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UCR / Biology / BIOL 5C / What is ecological hierarchy?

What is ecological hierarchy?

What is ecological hierarchy?

Description

School: University of California Riverside
Department: Biology
Course: Introductory Evolution and Ecology
Term: Fall 2019
Tags: Biology and Biology: Ecology and Evolution
Cost: 50
Name: UCR Bio5c Study Guide for Final
Description: Cumulative Final study guide for Bio5C
Uploaded: 12/08/2019
24 Pages 107 Views 6 Unlocks
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Bio 5C Study GuideDon't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between ecology and environmentalism?

Final

Ecological Hierarchy

Organisms → populations → communities → ecosystems → biosphere

We also discuss several other topics like Why are genetic diseases not removed from the population via natural selection?

Ecology vs Environmentalism

Ecology

  • Quantifying movement of nutrients and energy within ecosystems
  • Observing factors that influence distribution and abundance of organisms

Species DistributionsIf you want to learn more check out What is the main point of federalist 51?
If you want to learn more check out How are grams converted to moles?

Both ecological factors and evolutionary history

  • Example: Kangaroos are only found in Australia
  • Evolved after Australia moved to current location (isolated)
  • Unable to disperse to other continents (dispersal limited)
  • Required certain biotic and abiotic conditions (habitat limited)

Dispersal affects distribution

  • Dispersal is the movement of individuals away from high population density or from their origin
  • Dispersal contribute to global distribution of species

Species transplants

  • Organisms with internally relocated away from original distribution
  • Invasive species can disrupt communities of ecosystems

Biotic factors affect distribution

  • interactions like predation, parasitism, competition etc

A biotic factor affect distribution

  • Temperature
  • Water and oxygen
  • Salinity
  • Sunlight
  • Rock and soil
  • Example: increase water temperature along coast of Tasmania allows sea urchin to expand its range

Biome distributionWe also discuss several other topics like What was the plan authored that served as a proposal on how to deal with american indians?

What are biomes?

  • Biome: a major type of biological assemblage
  • Determined by:
  • Temperature and rainfall on land
  • Temperature, depth and salinity in water
  • Two main aspects of biomes
  • Primary productivity: amount of plant growth in area over time
  • Biodiversity: number of species

Terrestrial BiomesDon't forget about the age old question of What are the two principal cell types of the nervous system?

Distribution

  • Mainly determined by climate
  • Average rain, temperature, and seasonal variation are important

The tropical forest biome

  • Equatorial / subequatorial regions
  • Rainforest = constant rain
  • Dry forest = seasonal rain
  • High temperature year round
  • High primary productivity
  • High biodiversity
  • Covers 5% land but houses 70% of all living species

Temperate broadleaf forest

  • Mid - latitudes in North hemisphere
  • High rain year - round
  • Cool winters, hot / humid summers
  • Moderate primary productivity
  • Moderate biodiversity

Taiga (North coniferous forest)

  • North America and Eurasia
  • Largest terrestrial biome on Earth!
  • Rain varies (some areas dry / wet)
  • Cold winters, maybe hot summers
  • Low primary productivity
  • Lots of conifers
  • Low biodiversity
  • Some species depend on periodic fires (disturbance!)

The Chaparral

  • Mod - latitude coastal regions
  • Low and seasonal rain
  • Hot summers, cool winters
  • Low primary productivity (shrubs)
  • Low but variable biodiversity
  • Many plants adapted to fire and drought (disturbance!)

The Savanna

  • Equatorial and sub equatorial regions
  • Warm and seasonal temperatures vary more than tropical forests
  • Moderate primary productivity
  • Moderate biodiversity
  • Plants fire adapted and tolerant of seasonal drought
  • Tree spread contained by periodic fires

Temperate Grassland

  • Central North America (prairie) and Asia (steppes)
  • Low and seasonal rain
  • Mainly in summer
  • Cold winters, hot summer
  • Moderate primary production
  • Moderate biodiversity
  • Dominant plants are adapted to droughts and fire (disturbance!)
  • Herbaceous dominant plants

The desert

  • 300 North / South of the equator
  • And inferiors of cominents
  • Hot or cold, varies seasonally and by time
  • Low rain, less than 30cm / year
  • Low primary productivity
  • Low but variable biodiversity
  • Plants / animals in low densities and adapt to dryness and low nutrients

Tundra

  • Arctic areas: alpine tundra on high mountains
  • Low rain in arctic tundra
  • Higher in alpine tundra
  • Very cold winters, cool summers
  • Low primary productivity
  • Low biodiversity
  • Permafrost: a permanent frozen soil layer that prevents water entering
  • Herbaceous vegetation

Low                        mid                        high

Tundra                savanna                tropical

Desert                        temp grass

Chaparral                temp forest

Taiga

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