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UCR / Engineering / Biol 005 / What is ecological hierarchy?

What is ecological hierarchy?

What is ecological hierarchy?


School: University of California Riverside
Department: Engineering
Course: Intro to ecology and evolution
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Biology and Biology: Ecology and Evolution
Cost: 50
Name: UCR Bio5c Study Guide for Final
Description: Cumulative Final study guide for Bio5C
Uploaded: 12/08/2019
24 Pages 27 Views 6 Unlocks

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What is ecological hierarchy?

Don't forget about the age old question of How many aquatic biomes are there?

= ,

ECOlogicalhierar.ch# ✓ 

Organisms → populations → Communities -1 

EIosystems-IBiospnereJE.co/ogyvs-Environmentali# ✓ 


°Quantifying movement of nutrients 3energy within ecosystems

Observing factors that infl . distrib . 4 abundance of organisms ° 

What are types of species distribution patterns?


Both ecological factors & evolutionary history

° Ex :Kangaroos are only found in Australia We also discuss several other topics like Why are genetic diseases not removed from the population via natural selection?

-unable to disperse to otter continents ( dispersal limited )}lid?gipteSga, -Req. certain biotic 4 abiotic conditions ( habitat limited) -Evolved after Australia moved to current location ( isolated) 

What are terrestrial biomes examples?

Dispersal affects distribution V We also discuss several other topics like Why does texas have a constitution?
We also discuss several other topics like How are moles converted to molecules?

°Dispersal is the movement of individuals away from high pop - density or from their origin


Species transplants ✓ 

°Organisms un / intentionally relocated away from original distribution 

°Invasive species can disrupt communities or ecosystems

Biotic factors affect distribution ✓ Don't forget about the age old question of What was the plan authored that served as a proposal on how to deal with american indians?

°Interactions like predation, parasitism , competition etc. 

Abiotic factors affect distribution ✓ Ex : Inc. water temp along coast °Temp °Sunlight of Tasmania allows sea urchin °Water & oxygen oRocks 4 sail to expand itsrange °SalinityIf you want to learn more check out What is the endocrine system in animals?


What are biomes ?

°Biome : amajor type of biological assemblage °Determined by :

Temp } rainfall on land ✓ 


Temp , depth and salinity in water Tundra -

° Two main aspects of biomes Targa -primary productivity : Amt plant growth in area over time / temp.grassland forest -Biodiversity : # of species chap Desert

V savanna 

Terrestrialbiomes Equator Tropical Distribution ✓ 

°Mainly determined by climate 

-Aug . rain , temp 3 Seasonal variation are important


The Tropical Forest Biome -

°Equatorial / subequatorial regions

°Rain forest = constant rain

↳ Dry forest = seasonal rain

°High temp.year round

µHigh primary productivity -

°High biodiversity l l -covers 51 . land but houses 70-1. of all living species 

Temperate Broadleaf Forest 

°Mid -latitudes in N . hemisphere

°High rain year -round 

°Cool winters, hot / humid Summers

°Moderate primary productivity 

°Moderate biodiversity

Taiga (N - coniferous forest) 

°N - north America di Eurasia 

-LARGEST terrestrial biome on Earth ! 

°Rain varies (some areas drefwet)

°Cold winters , maybe hot summers

° Low primary productivity

* -Lots of conifers

°Low biodiversity

°Some species depend on periodic fires ( Disturbance!)

The chaparral

°Mid -latitude coastal regions °Low but variable biodiversity °Low and seasonal rain # °Many plants adapted to fire tdrought

°Hot summers , cool winters (Disturbance ! ) )D ° Low primary productivity (shrubs) 

The savanna

°Equatorial & subequatorial regions

°Seasonal rain w/ long dry season 

°Warm } seasonal temps vary more than tropical forests 

°Moderate primary productivity * °Moderate biodiversity

°Plants fire adapted & tolerant of seasonal drought

°Tree spread contained by periodic fires 

Temperate Grassland 

°Central N . America (prairie) { Asia (steppes) 

°Low 3 seasonal rain

-mainly in summer 

°Cold winters, Hot summers

* °Moderate biodiversity

°Moderate primary prod . 

°Dominant plants are adapted to droughts & fire ( Disturbance .')

°Herbaceous dominant plants

The Desert 

°30-North / south of the equator

-And interiors of continents

°Hot of cold jvaries seasonally 3 by time °LOW rain , less than 30cm) yr 

* ° 

°Low primary prod. 










in Low

densities & adapt to dryness

4 low nutrients

°Arctic areas ; alpine tundra on high mountains 

°Low rain in arctic tundra

-Higher in alpine tundra

°Very cold winters , cool summers

* °Low biodiversity

°Low primary prod. 

°Permafrost .'a perm. frozen soil layer that prevents water entering °Herbaceous vegetation

Lew Med High

°Tundra .Savanna -Tropical

°Desert °Temp grass

•Chaparral Temp. forest


III.whatarekeycnaracteristicsofaauaticbiome.IA-auat.ec biomes -Freshwater

°Intertidal °Wetlands

ywhere river meets

°Coral Reefs °Lakes ocean -sallet fresh →

Oceans ( pelagic) middle of sea °Estuaries ° 

°Oceans ( Bent hi Bottom of ocean°Rivers ( streams 

Depth &

ssna.ws :÷¥÷÷÷j::::i. 

II÷÷e¥/ "" " reefs f. ocean . -pelagic ( benthic 


salinity AT 

Asaline coral reefwetlands } : oceanic } !Estuaries

t.PT?:gnicI+s// 'Intertidal / :{tarea.gs/riuers T fresh



us. ClimateL/ 


Climate :Long -term weather conditions ° 

°Weather : Daily conditions of temp , pressure , wind & moisture

* Things

to remember


is tilted

-Hot air rises , cold sinks

-Hot air holds more water

-wind pushes water

-water changes temp slower than air (land

Seasonality 4 latitudinal variation in climate V 

°Sun 's effect increases closer to the equator

-BIC Less atmosphere to cross , sun 900 angle , smaller SA 

°Climate seasonal b/c of the tilted axis ( 23.50) 

Air circulation patterns 3 ocean currents 

°Rotation is faster @ equator

°Earth 's rotation deflects surface flow of Hadley cells ✓ c- Thing 'II > As a result 


Ascending moist there are deserts 30' 

air releases moisture from equator 4 tropical

forests at equator

°Wind pushes water creating ocean currents 

-Clockwise in N . Hennis.) counter in South 

Regional climate patterns

°Mountains create effects ✓ 

cool air¥ewgirrm A much

precipitation -As wind cools down up mountain , 



it drops water since it can 't hold

°Bodies of water moderate climate ✓ -water has a high specific heat that allows : °Ocean areas to warm slowly in summer o 11 to cool down slowly in winter

Climatechange V 

cause : Greenhouse Gases

°Greenhouse Effect : coz 4 gases in atmosphere trap heat from Sun °Many CO2 emissions come from fossil fuelsClicker Q 9%99.is?.::::i:ia7sIIEastersincei-nerisnore' and 

we×np+e%YiI÷e Predicted in tropical rain forests ? 

ATemp A- Competition for light

to due to more hours light 

consequence : Loss of polar sea ice

sea ice to melt 4 fracture sea ice&

°Heat from atmosphere can cause 

covers avg. 

cover 'avg {

sea ice

consequence : sea levels rise

°Water expands as it melts

↳ Leads to rise in sea level as glaciers melt 

consequence : More severe storms

°Inc. heat ( energy

↳Stronger hurricanes 

consequence : Ocean acidification

°Oceans absorb CO2 from air

→ In solution, it becomes acidic

→Carbonate is absorbed from water

→ This prevents shelled organisms & 

coral reefs from calcifying

Depletion of Atmospheric Ozone 

°Ozone hole over s.pole

-caused by CFC 's da aerosol 


°UV radiation

→ Damages cell DNA 

→ Skin cancer

→ Cataracts


Those less tolerant

''¥÷÷÷÷ :S:-÷÷÷÷÷÷÷: °converted° 


° Small population fragmented °narrowly distr ib- °urbanized

°can 't disperse * °Invasive species -Harmful to native organisms

-EX : kudzu, brown tree snake , quagga mussels 


-or accidental 


be intentional


-such as illegal poaching for elephant tusks 

→Problematic b/c of slow reproduction

$ °Global change

-Sum of everything discussed above including Biogeochemical Cycles lecture



°Interacting biotic di abiotic parts

°2emergent processes : 

→Energy flows through ecosystems 

→Chemicals cycle w/ in ecosystems 

°Ecosystems are open systems , absorbing energy & mass and releasing heat and waste


Remember : 

°The Sun is the ultimate energy source 

°Chemicals always cycled

°Energy always needs input

Net primary production ✓

°Primary prod : Amt light → Chemenergy in certain time 

↳ aka Gross Prim . Prod .'-Total production

°Net primary Prod.: Gpp -energy used by autotrophs for cellular resp .

What limits primary productivity VIj 





I:c:÷: a.

This ecosystem is

reliant on ammonium 

or nitrogen

be of cloudcoverage 

of light

Food chains

°Food chains : Links trophic levels of ecosystem in astraight line °De composers break down org . matter from all trophic levels 

g ①

Trophic levels : t 2 3 4 

Food webs ✓ 

°Much more complicated than linear food chains 

-More representative of ecosystem relationships

-Organisms can be @ diff .trophic level depending on what they eat 

③ ④ 

- What would describe Baleen whales ? 

: :O:c:c..: iii. 


↳ Tertiary /

③/ (①①y two diff paths

② ② 



tophicpyram ✓ 

Trophic transfers

°90 's.of energy is lost btwn each trophic level 

* Too many trophic levels won 't

] Supply enough energy so 

] 5 is max 

] Only 10-1. of energy passed on 


°Describes flux of atoms and molecules btwn biotic ( abiotic reservoirs -Flux : Rate of movement btwn reservoirs

-Reservoir : place where type of atoms ( moles . accumulate °Four factors to focus in cycles ( H2O , C , N ,P )

I . Chem .biological importance 

2. Forms each Chem . is avail or used}*fy*ka%°ItII%es ! 3.Major reservoirs each chemical

4 .Key processes that drive Chem - movement in cycle

°Earth is a closed system for elements & nutrients

-Gaseous cycles are ① Global usually ② Turn over quickly -Nongaseous cycles are ① More localized ② Turn over slowly


°Essential to all organisms

°Reservoirs : 97% oceans , 2.1. ice caps , lit lakes , ground

°Moves via euap , transpiration , condensation , precip 


°Carbon based molec . essential to all organisms

°Photosynth.org 's convert coz →org . molecules for heterotrophs °Reservoirs : Fossil fuel , soil , biomass , atmosphere , Sedin . rocks

(Oz from resp - t volcanoes

↳ atmosphere

Nitrogen cycle 

°N is a component for AA 's , proteins 4 nucleic acids 

°Reservoir : Atmosphere ! & °Nz must be converted to Nhat or NO,-for plants via nitrogen fixing bacteria °Nitrogen is alimiting nutrient in many ecosystems

°Insectivorous plants in low -N environments

→ °Nitrogen pollution &

-Humans doubled rate N entering cycles ( fertilizers , fossil fuels , legumes)

-consequences °Inc. conc .


of N0×


Why do low -N environments " " ta" """" """s "' "s?

°They can acquire IN from insects


°N in soils 㱺teaching cations , acidification

°Toxic drinking water


°Loss of biodiversity ( species adapted to low -N )  

Phosphorite &

°Major in nucleic acids , phospholipids , ATP

°Phosphate ( Poy") is most important inorganic form of P 

°Reservoirs : sedi . rocks , soil , oceans , organisms


°weathering of rocks 㱺 P to soil 㱺 Leader to water 



°Decomposers ( detritivores) play key role ingen.pattern of chemical cycling °Decomp. rate controlled by : temp , moisture , Oz , nutrients

Population 4 its characteristic ⑧ Population ecology

f) like light for turtle hatchlings

°Pop.ecology explores how biotic di abiotic factors influence abundance , dispersion 4 age struc.↳ like predator

°Population : A group of india of single species living in sane general area f Emergent prop 's 

*Pop. size

°Total # indie . in population (N)

* Pop density

°Density = # indio per unit area ↳ Measuring : Count , Count subsample extrapolate, use proxy (nests ) , mark 3 recapture -mark -recapture : 

N =pop. Size 

|N=NlN# n , = # Capt. E marked 

-M ha = # captured 

mi #Ie captured ( w/ tag)

* Dispersion

0Dispersion : District of individuals in a pop - over space 3 volume 

°Random distributions

-Every point has equal prob. of containing an indiv. 

-Ex : Flower field , dead fish


-Indio. more likely to be found near other indie. 

-common in pop . if ity is Sig.in success

-Ex : schools of fish for prot , packs of wolves for easy hunting 


-Indio. more evenly spaced , less likely to be near others

-seen interritorialpop.IT

-Ex :penguins , nesting gannets

* Rate of change in size over time 

°Influencers of size, density , dispersion & rate of charge

-Ecological needs 

-Distrito . 4 abundance of resources

-Interactions among individuals 

°Attraction ( mating , herding)

°Repulsion ( territoriality , competition)


what value of Lx / 'T TE . Is s ? -

Demographics / D ,".ae#suoIn Life tables 7L mall °Demography ? The study of vital stats in pop . & variation w/ age °Life table :Age specific summary of vital stats 

°Cohort :Group of indie born abt same time 

°Survivorship ( Lx) : prop. of incline to survive toage X ? ←Be able to calc !

Survivorship curve Reflects ant

°Data from life tables presented graphically of care ( we 

°Type I :High survival → low invest a lot

-E large mammals into offspring) A °Type II : constant survival decline

. birds , reptiles -

°Type III : Low survival , most don't age long 

:amphibians , fish , plats [ Give examples

Patterns of reproduction

°Reprod. table '-Age -specific summary of reprod.rates in a pop. 

-Usually only contains data for females b/c they Ctrl limit reprod. rate Lifehistorytraits 

Life history I

°Schedule of an org's life °A-get size at maturity

°Allocation of reprod.energy

Fish ( plants mammals 

°Life span [ what factors influence ?

°#/size offspring

°# reproof. events 

R -selection 4 K selection

°R -selected : Traits to max . reprod. at low density (see table) °K -selected : Traits good at high density ( Named be carrying capacity) °Principle of allocation : Resources for an org . for functions are finite -Why we can 't prod. more BIG organisms every year 

Tradeoffs w/ reprod . 4 survival

°More reprod → lower survival rate

°Females aren't as affected as males


Geometricvs.exponentialgrowthvs.logisticgrowf-pop.gr ows either in discrete time intervals or continuously geometric 4 ↳ exponential

°Logistic growth : r → o as pop. size nears carrying capacity c- 


|Changein=BirthstIwmigrats-Deaths-Emigra# size n

Basic Growth Rate

Usually ignore

°Pop growth rate can be written as :[Discrete growth ! 

|§F=B# -





12=13 -D

↳ Net reprod . rate

can be changed to 

Per capita Growth Rate

°Per capita (individual) change in pop. size (rst) : contribution that an avg member of the pop. makes to the pop.Size over St


indio- added

pop. size

Combined Growth Rate formula (continues ! 

°Ee=rR=rsesg¥= %E9.ee?agein 'a::sa± 

R us.rst & I re °rest =Percapita change inpop. size R =/ pop. stable r = o} know these 

°R= Net reprod. rate R Ll pop t r LO

R > I pop T r > O 


Logistic model continuous ) small N :growth → r

¥=rnc IIE ? son."

values !

Which factors would

Growth regulators & affect moose pop . ('÷:÷÷÷÷÷÷±÷÷÷÷¥.io#n:o::.::::::.....O °Resource competition °Disease |: Iso:c: space . aoessionetc . °Toxic wastes

-Ex : yeast has ethanol as byproduct

°Too much ethanol is bad , so things like wine only around 15-1 . Agestructure ✓ 

°The relative # of indio . of each age in a pop 

-can help predict a pop.growth trend Growth Stable Decline 

Humanpop-grow BaYobw%9zPff§Ye

° *


Began in 1650 * More pop inyounger yrs Growth slowed means fastergrocery pop. 

°Started slowing in 1962 & 

Demographic transition * 

°from high births ( deaths → low births ) deaths 

-Usually assoc . with more dew. countries

°BC of healthcare and educationy✓ 

since not as many


- l r y l l ¥ETao: & Midterm 2


'S a community ? 

°Community : Group of species living close enough for interaction

-Have emergent prop's : 

→species diversity , trophic struct , and stability

Interactions btwn species *

°Interspecific interactions Be able to read 3 ID °Classified by direction of effects interaction

- occurring Pos. ( t) -neg C -) 

-Neutral co) 

*°3 main categories [One Pos , one neg . affected

-Antagonism (=/-or -ft) clicker Q : -Mutualism ( t ft ) what would you expect w/ 2 species competing for -Commensalism (+10) 

Antagonist %÷÷÷im÷:g: Competition C- I -)

-Must be short supply )

°Occurs when species compete for reprod limiting resource r *°Exploitative : Indio.deplete resources by eating ( ° using Interference :Aggro. encountersamongindio. will shape resource access

species coexistence

°Can lead to local elim . of acompeting species yjw.pe/whY can 

↳ competitive exclusion * ai es coexist? -so 2 species can 't coexist penn.in same place

-CI coexist if I lSig. diff in niches

°Ecological niche : Anorg's ecological role 

-sum oforg's wee biotic 3 abiotic factors

°Resource partitioning : A diff -in ecological niches 

-Allows coexistence

-Spatial : Diff areas of tree

-Temporal : Time of day

uunnddalnienttahdnicne : Area potentially occupied by that species °Realized niche : Area actually occupied by that species ↳ Because of competition, fundamental niche may differ from realized 

character Displacement

° Similar species w/ similar traits separately ( allopatric) but when they overlap geographically , their differences are enhanced -Ex :Galapagos finches↳ 


Predation (tf -) : Predator kills 4 eats prey

°Predation us .Scavenging ↳ Kills live animals ↳ Eat dead animals 

Predator ( prey adaptations

°Can be behavioral , Chem , morphological or mechanic 

°Engage in an evolutionary arms race .-Fast prey → Faster pred. °Examples : [evolution -startle response ( Eyespots )

-Misdirection ( False heads ) ←know differences & -Mimicry ( An org .copies another org 's form ) how it benefits °Orchid mantis , Leaf insects , 

°Aposematic coloration

of prey to predators


-Unharmful species copies harmful

°Miillerian Mimicry

-Harmful copies harmful

*Avoiding predators can cause reduced growth rates 

w - -

Activity tadpoles near Reduced growth

predator rates w/ pred .

Summary of predation effects 

1 .Pop.dynamics of pred. { prey 

2. Characteristics of pred. } prey

3. Growth rates of preyt be hiding has a cost 


Herbivory ( tf -) : Herbivore eats poets 

-of a plant 

Plant adaptations

°Structural : thorns 4 spines

°Chemical : Ex .signals parasitic wasps to come for caterpillar

Herbivore adaptations

° Teeth , stones in gizzard


parasitism (t1 -) : parasite nourishes from host 


°Ectoparasites on surface 


°Type of parasitism other parasites ? 

°Always kills host 

* °Adult is free living , but lays eggs in host 


Mutualism ( Ht) : Benefits both species Difference ? °Obligate :Necessary fed 4 reprod. of 1 or both species)) °Facultative : Not necessary umto live 

°Common } diverse

÷? ←Explain how it desc .mutualism

Both species benefit onavg ←Means toutweighs - °Coop. or reciprocal exploitation

-Both species have costs , but benefits outweigh costs

Plant -pollinator mutual isms * EX. of exploitation °It's a service -resource mutualism

-Ex :Butterfly service is pollination of flower & resource is nectar commensalism

Commensalism (t ( o ): One benefits , other unaffected °Difficult to prove ) disprove

°Can become mutualistic in some cases 

Ecological ( Evolutionary Significance of Interspecific interactions * °Species interactions influence pop. dynamics & selection pressures SpecieSDiversity3Determina# 

Species Diversity

°Variety oforg . in a community

°Two components : *

-Species richness : Nam . diff species in community 

-Rei . Abundance :prop. each species rep . all indie .in a community

• some # species

° But Cl has most rel. abundance . 

←more diverse !

* Be able to rank diversity ! 

Importance of characterizing diversity of communities 

°Diverse communities : 

* -More productive 3 stable

-Better recovery against stresses 

-More res . to invasive species

f# Species

Area determinants of diversity ← How many more spec *°Species area curve :Larger area = more species S=c shd be found . 

°Key observations : 

-Islands has less species than mainland -small islands LLarger islands 

-Islands closer to mainland have more * Island Equilibrium Model 


°Spec. richness on island is balance btwn immigration & extinction -Immig d,extinction affected by island size & dist from mainland °As species on island increases , immig t , extinction T °Small islands : Iimmig , T extinction

°Nearby islands : Timmig , t extinction

* Latitudinal Diversity Gradient 

°Species richness great in tropics

°Erol .history 4 Climate affect species richness

* Evolutionary History

°Tropical environ.be more speciation time 

& -' 'tropics as cradle " 

°Temperate 4 polar communities "started over "after glaciations

-"tropics as museums" 

:| : .← more extinction 

"Cradle " "museum -#" 


many species I Igo s o 90-N born @ eq.↳

90-S O 90're


°More sun ( rain = More species

°Evapotranspiration :Euap from soil t transp. from plants

in .ae. 

2/3 of the exam

Major events 4.6 BY A to present tkey events : 

I -Earliest life ( 3. 5 134A ) 

Chronology °Stromatolite fossils w/ cyanobacteria °Prokaryotes 3.5 BYA 2- Atonosptn. Oz ( 2 -SBYA) 

°Atmos. Oz 2. S °Come from photo synth cyanobact . °Single cell Euk I - 7 °Caused extinct .of prokaryotes -Multi cell 1.5 3 . First eukaryotes ( 2. I BYA)

°Animals - 75°Has rue . env , Mito , ER , cytoskeleton °Land colon .. s°Understand endosymbiont theory °Humans no 4. Cambrian explosion ( 540 MYA) °Complex body plans → ware of diversification

S.mass extinctions

Fossilpecord °Disruptive global env .charge °Permian ( 251 MTA)

Importance ? -Pal → meso

°Can be preserved in strata°K -T L 65mA)

-Strata -5 Ree .ages-Dinosaur one 

6. Adaptive radiations How fossils formed?

°Impression ( Mineralization of aorganism Age determination 

°Flourishing / diversifying of mammals after dinosgone

°Strata : Index fossils can determine relativeage °Rods ( fossils : Radiometric dating } half lives 

↳ Uranium → Lead decay ← ( Rocks only) I

↳Magnetism 4 orientation of rocks 

Radiometric dating c-understand, explain , use °C "common in living org 's 

-Some trace c'4 

°When deed C ' " → N' "( 5730 yr

°Ratio of C '"to C ' 'is measured 


who ) how influenced Darwin ? 

°Aristotle o Cuvier

-Fixed dacnoharging -Dev .paleontology , extinction common °Lamarck °Hutton

-Use { disuse -changing env .→changing species -inherit acquired char . 

↳ Incorrect 


Lamarck vs. Darwin


-Adaptations via use 3 disuse of body ↳ can pass on acquired traits

-phenotypic plasticity ( Develop ace.to environ.) -conc : Belief right , not mechanism though °Darwin

-Adaptation to env .→origin of new species -Natural selection

°Darwin 's evidence

-fossil record

-Species radiations on Galapagos Islands -Artificial selection via

pigeon breeding Art. Selection in plats ° 

-Malthus 4 exp.growth Nat. selection issue:÷:c.

: in.}.no . 

°Some fav .char . are heritable

-There's time for charge to occur 

Artificial selection c-what is it?

°Human-made breeding to make new varieties 

Examples of Nat .Selection

°Evolution in beak size as food supply charges AID bacterial resistance °Vestigial struct. Anat . feature no longer w/ purpose

°Homologous struct. Similar struc inorg 㱺 came from Connon ancestor 

Descent w/ ModificationImportance ? °History is like a tree

-All come from a common ancestor

Genetics[Know differences Blending us. Particular inheritance

°Blending : Genetics from parents are blended together

-Rapid loss of genetic variation 

°Particulate :traits passed down via particles

Genetic terms

°Genome : complete set of aorg .genetic material 

°Gene :Region DNAIRNA that prod.Something to intl .phenotype °Locus : site where gene is located 

°Allele : various forms of agene

°Genotype : set of alleles defining genetics of indiv. 

°Phenotype : observable traits from genotype interacting w/ environment °Haploid :only one complement of genes

-Diploid : 2 copies of genes

°Chromosomes :long stretch of DNA . 

°Polymorphism: More than I allelesegrey. @ locus . 

°Homozygote :( RR) : 2 copies same allele 

-Hetero ( Rr) : 2 diff alleles 

Incomplete Dominance 

°Codominance '-Both alleles expressed 

Qualitative us. Quantitative

°Qual : This or that

°Quart : Gradient , continuous States

-Like weight , height

Pea plants as agenetic system 

°F, Generation

↳ Fz gen .disc. Dominant / Recessive traits 

Mendel 's Law of Seg . I

°Experiment : F , X F ,→ Fz (3 '-t) 

°Org .gets an anele from each parent

-Alleles separate so that 50 't gametes get one allele & so i.get other -Alleles randomly repair through random tert .



Monohybrid : r Rr@ r Rr Rr

°Crossed btwn homozyg .parents differing in 2 Char ( RR -14 x rryy ) -creates dihybrid in F. ( Rr4y )

°Dihybrid cross d

°Saw that the traits were inherited indep. of each other

* Only if UNLIND 

Rules of Probability

-indef events occur 

°Multiply to see if both 

-Add to see if this OI that happens 

°Rel .freq: prob .getting spade ( 13/52) →1/4 

Understand Punnett squares

Multiple Seg. alleles

°Polymorphic locus : more than z alleles

°Ex : ABO blood type ( IA, IB , i ) 

Type A : IAIA or IAI Type AB : IAIB ← Univ.recip .b/c no antibodies against A/B antigen Type B : IBIB or IBI Type O : c- i ← Univ donor b/c has no antigens to cause rxn 

Polygenic inheritance 

°Additive effect of Zz genes on a phenotypic character -creates wide spectrum ( hair ( skin color , height) 

T.H -Morgen

°Crossed fruit fries for eye color

-Found only males had white eyes 

Sex-linked traits

°Sex chromosomes ( x ,-1 ) 

°Homogenetic (xx) or heterogenetic (x -1 ) 

°Ex: colorblindness ( x - linked ) 

-X Xb T Not colorblind female

,x. ×, ←co ,o, , ,µ gem, ,e q on ,, ma,e a eyed -Xby ←Colorblind male ! 

← NO normal X to mask it ! 

Diff . sex determination

°X Y system :humans

°X -O system : Insects

-Absence of a X → male

°Z -W system : Roosters

-ZW female , ZZ male

°Haplo -Diploid system : Bees ← Males haploid, females diploid

Prokaryote vs Eukaryote

°Prokaryote °Eukaryote

-DNA in nucleon'd -Chron. DNA in nucleus

-Rigid membrane ( s) 4 -Membraed organelles

cell walls -sore genome in organelles

-No true organelles °Bc endosymbiosis

Genome terms


-Chromosomes of indio. @ metaphase

-Arranged by size 

°Point mutations → Effect depends on location ongene

-SNPs *

-Indes (can cause frameshift)

-silent ( no change in AA) , Missense ( change in AA) , Nonsense (creates stop codon ) °Repeats

-class I RNA , Class II DNA

°Chron .rearrangements

-Frag exchange , duplication , deletion

°Gene duplication d. copy # variation


°Loci where some indiv .had copies of genetic region

°Hori 2 .gene transfer ( HGT) 

-Genes to another species in SAIF gen . 

-via conjugation , transduction or transformation in microbes

Determining genome sequence 

°Iso 3 frag . DNA

°Match overlapping seq.↳know steps ! 

°Sequence beg . each frag

°Form contiguous seq . 

°Close gaps

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