different
**To read more,
Report “A Week
in the Life of
○ Glorious connectedness - ability to reach out and connect directly with friends, family, colleagues, knowledge, education,
entertainment and more anywhere
globally at any time in a nearly free and frictionless manner
■ Mainly to reach out to like
○ Invent, reinvent, innovate - digital tools enable people to invent or reinvent their lives and careers. Innovate through wide networking with people and information that allows them to develop business, find the perfect job, and meet soulmates, colleagues, new friends and fellow interest-sharers.
○ Life-saving advice and assistance - people can tap into and share medical, safety and health resources and support at a moments’ notice
■ Some negatives are being misinformed with false symptoms when we experience a physical condition -- take it with a grain of salt
○ Efficient transactions - the internet revolutionizes life logistics and experiences. They cite benefits including accessing online education, researching purchases, finding best options for anything, making quick-hit social connections, planning trips, or coordinating activities - which allow people to be more mobile, savvy, and globally enriched
■ Ex: Amazon, Venmo
○ Connectedness overload - instant access to nearly everything is causing stress, anxiety, sleeplessness and loss of patience.
■ Ex: Feeling the need to always be doing something such as while waiting on line, getting the urge to check the phone instead of just being present.
○ Trust tensions - the business model of internet platforms reward addictive products that heighten users’ emotions and perpetuate polarization. There are concerns among experts about issues of security, surveillance and privacy.
■ Ex: Political polarization being created through social media
○ Personal identity issues - Self-promotion, narcissism, click bait, trolling, propaganda, and pressures to conform have become dominant in social networks, causing some individuals to experience the loss of self-confidence and self-esteem. This encourages them to lose faith in others and adopt a negative world view.
■ Ex: People feeling the need to “self brand” without being narcissistic.
○ Focus failures - digital life fosters shallow engagement with information as people glide through multiple information streams daily, taking little time for reflection. People’s ability to concentrate well, stay on task, and do long-term, deep-dive thinking has diminished.
● The 50-50 Experiences
○ Many experts found that digital life had both positive and negative aspects.
● Founded in October 2010 by Kevin Systrom (CEO until 2018) Mike Krieger (CTO until 2018)
● Facebook purchased in April 2012 for $1 billion
● Founded: 2005
● Current CEO: Steve Huffman, Alexis Ohanian, Aaron Swartzs
● Owned by: October 2006 purchase by Conde Nast (owns many leading fashion companies), Current owner Advance Publications, Inc.
● Owns many dating sites such as Match.com, Tinder, etc.
○ Raises questions about competition and fairness between companies
● Founded in September 2011 by Evan Spiegel, Bobby Murphy (CTO), and Reggie Brown and students at Stanford
● Current CEO: Evan Spiegel
● Owned By: Snap, Inc.
○ Also owner of Bitmoji
● Founders: Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim
● Current CEO: Susan Wojcicki
● Owned By: Google, Inc. (parent company of Google is Alphabet)
MindGeek (not part of IAC)
● Owns many porn sites
● They bought up all these producers
● They own a lot of the illegal porn sites
The Paramount Decision
Netflix - How did the movie and TV industry work before Netflix?
● Phases of Production
○ Production content
■ Ex: making movies
○ Distributing content: middle-person, producing and distributing content so that they can be exhibited in many platforms
■ Ex: Giving out movies to multiple media outlets
○ Exhibiting content
■ Watching movies in a theater
● Historically these phases have been controlled by a combination of different companies ● Increasingly they are controlled by a single corporation
● Vertical integration: when one company controls/owns every phase of production ○ Used by the Hollywood Studio system during the “Golden Age” of Hollywood (1920 - 50s)
○ Made illegal in 1948 by the “Paramount Decision”
○ As the entertainment industry diversifies, these legal decisions became less relevant
**Read the Hollywood Reporter article “Justice Department Moves to Terminate Paramount Consent Decrees”