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WM / Biology / BIOL 203 / What do genes do?

What do genes do?

What do genes do?

Description

School: College of William and Mary
Department: Biology
Course: Intro Molecules, Cells & Devp
Professor: Lizabeth allison
Term: Fall 2019
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study for final
Description: These notes cover chapters 16,17,18,19, and 21.
Uploaded: 12/07/2019
24 Pages 47 Views 1 Unlocks
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Chapter 16: How Genes WorkIf you want to learn more check out Define chirality.

Gene expression: the process of converting information coded in DNA into molecules.

Don't forget about the age old question of Why do we want to be a part of a group?

16.1 What do Genes do?

  • Null alleles / loss-of-function alleles: alleles that do not function at cell
  • One gene, one-enzyme hypothesis: each gene contains the lufo needed to make an enzyme
  • Genetic screen: any technique for picking particular types of mutants out of many randomly generated mutants.

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of free response in dynamic system?

16. 2 The Central Dogma of Molecules Biology

        Messenger RNA (mRNA): carry information out of the nucleus from DNA to the site of protein in the cytoplasm.Don't forget about the age old question of How is meiosis fair to genes?

  • RNA polymerase: synthesizes mRNA by using DNA template
  • Transcription: the process of transcribing DNA to RNA done by RNA polymerase
  • Translation: the process of using mRNA to translate into proteins, done by ribosomes.
  • Central Dogma: DNA → RNA → Proteins

Don't forget about the age old question of What term is used to describe a situation when individuals in groups feel more anonymous and less self aware?
If you want to learn more check out How do economists decompose the total economic value conferred by resources?

16.3 The Genetic Code

  • A 3 base code is used (tipletcode)
  • 3 base that specify a particular amino acid is a codon.
  • There is redundancy: different codons code for the same amino acids.

        

  • Reading frame: sequence of codon
  • Insertion or deletion off the reading frame

  • Start codon: AUG, Methionine (Met), signals that protein synthesis should start there.

  • Stop codon: UAA, UAG, UGA, signals the end of the polypeptide.

  • When several codons specify the same amino acids, the first two bases are usually identical.

16.4 What are the types and consequences of mutation

  • Mutation: permanent change in an organism's DNA
  • Polut mutation: mutation that alters the sequence of one or a small number of base pairs.
  • Missense mutations: polut mutations that change identity as an amino acid in a protein
  • Silent mutation: does not change amino acid sequence of a gene product
  • Frameshift mutation: addition or deletion of base pairs cause shifting of the reading frame.
  • Noushouse mutation: codon is changed to a stop codon.

Chromosome mutation:

  • Deletion: losing segment of chromosome
  • Inversion: segments of broken chromosome flipped and rejoined
  • Duplication: one or more additional copies of a segment
  • Translocation: a broken place of chromosomes can become attached to different one.

Chapter 17: Transcription, RNA processing, and Translation

17.1 An overview of transcription

  • RNA polymerase is the core enzyme but requires a protein called the Sigma to bond to it, creating a holoenzyme, in order to recognize sorting sites for transcription called promoters.
  • Bacteria promoter composition includes a series of bases (TATAAT) which is 10 bases upstream of transcription start.
  • In addition the sequence TTGACA is countered about 35 bases upstream of transcription start.
  • Sigma binds to the -10 and -35 positions in order to start transcription.
  • The bases in bacterial DNA that make up the termination signal are transcribed into a stretch of RNA that forms a hair. This helps end transcription.
  • Eukaryotes has 3 RNA polymerase (pol I, pol II, pol III)
  • Have 4 promoter called THTH box  at -30
  • Substitute sigma for transcription factors
  • Poly (A) sigma triggers end of transcription.

17.2. RNA Processing in Eukaryotes

  • Primary transcript: are pre-mRNA for protein coded genes
  • Need to go through RNA processing
  • Introns: regions of a gene that are transcribed but not represented in the fina RNA
  • Exons: regions that are transcribed and represented in the final mature RNA

RNA splicing

  • Splicing of primary transcripts is catalyzed by RNA called small nuclear RNAs (sn RNAs). Group of them make up a spliceosome.

Adding cops and tails

  • 5’ cop: modified guanine nucleotide that enables ribosomes to bind to mRNA but prevents degradation by ribonucleases
  • Poly (A) tail: after poly (A) signal, enzymes close the 3’ end of the pre-mRNA

17.3 An introduction to translation

  • Polyribosome: two or more ribosome simultaneously translate one mRNA

17.4. The Structure and Function of transfer RNA

  • Transfer RNA (+RNA): when it has an amino acid attached, it is known as an aminoacyl +RNA
  • Also transfers amino acids to proteins

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