Political Philosophies Reflected in Founding Documents:
The state of nature: Hobbes VS Locke
● Madison: Government is a reflection of human nature
● What are humans really like?
○ Hobbes: “life is nasty, brutish, and short.”
■ Need for authoritarian ruler
○ Locke: Government exists only to protect “life, liberty, and property” ■ Limited government, republican form
The Declaration as a Social Contract:
● Locke and the Social Contract
○ The consent of the governed
○ Government should protect rights
○ People should remove governments that fail to protect
The Articles of Confederation:
● Very “Locke-ian” document
○ States held most power
■ Weak national government to coordinate between states Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the free african americans?
○ States equal in power
■ Maintain state militias, set taxes, and negotiated commerce
○ Lack of an executive and judicial branch (federal)
What could go wrong??
Hobbes and Locke in the Constitution:
● The Constitution is a bit of a contradiction
● Creates a strong national government
○ Congress: power to tax, draft, and regulate commerce
We also discuss several other topics like How are inequality and privilege related to each other?
○ President: Control of a military
○ Supreme Court: Adjudicate cases; final decision
The Ratification Debate
The Federalists VS The Antifederalists
A. The Federalist papers outlines the reasons for ratification
1. Ability to respond to national crisis
a) Federal Government can intercode
2. Separation of Powers controls “ambition”
3. “Factions” control “Tyranny”
II. Not so fast, Federalists!
A. The “Anti-federalists” condemned the new constitution
1. Federalism limits state culture
2. Presidential control of a large standing army Don't forget about the age old question of Whata re the characteristics of water when cohesiveness is present?
3. “Necessary and Proper Clause”
4. No Individual Rights
III. The Bill of Rights!
A. Based on English Common Law/issues before the war
1. Freedom to religion, speech, and press
2. Freedom to have weapons
3. No quartering
4. No search and seizure
5. Due process; no trying a case again
6. Trial by public jury, right to defend yourself If you want to learn more check out What is the formula for molality?
If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between speciation and systematics?
We also discuss several other topics like What refers to plants that produce spore/s?
7. Cannot appeal to another court unless through common law 8. No cruel and unusual punishment
9. Other rights remain
10. States Rights