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CLEMSON / ANIMAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES / AVS 3700 / Who provides guidelines for general nutrition requirements?

Who provides guidelines for general nutrition requirements?

Who provides guidelines for general nutrition requirements?

Description

School: Clemson University
Department: ANIMAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES
Course: Principles of Animal Nutrition
Professor: Professor
Term: Spring 2020
Tags: animalnutrition, animalfeed, feed, feedstuffs, and nutrition
Cost: 25
Name: Animal Nutrition, Class Notes 1-16
Description: Powerpoint 2 on Feed/Feedstuffs
Uploaded: 01/20/2020
4 Pages 91 Views 1 Unlocks
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Which of the following is not a source of acceptable water for an animal?

  • Water from salt lake

Feedstuffs / feeds

  • 2000 + products (sources of nutrients) have been at least partially characterized by
  • Factors affecting suitability for use in a diet / ration
  • Test feed for nutrient content to determine how to meet animal needs
  • Lots of things may affect nutrient content = don’t just go with average value - may not meet nutrient needs
  • Cost
  • Preferably a product inedible by humans or in excess of human needs
  • Higher quality more digestible products
  • Easier to make case for animal production
  • Look for things the animal can eat we won’t use otherwise so we’re not in competition
  • High fiber forages
  • Palatability - will the animals like it, tastes change
  • Digestibility - can the animal use it
  • Bioavailability of nutrients - once absorbed, can the body use those nutrients
  • Content / balance of nutrients
  • Utilize several different feedstuffs
  • Presence of toxicants or anti - quality factors (trypsin inhibitors in raw soybean
  • Processing can increase value of feedstuff, sometimes can decrease
  • Tradeoffs when processing feedstuffs
  • Handling / milling properties
  • Gossypol in some cottonseed (male productive problems)
  • Shipping costs (example: cottonseed in cottonseed meal)
  • National research council provides guidelines for general nutrition requirements
  • Gives a starting point
  • Can download old books online

Nationalacademics.org/researchcenter/We also discuss several other topics like Enumerate the two classes of energy.

General classifications

  • Primary energy source
  • Generally feedstuffs / foodstuffs high in carbohydrates or fat
  • Protein
  • High in amino acids, non - protein nitrogen (ruminants)
  • Roughage
  • High in fiber / cellulose, hemicellulose)

Which of the feedstuffs in these pictures, would be considered a primary energy source? Corn protein source? Soybean roughage source?Don't forget about the age old question of What is the flow of solvent from a solution of low concentration into a solution of high concentration?

Energy feedstuffs

  • Cereal grains
  • Distillers / brewers grains - milling byproducts (from grains)
  • Fat
  • Corn products: cattle feed, high fructose corn syrup, cornbread, cornmeal, corn oil → byproducts frequently have feed value for animals
  • Byproducts = frequently regional
  • Molasses
  • Animal and vegetable fats / oils
  • Bakery waste
  • Cull fruits / vegetables
  • Beet and citrus pulp
  • Fresh young forage

9 - 15% crude protein some brewerie / milling byproducts may approach > 20% CPWe also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of acute infections?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of thermal neutral zone?
If you want to learn more check out What is the complex nature of defining a social problem?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of convection in the density of air?

Protein feedstuffs

  • Generally 25 - 30% and crude protein
  • Oilseed meals
  • Cottonseed
  • Soybean
  • Sunflower
  • Meat / bone meal (~35% range)
  • Fish / marine meal (careful to not pass “sell - by - date”
  • Poultry byproduct (bones, fat, skin -cooked and dried up)
  • Of fat (internal organs not used)
  • Distillers / brewers dried grains - in middle, depends what you’re looking at
  • Bacteria / yeast / algae - very expensive when bought as a supplement
  • Use to modify other feedstuff
  • Urea / ammonia - non protein nitrogen that can be converted to protein by ruminants microorganisms and then digested
  • Dried manure - public objects
  • Legumes - alfalfa, beans
  • Early spring forage - high in moisture content

Calculate on dry matter basis

  • Consider dry matter intake in animals

Roughage feedstuffs

  • Digesting cellulose, hemicellulose with microorganisms
  • Forage (grass / legumes)
  • Pasture
  • Hay
  • Silage / haylage
  • Fermented / high moisture
  • Straw / corn stoves and cobs - limited nutrient value, but good source of fiber
  • Sorghum (standing crop, not grain)

Q: Which of the following is not an important function of water in the body?

  • Body temperature regulation, functions as solvent / dilvent

Functional foods / feeds

  • Foods / feeds designed and / or selected to have physiological benefits that are in addition to those provided by basic nutrient function
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