Philosophy Study Guide
Watson’s reasons for acting freely
1. We act freely when our motives long with our values a. One of the reasons why we are not like animals b. The ability to grasp moral values is necessary for moral responsibility
What's the valuation all system:
1. Set of considerations which when combined his factual beliefs yield judgments
2. To be a free agent we must be able to make judgements and assign value to alternative states of affairs
What’s the motivational system?
1. Considerations that move him to action
2. Unfree action= when the motivational and valuation systems don’t coincide
Dilema of determinism
1. We cant be confident that we have freedom to choose & do otherwise
a. Therefore we cant be confident that we’re morally responsible
What is lying?
1. The liar must intend on saying something false
What is Bullshit?
1. Indifferent about the truth
2. Get you to believe something false about themselves not the world
What is epistemological skepticism?
1. Possibility of being deceived in one’s experience of the external world
How does Descartes refutes skeptics?
1. God is a supreme being that exists
2. God is not a deceiver because he is all good
3. The external world seems very real
4. If there wasn’t an external world, God would be a deceiver 5. But God is not a deceiver so there must be an external world What is the Mind/Body problem?
1. Are the mind and body one thing or two separate different things
a. What is dualism
i. Mind and body are two different things If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal?
a. How do the two interact
b. What would if feel like or how would we
know what it feels like to be in a non
b. What is materialism?
i. Mind and body are one
1. Does not explain consciousness or awareness
2. Hard to explain how it could be reduced down
to physical processes
Can computers think?
1. The Turing test says a computer can imitate the mind so well that it can think
a. Turing test also proves materialism
2. The Chinese room experiment says it take more than imitation to be a mind
What are Brains in a vat?
1. Shows that if technology was controlling or making our experience, we would not know
What is absurdity?
1. Conflict between 2 perspectives
2. What is the zoomed in perspectives?
a. The perspective we usually have
i. Being immersed in our day to day lives
3. What is the zoomed out perspective? If you want to learn more check out What is an office building housing the democratic party headquarters for the 1972 election?
a. The cosmic scale
b. It is an awareness that all of our projects are arbitrary yet still continuing to do them
4. How do you get to the zoomed out perspective> a. When justifications for various projects “run out” Is the life of a mouse absurd?
- Nagel believes it is not absurd because the mouse does not know what he is doing is absurd
What does it take to have a meaningful life?
1. Individual passion and objective value need to intersect When is Anselm’s Ontological Argument? Don't forget about the age old question of How to calculate how many calories are in a portion of food?
1. God exists in the understanding
2. God is that being that none greater is conceivable 3. Suppose God only exists in the understanding (not in reality) 4. If something x exists only in the understanding then
something else, y, is conceivable that is greater than x insofar as y is just like x but also exits in reality
5. One can conceive of something greater than God 6. God exists both in the understanding and reality What are the problems with Anselm’s Ontological Argument? - fails to distinguish between the two “Gods” We also discuss several other topics like How do we know that speech is localized on the left side of the brain in most individuals?
- Does GOD APPLY TO ANY ACTUAL BEING?
What is causal determinism?
- everything that happens, including our choices and behavior is caused by something in the past
What is the dilemma of causal determinism?
- if causal determinism is true there is no genuine freedom and thus no responsibility
- If causal determinism is false then everything is random and there also is no genuine freedom Don't forget about the age old question of What are the elements of influence?
What is Plato’s Cave?
- There’s prisoners in a cave
- All they can see are shadows on a walls but cant se the real objects causing these shadows
- These prisoners think the shadows are real and no nothing of the real causes of the shadows
- They mistake appearance for reality
- When they see a shadow of a book the prisoners would call it a book but they would be wrong
- Plato’s point:
- Plato is trying to figure out what is necessary for us humans to achieve understanding
- we would be mistaken to think that what we grasp were on the same level as the things we perceive
What is Nozcick’s experience machine?
- The experience machine allows people to have any experience they want
- People won't be fulfilled with this because there is no relationship with reality
- Which is similar to the point of Plato’s cave
What is Lucretius’s mirror view?We also discuss several other topics like What is a warehousing layout?
- He thinks that time before birth will mirror the time after death
What is the story of Sisyphus?
- He is punished by the gods for giving humans fire - His punishment is to push a boulder up a hill and when it falls he has to push it up again for the rest of eternity How does Camu think Sisyphus can overcome his fate? - He thinks that he can overcome his fate by doing everything scornfully