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SYRACUSE / OTHER / HOA 106 / Who is Filippo Brunelleschi?

Who is Filippo Brunelleschi?

Who is Filippo Brunelleschi?


HOA 106 Exam 1 

Who is Filippo Brunelleschi?

(artist, name of piece, date, below description is photo)

Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome in Florence (1420) 

● Interior shows the older styles

○ Gothic architecture

○ Pointed arch instead of round (ribbed groin vault)

○ Rows of columns- Colonnade

○ Basilica- long hall with a double colonnade

■ Forms a cross figure

○ Largest dome that had been attempted

■ Ribbed construction (interior and exterior), double shell (2 layers),

herringbone brickwork (vertical bricks distributed)

Who is the creator of the sculpture Feast of Herod (1423)?

We also discuss several other topics like ucr philosophy

Masaccio, Holy Trinity with Virgin St. John and Donors (1425) 

● Vanishing point (linear perspective)- represents distance on flat surface ● Donors are at life size and the figures of Mary and st. John are smaller as they are in the distance

● Fresco on wall

Who painted the Descent from the Cross?

We also discuss several other topics like which of the following species is amphoteric?

Jan van Eyck, Ghent Altarpiece (1432) 

● Lower level of closed part (pic on left) is concerned with worldly level showing the donors ● In the open version (pic on right) you can see the kingdom of heaven with Godly Father

● Details of costume in the singing angels (jewels and color) ○ Details seem to jump out at us

○ Faces sit on the surface

● Adam and Eve look very natural with their physical bodies ● Uses two mediums in this painting

○ Tempera: egg based, dries quickly, not a lot of light, chalky texture ○ Oil: sets much slower, allows coat after coat, glaze= shows light Donatello, Feast of Herod (1423) Don't forget about the age old question of mechanical energy notes

● Sienna, Italy

● Beheading of St. John the Baptist

● Tile floor and the four beams shows linear perspective

Konrad Witz, The Miraculous Draft of Fishes (1444) 

● Oil on wood

● Part of larger work which shows episode of life of St. Peter ● Contact of apostles with christ after he resurrectedWe also discuss several other topics like psyc 454 study guide

● Peter is shown twice where he is in disbelief and another where he is leaping out to reach the shore

● Landscape- can be easily recognized so people can visit the place to reflect ● Representation of the water- realism of the waves rippling, reflections, we can see within the water (Peter’s clothing)

Leon Battista Alberti, Church of Sant’Andrea (1460) 

● Pediment

● Arch (similar to Arch of Constantine)

○ Arch of Constatine had flat top while Church has triangular top

● The Pantheon

○ Barrel vault similar the dome

We also discuss several other topics like mega rex ford

Fra Angelico, The Annunciation (1440), Convent of San Marco (Florence) ● Fresco

● Simple and plain architecture

○ Linear perspective

● Figures don't have muscular style

○ Can't imagine posture of Mary under her robes

○ Hard to get a sense of how she is standing or kneeling

○ Soft gesture of hands over heart- submission to God’s will

○ Less concerned with naturalism

● Angel Gabriel that Mary will give birth to a child of God

Paolo Ucello, Battle of San Romano (1450) 

● Battle between Florence and Luca- series of 3 paintings

● Experimental use of perspective

○ Foreground, middle ground, background

○ Fallen warrior seems out of scale where he is placed compared to the size of the knights

○ Don't have unified light source

■ There is light of the horses but there is no single light horse

We also discuss several other topics like phaedra cliff notes

Piero della Francesca, Constantine's Dream (1450), Church of San Francesco, Arezzo ● Fresco

● Sleeping emperor in bed and his aid sitting loyally on the side and two guard who stand over tent

● Use of perspective is difficult

○ Angel who enter scenes in corner is only sense of perspective

○ Using angel also as the only light source

● All attention is drawn to emperor

Sandro Baticelli, The Birth of Venus (1485) 

● Tempera on canvas

● Anatomy of figure is so unnatural (shoulder doesn't exist) that when you notice it you forget because of the contour of the figure

● New subjects are entering art- not only religious figures

Jean Fouquet, Estienne Chevalier and St. Stephen and Madonna and Child (1450) ● Oil painting

● Estienne (donar) shown in the red robe with St, Stephen- holding book to show faith ○ Unusual: not in portrait/profile style, more realistic and structured

○ Detailed- similar to northern style hair in the robe and in the stone, marble panels ● Madonna and Child

○ Idealized style

○ Anatomy of Virgin Mary- not lifelike, idealized

Rogier van der Weyden, Descent from the Cross (1435) 

● Panel painting- Main altar of a church

● Design of the figures is most figurative part- Jesus hanging on the other, getting the feeling of heaviness

○ Mary fainting and color of her face showing sadness

● Trying to show dramatic effect that a sculpture can create

● Composition

○ Stage like space where figures are in focus

○ Main task is to communicate the same thing to those who are standing close and far away from the painting

○ Mary doubles jesus’s pose

○ Symmetry in stomping figures at the edges

○ Gothic tracery echoes their hunched backs

○ Gestures of figures lead you through the work

Veit Stoss, Seven Joys of Mary (1477), Church of Our Lady 

● Wooden sculpture

● Central scene is climax- Mary ascending to join Jesus

● 7 episodes creating scene

● Upper left is start if story- Angel Gabriel telling her she will give birth

Martin Schongaur, Holy Night (1470) 

● Engraving: printing detailed images. Shallows lines carved in copper plate. The plate is smeared with ink and wiped clean leaving ink in carved lines

● Allows more storytelling

Donato Bramante, Tempietto, San Pietro Montorio, Rome (1502) ● St. Peter crucified

● Circular plan- roman model

● Doric columns

Albrecht Dürer, Adam and Eve, 1504 

● Engraving

● Looking more classical than biblical

● Attention to detail

○ Contrast of textures of the fur of the cat (fur looks puffy) ○ Smoothness of the bark of the tree above the cat

○ Smooth and delicate chiaroscuro of Eve’s leg

Giovanni Bellini, Madonna with Saints, 1505 

● Right- figure reading bible

● Left- figure holding bible and key to heaven (St. Peter) ● Color

○ Rich and mellow, not bright, not overwhelming

○ Half dome- decorated in a mosaic

Giorgione, The Tempest, c. 1508 

● Made for private patrons

● No one has been able to identify story of this painting ● Mood

○ Stormy landscape- suspense

○ Yellowish light that makes we think of summer storms

● No religious function- unusual during the time

Michaelangelo, The Last Supper (1495) 

● Mix of oil and tempera onto dry plaster

● Linear perspective

● Jesus christ is central figure

● Differentiated them based on gesture- each person expressing something different ○ Highest aim when you show their soul through gesture

● Most important gesture is Jesus

○ Open hands in middle of table

○ Shows his openness and submissiveness to divine will

Michaelangelo, David, Florence (1501) 

● Sculpture

○ Pivotal moment in art- intellectual ability and technical skill

● Story of David who fought Goliath

● Shows calm and confidence

● Tension shown in hands clutching the stones (veins shown) ● Hands oversize- hint of figures age, he is a young man

Raphael, School of Athens (1508) 

● Fresco

● Showing the smartest minds in the world

● Two central figures- plato and aristotle

● What St. Peters was supposed to look like

● Arch- is an illusion that makes us believe that the interior surface is real

Titan, Venus of Urbino (1538) 

● Oil

● Not representation of Venus

● Woman in chamber with servants who are going through wedding chest ● Little dog= loyalty

● Commissioned for a wedding

● flowers= fertility and beauty

● Idealized figure of goddess of love

Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin (1522) 

● Fresco on ceiling

● Illusion that we are directly looking into heaven

● Bodies and the lighting create depth which makes the feeling of weightlessness

Hieronymus Bosch, The Garden of Earthly Delights (1490-1510) ● Oil on panel

● Left: garden on eden, right: scene of hell, middle: earth

○ Earth stands between eternal life and suffering

● Variety→ sin

● Hell side

○ Humans consumed by bird-like figure

Matthias Grunewald, The Resurrection (1515) 

● Linear style

● Oil on panel

Albrecht Altdorfer, Landscape (1526) 

● Oil

● Earliest landscape painting of a known place

Hans Holbein the Younger, The Ambassadors (1533) 

● Humanistic and lovers of knowledge

● Stand against table with various set of objects

○ Signs of worldly knowledge

○ Skull is shown at bottom that can be only seen from certain view

Tintoretto, The Finding of St. Mark’s Remains (1562) 

● Space: linear perspective, created by the entablature, barrel vault, and foreshortened figure

● Color: more saturated in the front, cooler palette in the back ● Light: two light sources (back opening and from the body) ● Composition: asymmetrical arrangement

Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Peasant Wedding (1568) ● Everyday life of lower class

● Barn=humble location

● Main subject is the eating (soup being brought in) ○ Boy is oversized hat represents innocence

El Greco, The Opening of the Fifth Seal of the Apocalypse (1608) ● Oil painting

● St. John on left raising hands- completely covered


 Fresco­Painted on plaster, use it while wet­have to be quick  because it is wet, using natural material mixed with water, matte finish. Colors are able to be shown well because they come to the  front. It is strong and long lasting, good for walls and ceiling

 Oil­ Sets much slower, allows layers and details, glaze=light,  glossy finish, can be on canvas or wood

 Tempera­ egg based, dries quickly, not a lot of light, chalky  texture

 Cloth­ Stretching canvas or linen over wooden frame, then is  coated with a substance similar to glue, and finally coated with  layers of paint

 Panel­ Gesso­ makes it smooth, finishes surface before you paint  Woodcut­ an early painting technique. Ink is applied to a raised  surface left behind by carving out white spaces in shallow relief  Engraving­ printing detailed images. Shallows lines carved in  copper plate. The plate is smeared with ink and wiped clean  leaving ink in carved lines


 Linear perspective­ Creating an illusion of depth on a flat surface. Single vanishing point

 Atmospheric perspective­ Creating an illusion of depth by  depicting distant object as paler and less detailed than nearer  objects

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