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UA / Nutrition and Food Sciences / HE 101 / Circular muscles surrounding, and able to close, a body opening.

Circular muscles surrounding, and able to close, a body opening.

Circular muscles surrounding, and able to close, a body opening.

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition
Professor: Lori greene
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: nutrition
Cost: 50
Name: Nutrition Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Covers material gone over in class and also textbook definitions.
Uploaded: 02/03/2020
5 Pages 4 Views 6 Unlocks
Reviews


Exam 1 Study Guide 


Circular muscles surrounding, and able to close, a body opening.



­Macronutrient: 

Energy­yielding nutrients. Includes carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids ­Micronutrients: 

 Vitamins & minerals do not provide energy. Vitamins­ organic minerals­  inorganic 

­Essential nutrients:  

must be obtained from food  

­Nonessential nutrients:  

can be synthesized by the body 

­Energy from food:   

Carbohydrates= 4 kcal/gm 

Proteins= 4 kcal/gm 

Lipids= 9 kcal/gm 

­Sphincters: 

 Circular muscles surrounding, and able to close, a body opening ­Nutrients: 

 chemical substances obtained from food 

­Digestion: 

 the process by which food is broken down 

­AMDR:  

Carbs­ 45­65%, Fats­20­35%, Protein­ 10­35% 

­Peristalsis:  

Wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push the contents ­Nutrition:  


What are the factors that influence food choices?



The science of nutrients in foods and their actions within the body ­Diet:

the food and beverages a person eats 

­4 Factors that influence food choices: 

Habits, Income, Social Interaction, Convenience 

­6 classes of nutrients: 

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins, Minerals, Water 

­Tolerable upper Intake (UL):  

The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is unlikely to have adverse health  effects 

­6 meal planning principles: 

 Adequacy, Balance, kcal Control, Moderation, Variety, Nutrition Density ­Food groups:  

Protein, Dairy, Grains, Vegetables, Fruits 

­Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): 

 the amount of nutrient needed to meet the requirements of almost all healthy  individuals 

­Structure­function claims: 

 "promotes heart health" Don't forget about the age old question of Hellenism refers to what?

­Health Claim: 


Bacteria found in foods and supplements that are beneficial for health.



 "Prevents osteoporosis" 

­Nutrient claim: 

 "excellent source of fiber" 

­Probiotics: 

 bacteria found in foods and supplements that are beneficial for health ­Prebiotics: 

 food for probiotics 

­Salivary glands:  

Saliva, Breaks down carbohydrates 

­Stomach:  

Gastric Juice (HCl), Breaks down proteins 

­Small Intestine:  

Intestinal Juice, Secrete digestive enzymes, break down all 3 macronutrients

­Pancreas: 

 Pancreatic juice/lipase enters the duodenum and breaks down all  macronutrients 

­Gallbladder: 

 Bile, Breaks down fat 

­Simple Diffusion: 

 Nutrients go from high concentration to low concentration 

­Facilitated Diffusion: 

 Carrier loads a protein outside of the cell and releases it inside the cell ­Active transport:  

Using energy to get nutrient into the cell 

­Starch: 

 the storage of energy in plants 

­Glycogen:  

the storage form of energy in the body 

­Lipids: 

 contain a middle chain of carbons and oxygens with a methyl group on one end  and an acid group on the other We also discuss several other topics like what is abnormal behavior?
If you want to learn more check out o how do the Asch experiments demonstrate conformity?

­Adequate INtake (AI):  

a nutrient recommendation based on observed or experimentally determined  approximations 

­Estimated Average Requirement:  

the average requirement of nutrient for healthy individuals and is only used to  assess nutrient adequacy of populations 

­Soluble fiber:  

fermented in the large intestine 

­Normal blood glucose:  

70­99 mg/dL

­Daily fiber recommendations:  

25 g/day and 35 g/day 

­3 main structural differences of fatty acids: 

 length of chain, saturation, location of a double bond 

­Denaturation:  

The loss of shape of proteins due to heat 

­Pancreatic lipase and Intestinal lipase: 

 help most fat digestion in the small intestine 

­RDA for protein in adults: 

 0.8 g/kg of body weight 

­Peptide bonds: 

 link amino acids 

­Degree of unsaturation: 

 determines the firmness of a fat or oil 

­Sugar:  

no more than 25% of daily kcals 

­level of saturation:  

relates to the number of double bonds 

­Micelle:  

The aspherical complex formed by monoglycerides and long­chain fatty acids ­Type 1 Diabetes: We also discuss several other topics like Batman (idea/symbol; can't be corrupted) ▪ What is Batman an idea/symbol of?

 Type of diabetes that results from inadequate pancreatic production of insulin;  commonly known as childhood diabetes 

­Saturated fat: 

 solid at room temp 

­Type 2 Diabetes:  

This type of diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and obesity ­Unsaturated fat: 

 fat is liquid at room temperature

­Bile:  If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between anatomy and physiology?
Don't forget about the age old question of Theory Value refers to what?

Acts as an emulsifier so that enzymes may act on fat ­Amino Acids: 

 building blocks of proteins 

HCL:  

Uncoils protein in the stomach 

­High­quality protein: 

 a protein that contains all 9 essential amino acids ­Monosaccharides:  

fructose, glucose 

­Disaccharides:  

lactose, maltose, sucrose 

­Polysaccharides:  

glycogen, fiber

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